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1.
Springer Protocol. Handb. ; : 363-377, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1858946

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease outbreaks keep challenging human and veterinary health worldwide since decades. Disease outbreaks such as smallpox, influenza, polio, SARS, Ebola, foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, and the most recent and devastating COVID-19, all point to the need for a more proactive approach to developing diagnostics and treatment methods for these deadly diseases. Because the pathogenic agents that cause these diseases are highly transmissible, careful containment of these agents within the laboratories is necessary, with little or no exposure to working personnel. Different regulatory authorities across the world provide guidelines and procedures to ensure that research and diagnostic laboratories operate safely. This chapter delves into the many events that occur as a result of lab-mediated disease spread, as well as the need for, importance of, and guidelines for good lab practices and biosafety.

2.
Indian Veterinary Journal ; 98(12):22-29, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820592

ABSTRACT

Spike (S) proteins covering the outer surface of the Coronaviruses are the major hotspots of evolution and are also responsible for attaching the virus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) receptor on the host cells. In this study, we unveiled the evolutionary relics of the S-protein sequences of different beta Coronaviruses, namely, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERSCoV). The present study aims at exploring the sequence divergence of the spike protein (S-protein) of nCov2 viruses to illuminate the evolutionary process. The nucleotide sequences of S-proteins of nCov2 viruses, namely, SARS, MERS and SARS-CoV2, representing different continents of the world, were downloaded from the NCBI Nucleotide databases. The conserved regions have been depicted through multiple sequence alignment (Clustal Omega, Jalview) and the molecular phylogeny has been studied. (using MEGA 7). Comparative analysis of the pairwise distance and selection pressure indicated that the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are close to each other, however, distantly related to MERS-CoV and the SARS-CoV2 could have evolved from SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome).

3.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 90(3):158-173, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1717235

ABSTRACT

After the appearance of first cases of pneumonia of unknown origin in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV study group. The World Health Organization WHO named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4,292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency January 30, 2020 to a pandemic March 11, 2020. Nonetheless, the case fatality rate CFR of the current epidemic is on the rise between 2-4%, relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV 2002/2003 and MERS-CoV 2012 outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.

4.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 91(10):803-806, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1507280

ABSTRACT

The emerging public health issues of 21st century have clearly warned us that the efficient tackling of these threats need to be done in collaborative manner between relevant public health professionals under the umbrella of One Health. The concept of One Health is longstanding;however, it is gaining due momentum across the globe, especially in context of tackling emerging zoonoses. India remains vulnerable to many of emerging health threats due to demographic, socio-economic and other factors related with globalization, climate change and related biodiversity losses. In India, the various public health agencies which includes human, animal and environmental health professionals have contributed joint efforts in recent past to confront the One Health related issues. However, the bridging of professional silos to act more synergistically need further sustained efforts from all the stakeholders, including policy makers.

5.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 91(10):791-802, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1490189

ABSTRACT

Of the 1,415 human pathogens identified, 175 are responsible for causing emerging diseases, 132 are zoonotic and majority of the diseases are categorized as emerging or re-emerging. Emerging novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is one of them, and it is responsible for causing social and economically critical disease in both humans and animals. This review presents the understanding of epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic related to host, agent, and the environment with transmission and spread of the disease for better prevention of the COVID-19. The inclination of the viruses to spillover between different species and determining the number of the reservoir of coronaviruses in an entirely new host to create infection is of emerging importance. The understanding of disease patterns will potentiate our expertise to alert how, when, and where the potential epidemic will occur. One health approach involves co-operation from all the sectors, including healthcare (medical and veterinary), environmental, pharmaceutical, educational, research, police, and administration, to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and reduce the public health threat.

6.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Suppl. 1):S219-S245, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1319906

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease - 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2), set it foots in China during December 2019 as a high-alert public health emergency. This malady had thereafter spread rapidly across the globe in more than 215 countries, affecting more than 50 million people and causing the death of nearly 1.3 million as of 9th November, 2020 and resulted in a massive panic, fear, and economic crashes in most of the world. A better understanding of the disease, the virus, structural biology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and management can be extrapolated from the literature review of the research up to date. In addition, deliberations on animal linkages, spillover and zoonotic implications for exploring the actual origin of the disease and all possible animal-human interfaces, intermediate host;diagnosis for devising specific and sensitive tests of ease, accessibility and affordability;advances in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics for prevention and treatment;management of COVID-19 practicable in all countries;application of traditional or regularly used modalities including plant-based products and medicinal herbs against SARS-COV-2;nutritious dietary foods against this disease;and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can provide valuable information on these various aspects. Most of the research currently focuses on disease, development of a vaccine or therapeutic modalities. But the future mortality rate and virulence of virus not only depends on the evolution of the virus, but also on how we develop preventive measures and effective treatment as well as in advance preparedness. The present review highlights salient aspects of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, pathology, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, potential treatment, and alternative/supportive therapeutic options.

7.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Suppl. 1):S57-S65, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1319894

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak originated from Wuhan, China has spread over the world, causing a "Global Pandemic". We analyzed daily confirmed cases and deaths from different countries to understand the progression of the ongoing pandemic in different parts around the world. The data indicated that the pandemic is in different stages in different countries, where they are either at the end of the second wave or middle or early phase of it or still in the middle of the first wave of infection, and they can be divided into four groups. Type 1 countries such as UK, France, Spain, and the Netherlands are currently witnessing the second wave of infection with an exponential increase in daily cases. Countries such as Australia, United States, Japan, and Poland are currently in the declining stage of second-wave, grouped as Type 2 countries. Type 3 countries such as Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Russia are recently seeing the second wave with slowly rising of confirmed cases. Type 4 countries including India, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico are currently fighting against the first wave of COVID-19. These countries have a chance to learn from the countries which have overcome the second wave successfully. To be ahead of the epidemic curve and preventing it, countries need to make future plans on family, hospital, and community levels. Isolation of the highly vulnerable elderly people and young children, preventing social or public gathering, following the guidelines of COVID-19 prevention including wearing face masks regularly can save countries from devastating effects of the second wave of pandemic COVID-19.

8.
Journal of Immunology and Immunopathology ; 22(2):133-141, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1310208

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread all over the world affecting more than 20 million people. Early planning and preparedness are vital in mitigation of the impact of the ongoing pandemic. The lessons from previous public health emergencies of the 21st century such as Influenza A (H1N1), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Ebola elucidate that the risks assessment associated with disease outbreaks remains integral for the successful response curbing health disasters. Every pandemic or public health emergency poses new challenges. Alike, the SARS-CoV-2 which causes COVID-19 will continue to challenge public health systems and their ability to effectively communicate with the public. Till date, no vaccines and specific antiviral drugs are available moreover there is little evidence on the effectiveness of potential therapeutic agents. Many countries have practiced 'stay-at-home', social distancing, avoided mass gathering, closure of education in institutions, strict public health measures like compulsory wearing of masks, entertainment and public spaces. For effective prevention and control of any infectious diseases the risk assessment and communication are of prime importance. Hence, there is an urgent need to commence SARS-CoV-2 risk assessment for assisting decision-making bodies working on SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This paper discusses in brief about the rapid risk assessment and diagnostic approaches for COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(6):683-708, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1134565

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (CoV), earlier named 2019-nCoV, and later as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now created havoc and panic across the globe by its severe ongoing pandemic. This virus has to date as of 23rd November 2020, killed nearly 1.4 million persons out of more than 59 million confirmed positive cases, while spreading rapidly in more than 215 countries and territories. Taxonomically, SARS-CoV-2 has been characterized in genus Betacoronavirus, which contains non-segmented positive-sense, single-stranded (ss) RNA genome of ~30 kb. The first two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1a and ORF1b, of SARS-CoV-2, encode 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1-nsp16), whereas other ORFs encodes four main structural proteins (sp) [spike (s) by ORF2, envelope (E) by ORF4, membrane (M) by ORF5, nucleoprotein (N) by ORF9], and accessory proteins essential for the virus fitness, pathogenesis and host immunity evasion. Sequence alignments of SARS-CoV-2 with genomes of various coronaviruses showed 58% identity in the non-structural protein (nsp)-coding region, 43% with the structural protein (sp)-coding region and 54% with the whole genome. The full-length genome sequence of the 2019-nCoV sample showed only up to 79.60% similarity with SARS CoV, but up to 96% similarity with bat coronavirus (bat coronavirus RaTG13). This gives strong evidence that 2019-nCoV has originated from the bat. The genomic and evolutionary evidence of another coronavirus species from pangolins also show higher similarity to SARS-CoV at the whole-genome level. Apart from RaTG13, Pangolin-CoV is the most closely related CoV to SARS-CoV-2. During infection, the viral S protein interacts with the receptor protein of the human cell membrane, known as angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). Presently, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and drugs are not available, for which researchers are trying hard to develop to tackle rising tide of COVID-19-pandemic. Early diagnosis, contact tracing, strict prevention and control measures, biosecurity, personal biosafety, disinfection and sanitization practices, social distancing are aiding in prevention with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Boosting immunity by intaking the balanced and nutritious food, nutraceuticals, herbs, and following physical exercises along with avoiding stress conditions enhance the fighting power of the body against SARS-CoV-2 infection and limiting the severity of COVID-19. The present article describes salient knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 structure, genomic organization, pathogenesis, pathobiology, and advances and progress being made to treat COVID-19 patients. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

10.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 90(3):303-317, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1008432

ABSTRACT

After the appearance of first cases of 'pneumonia of unknown origin' in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) study group. The World Health Organization (WHO) named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4,292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency (January 30, 2020) to a pandemic (March 11, 2020). Nonetheless, the case fatality rate (CFR) of the current epidemic is on the rise (between 2-4%), relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV (2002/2003) and MERS-CoV (2012) outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.

11.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S219-S245, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1000711

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease – 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), set it foots in China during December 2019 as a high-alert public health emergency. This malady had thereafter spread rapidly across the globe in more than 215 countries, affecting more than 50 million people and causing the death of nearly 1.3 million as of 9th November, 2020 and resulted in a massive panic, fear, and economic crashes in most of the world. A better understanding of the disease, the virus, structural biology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and management can be extrapolated from the literature review of the research up to date. In addition, deliberations on animal linkages, spillover and zoonotic implications for exploring the actual origin of the disease and all possible animal-human interfaces, intermediate host;diagnosis for devising specific and sensitive tests of ease, accessibility and affordability;advances in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics for prevention and treatment;management of COVID-19 practicable in all countries;application of traditional or regularly used modalities including plant-based products and medicinal herbs against SARS-COV-2;nutritious dietary foods against this disease;and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can provide valuable information on these various aspects. Most of the research currently focuses on disease, development of a vaccine or therapeutic modalities. But the future mortality rate and virulence of virus not only depends on the evolution of the virus, but also on how we develop preventive measures and effective treatment as well as in advance preparedness. The present review highlights salient aspects of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19, pathology, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, potential treatment, and alternative / supportive therapeutic options. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

12.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S57-S65, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-994748

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak originated from Wuhan, China has spread over the world, causing a “Global Pandemic”. We analyzed daily confirmed cases and deaths from different countries to understand the progression of the ongoing pandemic in different parts around the world. The data indicated that the pandemic is in different stages in different countries, where they are either at the end of the second wave or middle or early phase of it or still in the middle of the first wave of infection, and they can be divided into four groups. Type 1 countries such as UK, France, Spain, and the Netherlands are currently witnessing the second wave of infection with an exponential increase in daily cases. Countries such as Australia, United States, Japan, and Poland are currently in the declining stage of second-wave, grouped as Type 2 countries. Type 3 countries such as Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Russia are recently seeing the second wave with slowly rising of confirmed cases. Type 4 countries including India, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico are currently fighting against the first wave of COVID-19. These countries have a chance to learn from the countries which have overcome the second wave successfully. To be ahead of the epidemic curve and preventing it, countries need to make future plans on family, hospital, and community levels. Isolation of the highly vulnerable elderly people and young children, preventing social or public gathering, following the guidelines of COVID-19 prevention including wearing face masks regularly can save countries from devastating effects of the second wave of pandemic COVID-19. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

13.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(3):1663-1674, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-891731

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging novel coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has now rapidly spread to more than 215 countries and has killed nearly 0.75 million people out of more than 20 million confirmed cases as of 10th August, 2020. Apart from affecting respiratory system, the virus has shown multiple manifestations with neurological affections and damaging kidneys. SARS-CoV-2 transmission mainly occurs through close contact of COVID-19 affected person, however air-borne route is also now considered as dominant route of virus spread. The virus has been implicated to have originated from animals. Apart from bats, pangolins and others being investigates to play role in transmitting SARS-CoV-2 as intermediate hosts, the recent reports of this virus infection in other animals (cats, dogs, tigers, lions, mink) suggest one health approach implementation along with adopting appropriate mitigation strategies. Researchers are pacing to develop effective vaccines and drugs, few reached to clinical trials also, however these may take time to reach the mass population, and so till then adopting appropriate prevention and control is the best option to avoid SARS-CoV-2 infection. This article presents an overview on this pandemic virus and the disease it causes, with few recent concepts and advances.

14.
The Open Virology Journal ; 14(1-6):1-6, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-853706

ABSTRACT

Evolutionary biology has become one of the imperative determinants explaining the origin of several viruses which were either identified decades back or are recognized lately using metagenomic approaches. Several notifiable emerging viruses like influenza, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and Zika viruses have become the leading causes of epidemics and losses thereto in both human and animals. The sufferings are higher due to gastroenteritis causing viruses including Astrovirus, Calicivirus, Enterovirus, Kobuvirus Picobirnavirus, Sapelovirus, Teschovirus, and many more. Notably, the majority of the emerging viruses enclose RNA genome and these are more prone for insertions/mutation in their genome, leading to evolving viral variants. Rapidity in viral evolution becomes a big hitch in the development process of successful vaccines or antiviral. The prominent gastroenteric virus is rotavirus, which is a double-stranded RNA virus with a segmented nature of genome enabling higher reassortment events and generates unusual strains with unique genomic constellations derivative of parental rotavirus strains. Although most rotaviruses appear to be host restricted, the interspecies transmission of rotaviruses has been well documented across the globe. The nocturnal bats have been accepted harbouring many pathogenic viruses and serving as natural reservoirs. Indications are that bats can also harbour rotaviruses, and help in virus spread. The zooanthroponotic and anthropozoonotic potential of rotaviruses has significant implications for rotavirus epidemiology. Hitherto reports confirm infection of humans through rotaviruses of animal origin, exclusively via direct transmission or through gene reassortments between animal and human strain of rotaviruses. There is a need to understand the ecology and evolutionary biology of emerging rotavirus strains to design effective control programs.

16.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(2):174-184, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-87198

ABSTRACT

The world has been thrown into pandemonium due to the recent Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Early available clinical data have indicated that geriatric persons cum those with co-morbidity such as cardiovascular, metabolic and immunological disorders suffered severe form of COVID-19. All countries and territories of the world are currently exploring available strategies to control the pandemic with the hope to significantly minimize its morbidity and mortality rate. This present study critically reviewed available and latest research progress of the genetics and ecology of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the influence of climatic factors on the spread of COVID-19, and thus, discussed how these concepts could be harnessed for COVID-19 control and further scientific advancements in resolving the pandemic.

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