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1.
Virology ; 566: 114-121, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556999

ABSTRACT

This communication summarizes the presentations given at the 1st international conference of the World Society for Virology (WSV) held virtually during 16-18 June 2021, under the theme of tackling global viral epidemics. The purpose of this biennial meeting is to foster international collaborations and address important viral epidemics in different hosts. The first day included two sessions exclusively on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. The other two days included one plenary and three parallel sessions each. Last not least, 16 sessions covered 140 on-demand submitted talks. In total, 270 scientists from 49 countries attended the meeting, including 40 invited keynote speakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Congresses as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Societies, Scientific , Virology
2.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(11): 915-962, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging viral zoonotic diseases are one of the major obstacles to secure the "One Health" concept under the current scenario. Current prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches often associated with certain limitations and thus proved to be insufficient for customizing rapid and efficient combating strategy against the highly transmissible pathogenic infectious agents leading to the disastrous socio-economic outcome. Moreover, most of the viral zoonoses originate from the wildlife and poor knowledge about the global virome database renders it difficult to predict future outbreaks. Thus, alternative management strategy in terms of improved prophylactic vaccines and their delivery systems; rapid and efficient diagnostics and effective targeted therapeutics are the need of the hour. METHODS: Structured literature search has been performed with specific keywords in bibliographic databases for the accumulation of information regarding current nanomedicine interventions along with standard books for basic virology inputs. RESULTS: Multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine have proved to be an effective alternative in all the aspects regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and control of zoonotic viral diseases. The current review is focused to outline the applications of nanomaterials as anti-viral vaccines or vaccine/drug delivery systems, diagnostics and directly acting therapeutic agents in combating the important zoonotic viral diseases in the recent scenario along with their potential benefits, challenges and prospects to design successful control strategies. CONCLUSION: This review provides significant introspection towards the multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine to combat several important zoonotic viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Wild , Biosensing Techniques , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Drug Liberation , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , Transfection , Viruses/metabolism
3.
J. Pure Appl. Microbiol. ; (14): 989-998, 20200527.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1395590

ABSTRACT

In modern drug discovery, molecular docking analysis is routinely used to understand and predict the interaction between a drug molecule and a target protein from a microbe. Drugs identified in this way may inhibit the entry and replication of pathogens in host cells. The SARS-CoV-2 associated coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has become the most contagious and deadly pandemic disease in the world today. In abeyance of any specific vaccine or therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2, the burgeoning situation urges a need for effective drugs to treat the virus-infected patients. Herbal medicines have been used as natural remedies for treating various infectious diseases since ancient times. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 is important for the attachment and pathogenesis of the virus. Therefore, this study focused on the search of useful ligands for S protein among active constituents present in common herbs that could serve as efficient remedies for COVID-19. We analysed the binding efficiency of twelve compounds present in common herbs with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 through molecular docking analysis and also results are validated with two different docking tools. The binding efficiency of ligands was scored based on their predicted pharmacological interactions coupled with binding energy estimates. In docking analysis, compound "I"(Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)) was found to have the highest binding affinity with the viral S protein, followed by compounds, "F"(Curcumin),"D"(Apigenin) and "E"(Chrysophanol). The present study corroborates that compound "I"(EGCG) mostly present in the integrants of green tea, shows the highest potentiality for acting as an inhibitor of SARSCoV- 2. Further, characterization of the amino acid residues comprising the viral binding site and the nature of the hydrogen bonding involved in the ligand-receptor interaction revealed significant findings with herbal compound "I"(EGCG) binding to the S protein at eight amino acid residues. The binding sites are situated near to the amino acids which are required for virus pathogenicity. The findings of the present study need in vivo experiments to prove the utility of "I", "F","D"and "E"compounds and their further use in making herb-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 product in near future. This analysis may help to create a new ethno-drug formulation for preventing or curing the COVID-19.

4.
J. Pure Appl. Microbiol. ; 1(14): 741-747, 20200528.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1395567

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are responsible for causing economically significant diseases both in animals and humans. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19), outbreak has become the first pandemic of the 21st century and is the deadliest pandemic after the 1918 Spanish Flu. Except, the two previous epidemics, SARS-CoV (2002 epidemic, China) and MERS-CoV (2012 epidemic, Middle Eastern region), CoVs are known the world over as the mild pathogens of humans and animals. Despite several measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic, it has affected more than 210 countries and regional territories distressing more than 5.3 million people and claiming nearly 0.34 million lives globally. Several findings point towards the appearance of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the humans through animals, especially the wild animals of the Chinese live seafood wet market. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is another example of diseases originating from the human-animal interface and spreading through international borders causing global health emergencies. Most of the countries around the globe are stumbling due to the COVID-19 pandemic with severe threats and panic among the mass population. World Health Organization (WHO), international and national health authorities are working with excessive efforts for effective and impactful interventions to contain the virus. It is significant to comprehend the inclination of these viruses to jump between different species, and the establishment of infection in the entirely new host, identification of significant reservoirs of coronaviruses. Several animal species such as cats, dogs, tiger, and minks have been confirmed to get SARS-CoV-2 infections from COVID-19 infected person. Laboratory investigations point out those cats are the most susceptible species for SARS-CoV-2, and it can evidence with clinical disease. The studies carried out on animal's susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 further support the human-to-animal spread of the virus. In this review, we focus on addressing COVID-19 infections in domestic and wild animals.

5.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 607886, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359204

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affecting nearly 71.2 million humans in more than 191 countries, with more than 1.6 million mortalities as of 12 December, 2020. The spike glycoprotein (S-protein), anchored onto the virus envelope, is the trimer of S-protein comprised of S1 and S2 domains which interacts with host cell receptors and facilitates virus-cell membrane fusion. The S1 domain comprises of a receptor binding domain (RBD) possessing an N-terminal domain and two subdomains (SD1 and SD2). Certain regions of S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 such as S2 domain and fragment of the RBD remain conserved despite the high selection pressure. These conserved regions of the S-protein are extrapolated as the potential target for developing molecular diagnostic techniques. Further, the S-protein acts as an antigenic target for different serological assay platforms for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Virus-specific IgM and IgG antibodies can be used to detect viral proteins in ELISA and lateral flow immunoassays. The S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 has very high sequence similarity to SARS-CoV-1, and the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against SARS-CoV-1 cross-react with S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and neutralize its activity. Furthermore, in vitro studies have demonstrated that polyclonal antibodies targeted against the RBD of S-protein of SARS-CoV-1 can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 thus inhibiting its infectivity in permissive cell lines. Research on coronaviral S-proteins paves the way for the development of vaccines that may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and alleviate the current global coronavirus pandemic. However, specific neutralizing mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 are in clinical development. Therefore, neutralizing antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 S-protein are promising specific antiviral therapeutics for pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We hereby review the approaches taken by researchers across the world to use spike gene and S-glycoprotein for the development of effective diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics against SARA-CoV-2 infection the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Virusdisease ; 31(4): 432-440, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023363

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, a new member of the Coronavirus family. The virus was first identified in Wuhan, China, where the epidemic originated. The viral genome was sequenced and a real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was developed and used for the detection of virus. Different countries took different approaches for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Some countries prioritized extensive testing for COVID-19 at a very early phase of the pandemic whereas other countries took a long time to build the testing capacity and to implement the testing extensively. The assay design formats were available in the public domain and thereby allowing researchers to replicate them to make diagnostic kits. Consequently, several antigen or antibody-based diagnostic tests were also developed for the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, there were some validation and regulatory challenges while bringing these assays into the market. During the course of the pandemic, it became clear that the countries which implemented testing at an early stage of the pandemic were capable of controlling the spread more effectively than those that implemented them at later stages. As several countries implemented a lockdown for controlling the spread of the virus, it is critical to build the testing capability to meet the extensive need of testing while exiting the lockdown. Testing and isolation of positive cases are the most effective ways of preventing the spread of virus and gradually returning life back to normality.

7.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945876

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel zoonotic coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, has infected 46,182 million people, resulting in 1,197,026 deaths (as of 1 November 2020), with devastating and far-reaching impacts on economies and societies worldwide. The complex origin, extended human-to-human transmission, pathogenesis, host immune responses, and various clinical presentations of SARS-CoV-2 have presented serious challenges in understanding and combating the pandemic situation. Human CoVs gained attention only after the SARS-CoV outbreak of 2002-2003. On the other hand, animal CoVs have been studied extensively for many decades, providing a plethora of important information on their genetic diversity, transmission, tissue tropism and pathology, host immunity, and therapeutic and prophylactic strategies, some of which have striking resemblance to those seen with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the evolution of human CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2, is intermingled with those of animal CoVs. In this comprehensive review, attempts have been made to compare the current knowledge on evolution, transmission, pathogenesis, immunopathology, therapeutics, and prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 with those of various animal CoVs. Information on animal CoVs might enhance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2, and accordingly, benefit the development of effective control and prevention strategies against COVID-19.

8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(12): 3043-3054, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759864

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is suspected to have been first contracted via animal-human interactions; it has further spread across the world by efficient human-to-human transmission. Recent reports of COVID-19 in companion animals (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores such as tigers have created a dilemma regarding its zoonotic transmission. Although in silico docking studies, sequence-based computational studies, and experimental studies have shown the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in cats, ferrets, and other domestic/wild animals, the results are not conclusive of infection under natural conditions. Identifying the potential host range of SARS-CoV-2 will not only help prevent the possibility of human-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission but also assist in identifying efficient animal models that can mimic the clinical symptoms, transmission potential, and pathogenesis of the disease. Such an efficient animal model will accelerate the process of development and evaluation of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and other remedies for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Zoonoses/transmission
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1664, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724205

ABSTRACT

The rapidly spreading, highly contagious and pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) associated Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The novel 2019 SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cell by binding of the viral surface spike glycoprotein (S-protein) to cellular angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The virus specific molecular interaction with the host cell represents a promising therapeutic target for identifying SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs. The repurposing of drugs can provide a rapid and potential cure toward exponentially expanding COVID-19. Thereto, high throughput virtual screening approach was used to investigate FDA approved LOPAC library drugs against both the receptor binding domain of spike protein (S-RBD) and ACE2 host cell receptor. Primary screening identified a few promising molecules for both the targets, which were further analyzed in details by their binding energy, binding modes through molecular docking, dynamics and simulations. Evidently, GR 127935 hydrochloride hydrate, GNF-5, RS504393, TNP, and eptifibatide acetate were found binding to virus binding motifs of ACE2 receptor. Additionally, KT203, BMS195614, KT185, RS504393, and GSK1838705A were identified to bind at the receptor binding site on the viral S-protein. These identified molecules may effectively assist in controlling the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 by not only potentially inhibiting the virus at entry step but are also hypothesized to act as anti-inflammatory agents, which could impart relief in lung inflammation. Timely identification and determination of an effective drug to combat and tranquilize the COVID-19 global crisis is the utmost need of hour. Further, prompt in vivo testing to validate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 inhibition efficiency by these molecules could save lives is justified.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , User-Computer Interface , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Models, Genetic , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Attachment
10.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 20(9): 1033-1046, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692644

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to several countries globally. Currently, there is no specific drug or vaccine available for managing COVID-19. Antibody-based immunotherapeutic strategies using convalescent plasma, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), and intravenous immunoglobulins have therapeutic potential. AREAS COVERED: This review provides the current status of the development of various antibody-based immunotherapeutics such as convalescent plasma, mAbs, NAbs, and intravenous immunoglobulins against COVID-19. The review also highlights their advantages, disadvantages, and clinical utility for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. EXPERT OPINION: In a pandemic situation such as COVID-19, the development of new drugs should focus on and expedite the strategies where safety and efficacy are proven. Antibody-based immunotherapeutic approaches such as convalescent plasma, intravenous immunoglobulins, and mAbs have a proven record of safety and efficacy and are in use for decades. Some of them are already being used to manage COVID-19 patients and found to be useful. However, the mAbs with virus neutralization potential is the need of the hour during this COVID-19 pandemic to be more specific and virus targeted. The research and investment need to be accelerated to bring them into clinical use for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/immunology , Immunotherapy/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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