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Front Pediatr ; 9: 752993, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779952


Objectives: Studies of household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) focused on households with children are limited. We investigated household secondary attack rate (SAR), transmission dynamics, and contributing factors in households with children. Materials and Methods: In this prospective case-ascertained study in Los Angeles County, California, all households members were enrolled if ≥1 member tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nasopharyngeal PCRs, serology, and symptom data were obtained over multiple visits. Results: A total of 489 individuals in 105 households were enrolled from June to December 2020. The majority (77.3%) reported a household annual income of <$50,000, and most (92.9%) were of Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity. Children <18 years old accounted for 46.9% index cases, of whom 45.3% were asymptomatic. Household index cases were predominantly children during low community transmission and adults during the high community transmission period (χ2 = 7.647, p = 0.0036. The mean household SAR was 77.0% (95% CI: 69.4-84.6%). Child and adult index cases both efficiently transmitted SARS-CoV-2 within households [81.9%, (95% CI: 72.1-91.9%) vs. 72.4% (95% CI: 59.8-85.1%), p = 0.23]. Household income and pets were significantly associated with higher SAR in the multivariable analysis of household factors (p = 0.0013 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: The SAR in households with children in an urban setting with a large ethnic minority population is much higher than previously described. Children play important roles as index cases. SAR was disproportionately impacted by household income. Vaccination and public health efforts need special focus on children and vulnerable communities to help mitigate SARS-CoV-2 spread.

Am J Infect Control ; 48(11): 1370-1374, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620103


BACKGROUND: Mobile phones are known to carry pathogenic bacteria and viruses on their surfaces, posing a risk to healthcare providers (HCPs) and hospital infection prevention efforts. We utilize an Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) device to provide an effective method for mobile phone disinfection and survey HCPs about infection risk. METHODS: Environmental swabs were used to culture HCPs' personal mobile phone surfaces. Four cultures were obtained per phone: before and after the UV-C device's 30-second disinfecting cycle, at the beginning and end of a 12-hour shift. Surveys were administered to participants pre- and poststudy. RESULTS: Total bacterial colony forming units were reduced by 90.5% (P = .006) after one UV-C disinfection cycle, and by 99.9% (P = .004) after 2 cycles. Total pathogenic bacterial colony forming units were decreased by 98.2% (P = .038) after one and >99.99% (P = .037) after 2 disinfection cycles. All survey respondents were willing to use the UV-C device daily to weekly, finding it convenient and beneficial. DISCUSSION: This novel UV-C disinfecting device is effective in reducing pathogenic bacteria on mobile phones. HCPs would frequently use a phone disinfecting device to reduce infection risk. CONCLUSIONS: In light of the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, a standardized approach to phone disinfection may be valuable in preventing healthcare-associated infections.

Bacteria/radiation effects , Betacoronavirus/radiation effects , Cell Phone , Disinfection/instrumentation , Ultraviolet Rays , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Colony Count, Microbial , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence