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1.
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care ; 26(6):820-823, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206285

ABSTRACT

It has been two years since vaccination for COVID-19 was launched worldwide. In Pakistan, the vaccination started in the beginning of 2020. Since then, several side effects were reported after vaccination, including soreness of the arm, fever, chills, malaise and diarrhoea. Axillary lymphadenopathy has been found to be associated with several conditions that include autoimmune disorders, infections, malignancy and some idiopathic causes. We present a rare case of a 30-y old female with recent recovery from COVID-19, who developed ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy after 15 days of Sinovac vaccination. Ultrasonography was done to confirm the diagnosis and its spread towards breast and cervical region. This case report discusses some key points and recommendations regarding unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination. Copyright © 2022 Faculty of Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care, AFMS. All rights reserved.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 19:19, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198233

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To use combined glycemic (HbA1c) and BMI z-score (BMIZ) trajectories spanning the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to identify high-risk subgroups of adolescents with diabetes.

3.
Business and Society Review ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2192390

ABSTRACT

The study aims to ascertain how different levels of society have been influenced by the impact of pandemics over the last many years. The study also determines the societal implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. The integrative literature survey method is adopted to extract the secondary data pertinent to the socio-economic effect of pandemics and COVID-19 on society. Primary data is collected to diagnose the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on employees (N = 210) working in the Indian organized sector. Findings of the study suggest that pandemics have been a cause of economic slowdown measured with a fall in gross domestic product (GDP) at the macro level. The reduced level of economic activity is found to be negatively related to an individual socio-economic status building their psychological distress. The descriptive analysis of the data reveals that although employees have managed their jobs and finances during COVID-19, they have experienced stress in their lives due to the pandemic. The study assimilates the pandemic effect using inductive reasoning to develop a COVID quadrilateral conceptual framework.

4.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 41:19-24, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2179612

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Antimicrobial resistance [AMR] has emerged as a global and national priority and establishing an effective surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance is an essential prerequisite for generating evidence for informed policymaking at both national and state levels. Method(s): Twenty-four laboratories were enrolled after assessment in the WHO-IAMM Network for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Delhi [WINSAR-D]. The NARS- NET standard operating procedures were adopted along with its priority pathogen lists and antibiotic panels. The members were trained to use WHONET software and monthly data files were collected, collated, and analyzed. Result(s): Multiple logistic issues such as procurement, erratic supply of consumables, non-availability of standard guidelines, lack of automated systems, high workload and low manpower were reported by the majority of member laboratories. Microbiological challenges such as differentiation between colonization and pathogen in absence of patient details, lack of confirmation of resistance, identification of isolates and lack of dedicated computer and genuine windows software for data were common to most laboratories. The total number of isolates of priority pathogens in 2020 was 31,463. Of these, 50.1% isolates were from urine 20.6% were from blood and 28.3% were from pus aspirate and other sterile body fluids. High levels of resistance were observed for all antibiotics. Conclusion(s): There are many challenges in generating quality AMR data in lower-middle-income countries. There is a need for resource allocation and capacity building at all levels to ensure the collection of quality assured data. Copyright © 2022 Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists

5.
Race Soc Probl ; : 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2175153

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s12552-022-09379-y.].

6.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012082, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160860

ABSTRACT

Enterprise upgrading strategy is related to investment decisions by MSMEs as investors, closely related to the sustainable development of business. This research aims to identify determinants upgrading, the risks faced and the performance of Agribusiness MSMEs in Palu, and also the influence of determinants upgrading on the performance of Agribusiness MSMEs in Palu during the COVID-19 pandemic. The response of the research on the characteristics of entrepreneurs earned an average of 4.04. It means that the characteristics of entrepreneurs include the "GOOD” category. Other while the response for company characteristics earned an average of 4.41, which gives the meaning of employer characteristics including the "VERY GOOD” category. The response for business and social networks, gained an average of 4.43, entering the category of "VERY GOOD” and last the response to risk earned an average of 3.04 including the "MEDIUM” category. The constant value (α) has a value of -5,633 which means that if the characteristics of entrepreneurs (X1), company characteristics (X2), business and social networks (X3), and business environment (X4) are equal to zero (0), then agribusiness MSMEs will be decreased. The results of the analysis of business characteristic variables (X1), corporate characteristics (X2), business and social activities (X3), and business environment (X4) partially have a significant effect on the performance of Agribusiness MSMEs.

7.
Kesmas-National Public Health Journal ; 17(3):169-174, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2091303

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in low- and middle-income countries remain poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies seroprevalence in Jakarta, Indonesia, and to increase knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in urban settings. A population-based serosurvey among individuals aged one year or older was conducted in Jakarta. Employing a multistage sampling design, samples were stratified by district, slum and non-slum residency, sex, and age group. Blood samples were tested for IgG against three different SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Seroprevalence was estimated after applying sample weights and adjusting for cluster characteristics. In March 2021, this study collected 4,919 respondents. The weighted estimate of seroprevalence was 44.5% (95% CI = 42.5-46.5). Seroprevalence was highest among adults aged 30-49 years, with higher seroprevalence in women and the overweight/obese group. Respondents residing in slum areas were 1.3-fold more likely to be seropositive than non-slum residents. It was estimated that 4,717,000 of Jakarta's 10.6 million residents had prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that approximately 10 infections were undiagnosed/underreported for every reported case. About one year after the first COVID-19 case was confirmed, close to half of Jakarta's residents have been infected by SARS-CoV-2.

8.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 73(3)2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091455

ABSTRACT

Systemic inflammation is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Anti-inflammatory therapy is considered crucial to modulate the hyperinflammatory response (cytokine storm) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. There is currently no specific, conclusively proven, cost-efficient, and worldwide available anti-inflammatory therapy available to treat COVID-19 patients with cytokine storm. The present study aimed to investigate the treatment benefit of oral colchicine for hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. Colchicine is an approved drug and possesses multiple anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This was a pilot, open-label randomized controlled clinical trial comparing standard of care (SOC) plus oral colchicine (colchicine arm) vs. SOC alone (control arm) in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. Colchicine treatment was initiated within first 48 hours of admission delivered at 1.5 mg loading dose, followed by 0.5 mg b.i.d. for next 6 days and 0.5 mg q.d. for the second week. A total of 96 patients were randomly allocated to the colchicine (n=48) and control groups (n=48). Both colchicine and control group patients experienced similar clinical outcomes by day 14 of hospitalization. Treatment outcome by day 14 in colchicine vs control arm: recovered and discharged alive: 36 (75.0%) vs. 37 (77.1%), remain admitted after 14-days: 4 (8.3%) vs. 5 (10.4%), ICU transferred: 4 (8.3%) vs. 3 (6.3%), and mortality: 4 (8.3%) vs. 3 (6.3%). The speed of improvement of COVID-19 acute symptoms including shortness of breath, fever, cough, the need of supplementary oxygen, and oxygen saturation level, was almost identical in the two groups. Length of hospitalization was on average 1.5 day shorter in the colchicine group. There was no evidence for a difference between the two groups in the follow-up serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP). According to the results of our study, oral colchicine does not appear to show clinical benefits in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. It is possible that the anti-inflammatory pathways of colchicine are not crucially involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
9.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(7):351-352, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067741

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 pandemic pushed unprepared educational institutes towards online sessions. Though equivalence of online sessions proved already in many studies before pandemic, unplanned sessions and inexperienced teachers with networking issues and novice software for online sessions could not meet the standard of teaching that was expected or experienced during these sessions. We planned this study to know perspective of learners to measure quality of online sessions and to find out factors which could improve these sessions in future. Design: Prospective questionnaire based study Place & duration of study: Hitec IMS Dental College, from 10th Feb 2022 to 10th March 2022 Methodology: Questionnaire was distributed to 150 students of BDS who has attended online session during COVID-19 pandemic. Results: 85% of the responders appreciated online sessions happening during pandemic to avoid wastage of time but as high as 50% students were of the opinion that teachers could not maintain standard of teaching as in on campus session. Factors for this dis-satisfaction of students included issues like connectivity issues, gadgets of students as well as teachers, novelty to softwares to attend online class, and psychological issues like depression. So at the end 83% of students preferred on-campus sessions on on-line sessions. Conclusion: On the basis of findings of this study, it is recommended that we should continue activity of online teaching with improvement in resources and train our staff and students even in the absence of such emergency.

10.
International Journal of Electronic Finance ; 11(3):269-290, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1993534

ABSTRACT

Digital financial transactions, in comparison to in-cash transactions, provide an efficient and time saving option. Considering the significance of digital financial transactions in the present scenario of the COVID-19 crisis, this study has twin objectives: firstly, to examine the use of digital financial transactions in COVID-19 and secondly, to explore the existence of any relationship between financial literacy and the use of digital financial transactions, especially by low-income groups in India. This study uses secondary data from authorised and government sources for the analysis of the research objectives. Logistic regression model was deployed on National Centre for Financial Education (NCFE) (2019) survey data of around 36,600 low-income group to interpret the relationship between financial literacy and digital financial transactions. The analysis of the data suggested that financial literacy was significant in positively affecting digital financial transactions. In this regard, financial literacy could play an instrumental role, which is also being indicated through our estimated results. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

11.
10th Asian Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies (AcE-Bs) ; 7:387-394, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979846

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the world???s education system, including Malaysia. This disruption has affected approximately 1.6 billion students in more than 200 countries. The closure of educational institutions has caused various changes in people???s lives. This research examines the associations between institutional support, perceptions of usefulness, personal innovation, perceived social pressure, and age with the application of technology among teachers from rural schools in Johor. One hundred ten teachers were involved in this study. The results showed that perceived usefulness, personal innovativeness, and perceived social pressure had influenced technology adoption among the teachers from rural schools.

12.
IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (IEEE SSCI) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1978400

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the highly contagious illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The standard diagnostic testing procedure for COVID-19 is testing a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which can take multiple days to provide a diagnosis. Another widespread form of testing is rapid antigen testing, which has a low sensitivity compared to PCR, but is favored for its quick diagnosis time of usually 15-30 minutes. Patients who test positive for COVID-19 demonstrate diffuse alveolar damage in 87% of cases. Machine learning has proven to have advantages in image classification problems with radiology. In this work, we introduce CovXR as a machine learning model designed to detect COVID-19 pneumonia in chest X-rays (CXR). CovXR is a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained on over 4,300 chest X-rays. The performance of the model is measured through accuracy, F1 score, sensitivity, and specificity. The model achieves an accuracy of 95.5% and an F1 score of 0.954. The sensitivity is 93.5% and specificity is 97.5%. With accuracy above 95% and F1 score above 0.95, CovXR is highly accurate in predicting COVID-19 pneumonia on CXRs. The model achieves better accuracy than prior work and uses a unique approach to identify COVID-19 pneumonia. CovXR is highly accurate in identifying COVID-19 on CXRs of patients with a PCR confirmed positive diagnosis and provides much faster results than PCR tests.

13.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925482

ABSTRACT

Objective: This clinical case history details a woman who received the COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 and developed an acute, severe encephalopathy associated with new onset seizures within days of her first vaccination. Background: BNT162b2, an mRNA-LNP-vaccine, has been strategically purified and modified to suppress immunogenicity. It still possesses powerful intrinsic immune-stimulatory features that induce type-I INF production, which has been associated with both inflammation and potentially autoimmunity in several mRNA-vaccine phase-I/II clinical trials (HIVNCT02413645, influenza-NCT03076385, rabies-NCT02241135 and Zika virus-NCT03014089). Design/Methods: A 69-year-old woman who received her first dose of BNT162b2 five days prior, was found unresponsive. Within twenty-four hours of arrival, she developed focal seizures with secondary generalized, and remained in non-convulsive status epilepticus on longterm EEG monitoring until day 5 of admission despite three anti-seizure medications and a propofol drip. Brain MRI on day 3 of admission showed gyriform-pattern diffusion restriction in the right hemisphere and left frontoparietal region without features suggestive of an acute vascular event. Vascular imaging was normal. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed an elevated protein level (135 mg/dl), with negative findings for infections from bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, HIV, syphilis, and viruses, including COVID-19 PCR, as well as paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitis panels. Serum COVID-19 IgG antibody was negative on post-immunization day 8. Results: There was no significant improvement following empiric methylprednisolone and meningitis antibiotic/antiviral treatment. She was discharged in a deeply comatose status on day 30 of hospital admission. Repeat MRI brain on day 14 showed similar findings to her previous scan with the addition of Wallerian degeneration in the right cerebral peduncle. Conclusions: In a patient who develops an acute encephalopathy with new onset of seizure within days of BNT162b2 vaccine, do consider mRNA-vaccine related encephalopathy in the differential diagnosis.

14.
Cureus ; 14(5): e24735, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924623

ABSTRACT

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare and potentially devastating neurologic disease that is commonly treated with neurosurgical decompression and evacuation. We describe the case of an 11-month-old immunocompetent infant who presented with a large multiloculated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus abscess in the left lung apex with likely mediastinal involvement, extending into the epidural space from C7 down to L2 causing cord compression which was successfully treated with percutaneous placement of an epidural drainage catheter and antibiotic therapy. Although there are rare reports of percutaneous drainage of SEAs, to our knowledge, there are no reports of successful use of percutaneous indwelling catheters resulting in the complete resolution of an SEA. Holo-spinal epidural abscess in an infant is an extremely rare disease with limited literature available regarding the best practice for its treatment. Multiple considerations must be taken into account when weighing the different treatment options ranging from surgical decompression to conservative management with antibiotic therapy. We present a unique case of successful treatment with percutaneous epidural drain placement. This provides a reasonable alternative for management in children for whom surgical decompression carries multiple risks for complications both acutely and delayed.

15.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(4):742-745, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1918390

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study was designed to determine the impact of COVID-19 on treatment compliance and mental health (anxiety and depression) in psoriasis patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Department of Dermatology at York teaching Hospital from April to August 2020. One hundred and eleven patients diagnosed with psoriasis were asked to complete a questionnaire (HADS). Patients were also asked about their compliance or self-modifications in their treatment regime due to fear of Covid-19. Using SPSS version 26.0 all of the collected data was analysed together. Results: 40 patients (36.03%) had depression and 52 patients (46.84%) anxiety on the basis of their HADS score. Twenty patients (18.01%) stopped treatment due to concerns regarding COVID-19. Prevalence of anxiety was more in female patients and those on traditional immuno-suppressants as compared to biological treatment or those receiving topical treatment only. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are common in patients with psoriasis. Female patients and those on systemic medications are worse affected compared to patients on topical treatment or those receiving phototherapy. Fear of COVID-19 has led to 18% of patients self-stopping their treatment altogether.

16.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880646
17.
Endocrine Practice ; 28(5):S111, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1851065

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pituitary apoplexy (PA) is rare and occurs in up to 20% of patients with a non-functioning pituitary adenoma. It can occur de novo or can be precipitated by surgery, head trauma, anticoagulant therapy, and pregnancy among others. Incidence of persistent Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is only about 2% in such patients. Limited literature exists on the association of PA and COVID infection. We present a case of PA and subsequent central DI in a patient with a pituitary adenoma and severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Case Description: A 64-year-old male with a history of a non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (2 cm) of 5 months duration, primary hypothyroidism, and acute myeloid leukemia on chemotherapy presented to the emergency department with one day of headache, fever, and cough. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and started on dexamethasone, broad spectrum antibiotics and supplemental oxygen. Sudden loss of peripheral vision in his left eye with a persistent headache and altered mental status led to plain computed tomography that revealed a hyperattenuating suprasellar mass compressing the optic chiasm. MRI brain showed a T2 hypointense acutely hemorrhagic suprasellar mass compressing the infundibulum and the optic chiasm indicative of PA. Labs showed thrombocytopenia with platelet count 55,000/mcL (130-400), low AM cortisol 3 mcg/dL, normal prolactin 10 ng/mL, normal thyroid function and preserved somatotrophic axis. In addition, the patient developed polyuria with a urine output of up to 8 liters in a 24-hour period, acute hypernatremia (sodium 172 mmol/L), urine specific gravity < 1.005 and serum osmolality 360 mOsm/kg (275-295 mOsm/kg). Conservative management with stress dose hydrocortisone and desmopressin was the first line of therapy. Levothyroxine was continued at home dose. After resolution of COVID-19 pneumonia and improvement in electrolyte disarray, the patient underwent pituitary decompression surgery in 3 weeks with subsequent resolution of DI post-operatively. He was discharged home on hydrocortisone (20 mg total daily dose) and levothyroxine with close endocrinology follow up. Discussion: Association of COVID infection and PA has been reported in 10 patients in the literature so far. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, SARS-CoV-2 neural invasion via cerebral ACE-2 expression can lead to oxidative stress and thrombogenesis, ultimately predisposing to neural hemorrhage. Thrombocytopenia secondary to chemotherapy can be a contributing factor in our patient. DI is rare and usually resolves after decompression surgery. Further research focusing on the association and pathophysiology of COVID-19 with PA in those without precipitating factors are needed.

18.
Managerial Finance ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1769512

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the financial-economic vulnerability of the public and threatened the household financial stability, especially of the low-income group population, in developing economies such as India. The assessment of household financial vulnerability has gained considerable attention these days, especially in poor and developing countries. This article seeks to assess the level of household financial vulnerability in India, based on a household survey conducted across India. Design/methodology/approach This paper has proposed a financial vulnerability index (FVI) based on three self-reported parameters: (1) making end meet, (2) perception of income shock and (3) perception of expenditure shock. Subsequently, the impact of various behavioural and socioeconomic factors on the proposed financial vulnerability index has been assessed using fractional probit regression. Findings The research findings indicate that higher financial knowledge, better money management skills and lower impulsivity in financial behaviour can reduce financial vulnerability. It is suggested that suitable financial literacy programmes be implemented for vulnerable sections of society to enhance their financial knowledge, improve money management skills and manage impulsivity, thereby helping them make informed financial decisions leading to their financial well-being. Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, none of the past studies have developed and assessed the financial vulnerability index in India. This study provides relevant recommendations for various financial sector regulators and government institutions in India.

19.
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 23(1.1):S47-S48, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1743796

ABSTRACT

Learning Objectives:Our goal was to create a Quality and Patient Safety Curriculum for EM Residents that included interactive lectures, resident projects, infographic emails, and simulations. This curriculum was developed during COVID-19 and therefore was adapted for virtual and in-person socially distant education. : Introduction/Background: The American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residents develop skills to analyze quality assessment methods;identify system errors;and participate in quality improvement projects. When surveyed, 52% of EM residencies had <4 hours/year of quality education and 62% had <4 hours/year of risk education. Educational Objectives: Our goal was to create a Quality and Patient Safety Curriculum for EM Residents that included interactive lectures, resident projects, infographic emails, and simulations. This curriculum was developed during COVID-19 and adapted for virtual and socially distant education. Curricular Design: We created our Quality and Patient Safety curriculum based on initiatives important to our ED, such as sepsis care. We designed 4 main educational programs: 1) Quality Corner: Weekly, a colorful infographic on quality metrics, new patient safety initiatives, or EMR tips was emailed (Image 1: Example Quality Corners). 2) Monthly Lectures: A 45-minute interactive quality lecture was given monthly at conference. Residents were given case-based scenarios followed by an online poll;realtime results were displayed. This was followed by a 1-hour deep-dive on a patient case. 3) Resident Projects: Each resident was assigned to a group and focused on a quality metric. The groups were taught how to do a literature review;write an IRB;create a datasheet;and implement a project. 4) Quality Simulations: During resident shifts, a chief resident ran quality group and individual case simulations. Impact/Effectiveness: Residents completed anonymous surveys. For the residency lectures, 39 of 48 (81%) residents responded-82% stated they were helpful;84.6% learned something new;and 84.6% recommended they be continued. For the Quality Simulations, 28 of 30 (93%) residents responded-100% said they were helpful;93% learned something new;and 100% recommended they be continued.

20.
5th ABRA International Conference on Quality of Life (AQoL) ; 6:71-77, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1675478

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of Covid-19 has caused the existing school learning system to move to online teaching and learning methods. They are carried out to safeguard the continuity of school learning sessions, attempting to avert dropouts. This paper analyzes the relationships between organizational factors, perceived usefulness, personal innovativeness, and peers with technology adoption among teachers in rural schools in Segamat District. A total of 117 teachers were involved in this study. The results showed that perceived usefulness, personal innovativeness, and peers influenced technology adoption among teachers from rural schools.

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