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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331871

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination protects against the potentially serious consequences of SARS-CoV2 infection, but some people have been hesitant to receive the vaccine because of reports that it could affect menstrual bleeding. To determine whether this occurs, we prospectively recruited a cohort of 79 individuals, each of whom recorded details of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles, during which time they each received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine. We find that either dose of the COVID-19 vaccine is associated with a delay to the subsequent period in spontaneously cycling participants (2.3 days after dose 1;1.3 days after dose 2) but this change rapidly reverses. No change to timing was detected in those on hormonal contraception. We detected no change in menstrual flow associated with either dose of the vaccine, in either spontaneously cycling participants or those on hormonal contraception. We detected no association between menstrual changes and other commonly-reported side effects of vaccination, such as sore arm, fever and fatigue.

2.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751724

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses increased risks of poor outcomes during pregnancy, including preterm birth and stillbirth. There is also developing concern over the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the placenta, and these effects seem to vary between different viral variants. Despite these risks, many pregnant individuals have been reluctant to be vaccinated against the virus owing to safety concerns. We now have extensive data confirming the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, although it will also be necessary to determine the effectiveness of these vaccines specifically against newly emerging viral variants, including Omicron. In this Progress article, I cover recent developments in our understanding of the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, and how vaccination can reduce these.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296825

ABSTRACT

Objective: Clinicians and regulators are receiving reports of changes to menstrual periods following COVID-19 vaccination. However, it is unclear if the two are biologically linked. If they are, people using hormonal contraception are predicted to be less likely to report a change and spontaneously cycling people vaccinated prior to ovulation more likely. The objective was to test these hypotheses. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. UK. Population. 1273 people who had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccination, have periods or withdrawal bleeds and keep a record of the dates of these. Methods. Participants reported whether they use any hormonal contraception and, for each dose of the vaccine, on which day of their menstrual cycle they were vaccinated and details of how the timing and flow of their next period compared to their normal experience. Main outcome measures. Association between 1. the use of hormonal contraception and reported changes to timing or flow of the next menstrual period, and 2. the timing of vaccination within the menstrual cycle and reported changes to timing or flow of the next menstrual period. Results. The data from this cohort did not support the pre-specified hypotheses that people using hormonal contraception would be less likely to report a change, or that spontaneously cycling people vaccinated prior to ovulation would be more likely to report a change. Conclusions. This study did not detect strong signals supporting the idea that COVID-19 vaccination is linked to menstrual changes in most people. Funding. No specific funding.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293025

ABSTRACT

Surveillance schemes are receiving increasing numbers of reports from people who have noticed a change to their period following COVID-19 vaccination. In order to investigate this, we retrospectively recruited 1273 people who have a record of their menstrual cycle and vaccination dates and used their reports to explore hypotheses about how COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual changes could be linked. In this dataset, we were unable to detect strong signals to support the idea that COVID-19 vaccination is linked to menstrual changes. However, larger, prospectively recruited studies may be able to find associations that we were not powered to detect.

7.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 4996-5009, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316886

ABSTRACT

When the novel coronavirus was described in late 2019, it could not have been imagined that within a year, more than 100 vaccine candidates would be in preclinical development and several would be in clinical trials and even approved for use. The scale of the COVID-19 outbreak pushed the scientific community, working in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, public health bodies, policymakers, funders and governments, to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 at record-breaking speed. As well as driving major amendments to the usual timeframe for bringing a vaccine to fruition, the pandemic has accelerated the development of next-generation technologies for vaccinology, giving rise to two frontrunner RNA vaccines. Although none of the critical safety and efficacy steps have been skipped within the compressed schedules, and the technologies underpinning the novel vaccines have been refined by scientists over many years, a significant proportion of the global population is sceptical of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines and wary of potential risks. In this interview-based article, we give an overview of how the vaccines were developed and how they work to generate a robust immune response against COVID-19, as well as addressing common questions relating to safety and efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(4): 268, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172559
9.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(4): 268, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132081
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