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1.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2035312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The discovery of vaccines significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases and led to the elimination and eradication of some. Development of safe and effective vaccines is a critical step to the control of infectious diseases;however, there is the need to address vaccine hesitancy because of its potential impact on vaccine uptake. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review of studies on interventions to address measles and human papillomavirus vaccine hesitancy. We discussed how lessons learned from these studies could be applied towards COVID-19 and future human immunodeficiency virus vaccines. RESULTS: We found that there are several successful approaches to improving vaccine acceptance. Interventions should be context specific and build on the challenges highlighted in various settings. CONCLUSION: Strategies could be used alone or in combination with others. The most successful interventions directly targeted the population for vaccination. Use of financial incentives could be a potential tool to improve vaccine uptake.

2.
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Trabalho ; 20(1):79-85, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026806

ABSTRACT

Introduction: After the onset of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, many workers were forced to start working from home, creating a new dynamic that could potentially affect their health in several ways. Objectives: To study the impact of working at home during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on a sample of Brazilian workers. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional methodology with an online survey conducted by a Brazilian human resources website from June 1 to August 15, 2020, with a sample of employees working at home during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Results: The sample of 653 valid responses revealed that 87.7% of the survey respondents reported that the change to home working started because of the situation caused by the pandemic. However, 550 (84.2%) people from this group stated that their employer did not conduct any health and safety evaluation of their workstation in the domestic environment. Regarding physical symptoms, there were high prevalence rates of symptoms related to musculoskeletal conditions, sleeping problems, feelings of fatigue, headaches, and migraines. The study also used the World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index instrument and there were statistically significant associations between low scores and physical symptoms of musculoskeletal conditions, feelings of fatigue, headache or migraine, heartburn and indigestion, and leg pain. Conclusions: The findings of this research confirm the importance of developing strategies and programs to preserve the health and well-being of workers who start working at home, with participation of and supervision by companies’ occupational physicians. Future investigations should continue to capture data about health, well-being, and productivity and share best practices to plan support for the occupational health of those working from home. © 2022 Associacao Nacional de Medicina do Trabalho. All rights reserved.

3.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e16109, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2025767

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) neutralize infection and are efficacious for the treatment of COVID-19. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants, notably sublineages of B.1.1.529/omicron, have emerged that escape antibodies in clinical use. As an alternative, soluble decoy receptors based on the host entry receptor ACE2 broadly bind and block S from SARS-CoV-2 variants and related betacoronaviruses. The high-affinity and catalytically active decoy sACE2(2) .v2.4-IgG1 was previously shown to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 variants when administered intravenously. Here, inhalation of aerosolized sACE2(2) .v2.4-IgG1 increased survival and ameliorated lung injury in K18-hACE2 mice inoculated with P.1/gamma virus. Loss of catalytic activity reduced the decoy's therapeutic efficacy, which was further confirmed by intravenous administration, supporting dual mechanisms of action: direct blocking of S and turnover of ACE2 substrates associated with lung injury and inflammation. Furthermore, sACE2(2) .v2.4-IgG1 tightly binds and neutralizes BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/BA.5 omicron and protects K18-hACE2 mice inoculated with a high dose of BA.1 omicron virus. Overall, the therapeutic potential of sACE2(2) .v2.4-IgG1 is demonstrated by inhalation route and broad neutralization potency persists against highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants.

4.
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology ; 38(Suppl 1):S127-S128, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024783
5.
2nd International Conference of Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies, SMARTTECH 2022 ; : 12-13, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018983

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) constitutes a public health emergency globally. It is a deadly disease which has infected more than 230 million people worldwide. Therefore, early and unswerving detection of COVID-19 is necessary. Evidence of this virus is most commonly being tested by RT-PCR test. This test is not 100% reliable as it is known to give false positives and false negatives. Other methods like X-Ray images or CT scans show the detailed imaging of lungs and have been proven more reliable. This paper compares different deep learning models used to detect COVID-19 through transfer learning technique on CT scan dataset. VGG-16 outperforms all the other models achieving an accuracy of 85.33 % on the dataset. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2018266

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, teprotumumab production was temporarily halted with resources diverted toward vaccine production. Many patients who initiated treatment with teprotumumab for thyroid eye disease were forced to deviate from the standard protocol. This study investigates the response of teprotumumab when patients receive fewer than the standard 8-dose regimen. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional cohort study included patients from 15 institutions with active or minimal to no clinical activity thyroid eye disease treated with the standard teprotumumab infusion protocol. Patients were included if they had completed at least 1 teprotumumab infusion and had not yet completed all 8 planned infusions. Data were collected before teprotumumab initiation, within 3 weeks of last dose before interruption, and at the visit before teprotumumab reinitiation. The primary outcome measure was reduction in proptosis more than 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included change in clinical activity score (CAS), extraocular motility restriction, margin reflex distance-1 (MRD1), and reported adverse events. RESULTS: The study included 74 patients. Mean age was 57.8 years, and 77% were female. There were 62 active and 12 minimal to no clinical activity patients. Patients completed an average of 4.2 teprotumumab infusions before interruption. A significant mean reduction in proptosis (-2.9 mm in active and -2.8 mm in minimal to no clinical activity patients, P < 0.01) was noted and maintained during interruption. For active patients, a 3.4-point reduction in CAS (P < 0.01) and reduction in ocular motility restriction (P < 0.01) were maintained during interruption. CONCLUSIONS: Patients partially treated with teprotumumab achieve significant reduction in proptosis, CAS, and extraocular muscle restriction and maintain these improvements through the period of interruption.

7.
PLoS Med ; 19(9), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2009677

ABSTRACT

Background: The continued occurrence of more contagious Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and waning immunity over time require ongoing reevaluation of the vaccine effectiveness (VE). This study aimed to estimate the effectiveness in 2 age groups (12 to 59 and 60 years or above) of 2 or 3 vaccine doses (BNT162b2 mRNA or mRNA-1273) by time since vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization in an Alpha-, Delta-, or Omicron-dominated period. Methods and findings: A Danish nationwide cohort study design was used to estimate VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization with the Alpha, Delta, or Omicron variant. Information was obtained from nationwide registries and linked using a unique personal identification number. The study included all previously uninfected residents in Denmark aged 12 years or above (18 years or above for the analysis of 3 doses) in the Alpha (February 20 to June 15, 2021), Delta (July 4 to November 20, 2021), and Omicron (December 21, 2021 to January 31, 2022) dominated periods. VE estimates including 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated (1-hazard ratio∙100) using Cox proportional hazard regression models with underlying calendar time and adjustments for age, sex, comorbidity, and geographical region. Vaccination status was included as a time-varying exposure. In the oldest age group, VE against infection after 2 doses was 90.7% (95% CI: 88.2;92.7) for the Alpha variant, 82.3% (95% CI: 75.5;87.2) for the Delta variant, and 39.9% (95% CI: 26.3;50.9) for the Omicron variant 14 to 30 days since vaccination. The VE waned over time and was 73.2% (Alpha, 95% CI: 57.1;83.3), 50.0% (Delta, 95% CI: 46.7;53.0), and 4.4% (Omicron, 95% CI: −0.1;8.7) >120 days since vaccination. Higher estimates were observed after the third dose with VE estimates against infection of 86.1% (Delta, 95% CI: 83.3;88.4) and 57.7% (Omicron, 95% CI: 55.9;59.5) 14 to 30 days since vaccination. Among both age groups, VE against COVID-19 hospitalization 14 to 30 days since vaccination with 2 or 3 doses was 98.1% or above for the Alpha and Delta variants. Among both age groups, VE against COVID-19 hospitalization 14 to 30 days since vaccination with 2 or 3 doses was 95.5% or above for the Omicron variant. The main limitation of this study is the nonrandomized study design including potential differences between the unvaccinated (reference group) and vaccinated individuals. Conclusions: Two vaccine doses provided high protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization with the Alpha and Delta variants with protection, notably against infection, waning over time. Two vaccine doses provided only limited and short-lived protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection with Omicron. However, the protection against COVID-19 hospitalization following Omicron SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher. The third vaccine dose substantially increased the level and duration of protection against infection with the Omicron variant and provided a high level of sustained protection against COVID-19 hospitalization among the +60-year-olds.

8.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003269

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 global pandemic has shed light on the importance of testing to stop the spread of disease. For a developing country with a large population of over 200 million inhabitants such as Pakistan, widespread testing can be difficult. To date, 957,371 cases have been confirmed and over 14 million tests have been performed in Pakistan, with only 1% of the population vaccinated. In a country already burdened by health disparities with little to no resources, the challenges became ever apparent as case numbers grew. According to the WHO, complacency among the population in cooperating with public protective measures is a rising challenge. Several violent incidents have occurred in hospital wards in Pakistan, prompting medical staff to fear for their lives and demand extra security not only from the virus, but from volatile patients and families. The incidents are thought to be rooted in a mix of anger at a lack of resources, and mistrust of the medical system. The objective of this study was to survey Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians in Pakistan on their ability to test for COVID-19 and their limitations experienced. Methods: An anonymous prospective survey was performed from February to March 2021 in association with the ChildLife Foundation, a nonprofit organization that operates and manages Pediatric EDs in 10 government teaching hospitals in the province of Sindh. 170 PEM providers were surveyed on their experiences with COVID-19 testing, reasoning for why testing was not performed when infection was suspected and reasoning for patient refusals. Results: 68% of respondents had COVID-19 on their differential for patients under their care in the week prior to survey. However, 49% of respondents did not order any COVID-19 testing. 37% of those providers had at least one patient in whom COVID-19 was on the differential. 81% of providers claimed to collect COVID-19 testing every time when suspected. When surveying reasoning for not acquiring COVID-19 testing, providers listed patient refusal as the top reason, followed by limited availability and cost, mild presentation of disease, patient leaving AMA, fear of violence against healthcare professionals, social stigma/fear from patients of being labelled as COVID-19 positive and denial of the diagnosis. Conclusion: According to this survey, PEM providers in Pakistan were not always able to send COVID-19 testing, when indicated, due to a variety of factors. Testing limitations despite suspicion for disease can be a major hurdle in identifying cases and limiting spread in unvaccinated populations.

9.
2nd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering, ICACITE 2022 ; : 909-914, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992625

ABSTRACT

Across India, offline educational system facilities were forced to collapse and students' access to education was severely curtailed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. During COVID-19 many educational institutes abruptly shifted to virtual classrooms for learning with numerous gaps to maintain the academic activities and provide remote lessons to their students. This has impacted the education system in contrary forces. The huge gap is anonymously costing students by taking away their knowledge growth. On the other hand, faculties are scrambling to adapt to the usability of online learning platforms. Faculties are finding innovative ways to interact with the students, but the loss remains incomparable. Therefore, the concept of a smart attendance system governs a significant role in covering at least one gap by replacing the time-consuming traditional method of taking attendance in the virtual classroom. The system takes attendance by recognizing the face of the student and marking attendance automatically with zero errors. Hence, the goal of an online attendance system is achieved with high accuracy. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Kybernetes ; : 23, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1985413

ABSTRACT

Purpose Misinformation on social media has become a great threat across the globe. Therefore, the authors aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of social media users' misinformation combating behavior, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, the authors merged the uses and gratifications theory, social cognitive theory and theory of prosocial behavior into one theoretical framework (e.g. information seeking, status seeking, entertainment and norms of reciprocity) to understand their effect on users' prosocial media sharing experience and misinformation self-efficacy to combat misinformation. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 356 social media users through "Google Forms" during the third wave of coronavirus in Pakistan. Further, the authors applied structural equation modeling for hypotheses testing. Findings The authors noted that entertainment and perceived norms of reciprocity positively affect social media users' prior experience and misinformation self-efficacy to enhance their misinformation combating intention. However, information seeking positively affects social media users' prior experience and insignificantly affects their misinformation self-efficacy. Similarly, status seeking was noted to be insignificantly associated with social media users' prior experience and misinformation self-efficacy. Research limitations/implications The authors tested this model of misinformation combating intention in a developing country during the COVID-19 pandemic and noted that entertainment and status seeking motives are context-specific. Therefore, this study may likely benefit researchers, academicians and policymakers to understand the causal relationship between motivations and the behavior of combating misinformation on social media within a developing country. Originality/value In this study the authors merged three theories (e.g. uses and gratifications theory, social cognitive theory and theory of prosocial behavior) to understand information seeking, status seeking, entertainment and norms of reciprocity as the main motives for social media users' misinformation combating intention.

11.
AEROSOL AND AIR QUALITY RESEARCH ; 22(8), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1969624

ABSTRACT

Measurement of particulate matter (PM) constituent such as black carbon (BC) over urban sites is critically important owing to its adverse health and climate impacts. However, the impacts associated with BC are poorly understood primarily because of the scarcity and uncertainties of measurements of BC. Here, we present BC measurement at an urban site of Delhi using a characterized continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS) for a year-long period, i.e., from September, 2019 to August, 2020. This measurement period covers events, i.e., period of crop residue burnings from nearby states, festive events, e.g., Diwali and New Year, and first COVID-19 lockdown period. Effects of these events combining with local emissions and meteorological conditions on BC mass concentration (MBC) are investigated to find the possible cause of severe pollution levels in Delhi. Mean MBC for the complete observation period was found to be 5.02 ?? 4.40 ??g m???3. MBC showed significant seasonal as well diurnal variations. Winter season (December to February) is observed to be the most polluted season owing to increased local emissions and non-favorable meteorological conditions. Regional emission from crop burning in nearby states during October and November is the main contributing factor for increased pollution in this postmonsoon season. Furthermore, analysis reveals that cracker burning during festivals can also be considered as contributing factor to high MBC for a short period in post-monsoon and winter seasons. Significant decrease in MBC due to COVID-19 lockdown is also observed. MBC in summer and monsoon are lower as compared to other seasons but are still higher than mean MBC levels in several other urban cities of different countries. Also, the BC data obtained from nearby sites surface black carbon (SBC) are compared against the MBC to evaluate coherency among the different datasets, and discussed in detail.

12.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-564-S-565, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967331

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2, the causative organism for COVID-19, uses ACE2 to enter human cells. Pancreatic ductal, acinar and islet cells also express ACE-2;therefore, involvement of the pancreas is plausible. Elevated lipase and cases of acute pancreatitis related to COVID-19 have been reported in previous studies. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) have a low-grade inflammatory state and pancreatic parenchymal fibrosis, which may predispose them to pancreatic injury and worse COVID-19 outcomes. However, large studies reporting the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with chronic pancreatitis are lacking. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using TriNetX (a multiinstitutional research network). Prevalence and Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) (cases/ personday) of COVID-19 were charted for patients with CP between January 2020 and July 2021. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during this period were stratified into two groups based on the presence of CP (CP cohort and non-CP cohort). Outcomes of COVID-19 in the CP cohort were compared to the non-CP cohort after 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) for age, gender, race, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, lung disease, cirrhosis, smoking, and alcohol abuse. Results: A total of 4420 patients with CP diagnosed with COVID-19 were identified and compared to 1,169,773 patients without CP. A large proportion of patients with CP were diagnosed with COVID-19 and the IRR peaked between December 2020-January 2021 and then declined subsequently (Figure 1). Patients in the CP cohort were older and had a higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities (Table 1). In crude, unmatched analysis, COVID-19 patients with CP had higher mortality (4.96% vs 2.16%;RR: 2.29, 95% CI:2.02-2.61), need for hospitalization (RR: 3.64, 95% CI:3.47-3.83), critical care need (RR: 3.16, 95% CI:2.86-3.50), and acute kidney injury (AKI) (RR: 3.96, 95% CI:3.71-4.24) compared to patients without CP (Table 1). No residual imbalance was noted (SMD <0.1 for all covariates) after PSM. After PSM, no difference in mortality or rate of mechanical ventilation was noted, however, patients with CP had a significantly higher risk of hospitalizations (RR: 1.51, 95% CI:1.39-1.64) and AKI (RR: 1.28, 95% CI:1.16-1.42) (Table 1). No difference in mortality, hospitalization, and critical care was noted for patients with alcohol-induced CP vs other etiologies. Conclusion: Patients with CP have high mortality and risk of poor outcomes after COVID-19 due to the presence of a significant burden of comorbidities and risk factors for severe COVID-19. In addition, CP is independently associated with higher healthcare utilization and complications such as AKI in patients with COVID-19. (Figure Presented) Figure 1: Prevalence and Incidence rate (cases/person-day) of COVID-19 in patients with chronic pancreatitis (Table Presented) Table 1. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in matched and unmatched Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) and non-CP cohorts

13.
IMAGING ; 14(1):46-51, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1938476

ABSTRACT

Aim: The objective of the present study is to describe high-resolution CT (HRCT) chest manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during second wave of the pandemic in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. We also aim to compare the findings on the HRCT chest during the second wave of COVID-19 with the data form earlier outbreaks and to look for any features specific to the second wave and thus indirectly to the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. We also assessed the severity of the pulmonary involvement based on HRCT findings. Methods: We analysed HRCT chest findings in 237 patients with COVID-19 admitted at our institute from 1st April 2021 to 31st May 2021. Covid-19 infection was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) or rapid antigen test (RAT) in all these patients. Results: The mean age in our study group was 51.3 +/- 12.1 years (range 19-79 years) comprising of 136 males (57.4%) and 101 females (42.6%). The majority of the patients showed bilateral (95.3%) and peripheral (42.6%) distribution of the disease. Ground glass opacities were the most common finding, seen in 214 (90.3%) patients, followed by interlobular septal thickening in 202 (85.8%) and crazy paving in 194 (81.3%) patients. Majority (36.7%) of these patients had a CT severity score above 20 indicating severe disease. Conclusion: A typical pattern of peripheral subpleural often bilateral distribution of ground glass opacities on HRCT chest usually points to the possibility of COVID-19 pneumonia. The higher incidence of abnormalities on HRCT chest in patients with infection mainly from the delta variant of SARS-Cov-2 was mainly because of the more severe disease in the population. More research is needed to further evaluate the role of HRCT chest in the diagnosis of COVID-19 caused by different strains of the virus.

15.
5th International Conference on Computing Sciences, ICCS 2021 ; : 156-160, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922671

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus pandemic has made Irreversible changes in our society and the business world. Almost all aspects of the business and daily routine have shifted to the digital platforms and various forms of personal, indirect communications and suit the current environment in guarding us against coronavirus. The outbreak also brought a refreshing load of creativity in the people who found new ways to solve everyday problems. The key to solving problems is effective communication. With the help of mobile devices and computers, people were able to change their environment so that their expression of thoughts and their tasks of daily routine got aligned with social media platforms. People express themselves as if they are not going to get another chance to express themselves. They use doodles, poetic tweets, and many other forms of colloquial language. Using mixed language such as Hinglish became a norm for the commoner. In this research work, an attempt has been made to review techniques that can be used to work trust models from which meaning insights can be drawn in times such as covid-19 pandemic. From this study it can be inferred that no single approach of modeling complex scenarios such trust in times of covid-19 can be done. There is an urgent need to take inspiration from multiple techniques and approaches to assess the trust level in the digital society. © 2021 IEEE.

16.
BJOG-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY ; 129:43-43, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1904949
17.
Information Technology & People ; : 26, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1895877

ABSTRACT

Purpose This paper aims to create a better understanding of the challenges posed by work from home (WFH) during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, to investigate the public sentiment toward this transition, and to develop a conceptual model incorporating the relationships among the factors that influence the effectiveness of WFH. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses netnography method to collect data from the Twitter platform and uses Python programming language, Natural Language Processing techniques and IBM SPSS 26 to conduct sentiment analysis and directed content analysis on the data. The findings are combined with an extensive review of the remote work literature to develop a conceptual model. Findings Results show the majority of tweets about WFH during the pandemic are positive and objective with technology and cyber security as the most repeated topics in the tweets. New challenges to WFH during pandemic include future uncertainty, health concerns, home workspaces, self-isolation, lack of recreational activities and support mechanisms. In addition, exhaustion and technostress mediate the relationship between the antecedents and outcomes of WFH during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, the fear of pandemic and coping strategies moderates these relationships. Originality/value This paper is one of the first efforts to comprehensively investigate the challenges of WFH during a crisis and to extend the remote work literature by developing a conceptual model incorporating the moderating effects of fear of pandemic and coping strategies. Moreover, it is the first paper to investigate the tweeting behavior of different user types on Twitter who shared posts about WFH during the ongoing pandemic.

18.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(7): 781-787, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an infectious disease declared as a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. Genomic changes in the receptor binding domain (RBD) region of SARS-CoV-2 led to an increased, infectivity in humans through interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) receptor. Simultaneously, the genetic variants in ACE2 provide an opportunity for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity. We demonstrate the binding efficiencies of RBDs of SARS-CoV-2 strain with ACE2 variants of the human host. METHODOLOGY: A Total of 615 SARS-CoV-2 genomes were retrieved from repository. Eighteen variations were identified contributing to structural changes in RBD that are distributed in 615 isolates. An analyses of 285 single nucleotide variances at the coding region of the ACE2 receptor showed 34 to be pathogenic. Homology models of 34 ACE2 and 18 RBD structures were constructed with 34 and 18 structural variants, respectively. Protein docking of 612 (34 *18) ACE2-RBD complexes showed variable affinities compared to wildtype Wuhan's and other SARS-CoV-2 RBDs, including Omicron B.1.1.529. Finally, molecular dynamic simulation was performed to determine the stability of the complexes. RESULTS: Among 612, the top 3 complexes showing least binding energy were selected. The ACE2 with rs961360700 variant showed the least binding energy (-895.2 Kcal/mol) on binding with the RBD of Phe160Ser variant compared to Wuhan's RBD complex. Interestingly, the binding energy of RBD of Omicron B.1.1.529 with ACE2 (rs961360700) structure showed least binding energy of -1010 Kcal/mol. Additionally, molecular dynamics showed structure stability for all the analysed complexes with the RMSD (0.22-0.26 nm), RMSF (0.11-0.13 nm), and Rg (2.53-2.56 nm). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our investigation highlights the clinical variants contributing to structural variants in ACE2 receptors that lead to efficient binding of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, screening of these ACE2 polymorphisms will help detect COVID-19 risk population so as to provide additional care and for safe management.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensins/metabolism , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(4):587-588, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1887476

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pakistan has high prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases, especially bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objectives: The main objective of the study is to find the impact of COVID-19 on chronic respiratory disease in Pakistan. Material and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital Lahore during January 2021 to July 2021. Before and after the COVID-19 period were defined by a predetermined set of criteria in the form of a questionnaire. Results: The data was collected from 314 respondents. According to the respondents, the survey also queried about the presence of respiratory comorbidities in patients who had tested positive for COVID 19. COPD was mentioned as a comorbidity by more than a third of those who responded, and several others, including bronchial asthma, ILD, and tuberculosis (TB), were also mentioned by many respondents. Conclusion: It is concluded that because of the lockout's efficacy and the widespread use of masks outside the facility, the air was probably rather clean. As a result, both the number of people visiting an asthma outpatient clinic and the number of people being admitted to the hospital with acute severe asthma dropped.

20.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880587
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