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2.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(4): e13876, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are at disproportionate risk for severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination is a key preventative strategy but is associated with decreased humoral responses among SOTR. Whether dampened immune responses correlate with reduced clinical effectiveness is unclear. Our study was designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in the early vaccine era. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing SARS-CoV-2 infection rates between SOTRs who received two doses of mRNA or one dose of Ad26.Cov2.S vaccine and those not fully vaccinated (partially vaccinated and unvaccinated). To evaluate clinical effectiveness of vaccine, cause-specific Cox regression model and modified Poisson regression model were built using the propensity score-matched cohort. Additionally, the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 of fully vaccinated and not fully vaccinated SOTR were compared. RESULTS: Of 2705 SOTRs, 1668 were included in our final matched analysis, which showed a 73% reduction of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 76% reduction of all-cause-mortality among fully vaccinated patients. Thirty-nine SOTRs developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, including nine fully vaccinated and 30 not fully vaccinated. Among fully vaccinated patients, 22% had severe/critical COVID-19 and 0% mortality versus not fully vaccinated SOTRs, of whom 37% had severe/critical COVID-19 and 6.67% COVID-19-related mortality. CONCLUSION: In SOTRs, completion of primary vaccine series in the early vaccine era was associated with a significant reduction of COVID-19 and was protective against severe/critical disease and death. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of current vaccine recommendations for SOTR against emerging new variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome , Viral Vaccines
4.
Am J Transplant ; 22(10): 2458-2463, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853585

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to place a substantial burden on healthcare systems. Outpatient therapies for mild-to-moderate disease have reduced hospitalizations and deaths in clinical trials, but the real-world effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies and oral antiviral agents in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is largely uncharacterized. We conducted a single-center, retrospective review of 122 SOTR diagnosed with COVID-19 in the outpatient setting during the Omicron surge to address this knowledge gap. The mean age was 54 years, 57% were males, and 67% were kidney transplant recipients. The mean time from transplant to COVID-19 diagnosis was 75 months. Forty-nine (40%) received molnupiravir, 24 (20%) received sotrovimab, and 1 (0.8%) received nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. No outpatient therapy was administered in 48 (39%). All 122 SOTR had >30 days follow-up. Rates of hospitalization within 30 days of initiating therapy for molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, and sotrovimab were 16% (8/49), 0% (0/1), and 8% (2/24), respectively, compared to 27% (13/48) in patients without outpatient therapy. There were no deaths in those who received any therapy versus 3 (6%) deaths in patients without outpatient therapy (p = .002). Overall, our experience suggests a role for monoclonal antibodies and oral antiviral agents in reducing COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in SOTR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Female , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713630

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most studies of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with COVID-19 focus on outcomes within one month of illness onset. Delayed mortality in SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 has not been fully examined. METHODS: We used data from a multicenter registry to calculate mortality by 90 days following initial SARS-CoV-2 detection in SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 and developed multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models to compare risk factors for death by days 28 and 90. RESULTS: Vital status at day 90 was available for 936 of 1117 (84%) SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19: 190 of 936 (20%) died by 28 days and an additional 56 of 246 deaths (23%) occurred between days 29 and 90. Factors associated with mortality by day 90 included: age > 65 years [aHR 1.8 (1.3-2.4), p =<0.001], lung transplant (vs. non-lung transplant) [aHR 1.5 (1.0-2.3), p=0.05], heart failure [aHR 1.9 (1.2-2.9), p=0.006], chronic lung disease [aHR 2.3 (1.5-3.6), p<0.001] and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 [aHR 1.5 (1.1-2.0), p=0.02]. These associations were similar for mortality by day 28. Compared to diagnosis during early 2020 (March 1-June 19, 2020), diagnosis during late 2020 (June 20-December 31, 2020) was associated with lower mortality by day 28 [aHR 0.7 (0.5-1.0, p=0.04] but not by day 90 [aHR 0.9 (0.7-1.3), p=0.61]. CONCLUSIONS: In SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19, >20% of deaths occurred between 28 and 90 days following SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Future investigations should consider extending follow-up duration to 90 days for more complete mortality assessment.

7.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(2): e13782, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality. AIMS: We describe a nosocomial outbreak investigation on an immunocompromised inpatient unit. METHODS: Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 were identified. An epidemiologic investigation was assisted with whole genome sequencing of positive samples. RESULTS: Two patients were identified as potential index cases; one presented with diarrhea and was initially not isolated, and the other developed hypoxemia on hospital day 18 before testing positive. Following identification of a SARS-CoV-2 cluster, the unit was closed and all patients and staff received surveillance testing revealing eight additional positive patients and staff members. Whole genome sequencing confirmed an outbreak. Enhanced infection prevention practices mitigated further spread. Asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 were successfully treated with bamlanivimab. DISCUSSION: Preventing SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in transplant units poses unique challenges as patients may have atypical presentations of COVID-19. Immunocompromised patients who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 while asymptomatic may benefit from monoclonal antibody therapy to prevent disease progression. All hospital staff members working with immunocompromised patients should be promptly encouraged to follow infection prevention behaviors and receive SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on immunocompromised units can be mitigated through prompt identification of cases and robust infection prevention practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Vaccination
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4090-e4099, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant reductions in transplantation, motivated in part by concerns of disproportionately more severe disease among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, clinical features, outcomes, and predictors of mortality in SOT recipients are not well described. METHODS: We performed a multicenter cohort study of SOT recipients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Data were collected using standardized intake and 28-day follow-up electronic case report forms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for the primary endpoint, 28-day mortality, among hospitalized patients. RESULTS: Four hundred eighty-two SOT recipients from >50 transplant centers were included: 318 (66%) kidney or kidney/pancreas, 73 (15.1%) liver, 57 (11.8%) heart, and 30 (6.2%) lung. Median age was 58 (interquartile range [IQR] 46-57), median time post-transplant was 5 years (IQR 2-10), 61% were male, and 92% had ≥1 underlying comorbidity. Among those hospitalized (376 [78%]), 117 (31%) required mechanical ventilation, and 77 (20.5%) died by 28 days after diagnosis. Specific underlying comorbidities (age >65 [adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-5.5, P < .001], congestive heart failure [aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.0, P = .004], chronic lung disease [aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.2, P = .018], obesity [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.4, P = .039]) and presenting findings (lymphopenia [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5, P = .033], abnormal chest imaging [aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.5, P = .027]) were independently associated with mortality. Multiple measures of immunosuppression intensity were not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 20.5%. Age and underlying comorbidities rather than immunosuppression intensity-related measures were major drivers of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(10): 1286-1288, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428654

ABSTRACT

The incubation period of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rarely >14 days. We report a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia who developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a confirmed incubation period of at least 21 days. These findings raise concern for a prolonged presymptomatic transmission phase, necessitating a longer quarantine duration in this patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Quarantine , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Time Factors
11.
Am J Transplant ; 22(1): 279-288, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405162

ABSTRACT

Mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 has declined over the course of the pandemic. Mortality trends specifically in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) are unknown. Using data from a multicenter registry of SOTR hospitalized for COVID-19, we compared 28-day mortality between early 2020 (March 1, 2020-June 19, 2020) and late 2020 (June 20, 2020-December 31, 2020). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess comorbidity-adjusted mortality. Time period of diagnosis was available for 1435/1616 (88.8%) SOTR and 971/1435 (67.7%) were hospitalized: 571/753 (75.8%) in early 2020 and 402/682 (58.9%) in late 2020 (p < .001). Crude 28-day mortality decreased between the early and late periods (112/571 [19.6%] vs. 55/402 [13.7%]) and remained lower in the late period even after adjusting for baseline comorbidities (aOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.98, p = .016). Between the early and late periods, the use of corticosteroids (≥6 mg dexamethasone/day) and remdesivir increased (62/571 [10.9%] vs. 243/402 [61.5%], p < .001 and 50/571 [8.8%] vs. 213/402 [52.2%], p < .001, respectively), and the use of hydroxychloroquine and IL-6/IL-6 receptor inhibitor decreased (329/571 [60.0%] vs. 4/492 [1.0%], p < .001 and 73/571 [12.8%] vs. 5/402 [1.2%], p < .001, respectively). Mortality among SOTR hospitalized for COVID-19 declined between early and late 2020, consistent with trends reported in the general population. The mechanism(s) underlying improved survival require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
12.
Mol Genet Metab ; 135(2): 115-121, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356494

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 in rare disease populations has been underreported. Gaucher disease (GD) is a prototype rare disease that shares with SARS-CoV-2 a disruption of the lysosomal pathway. MATERIALS-METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 11 patients with Type 1 GD who developed COVID-19 between March 2020 and March 2021. RESULTS: Seven male and 4 female patients with Type 1 GD developed COVID-19. One was a pediatric patient (8 years old) while the remainder were adults, median age of 44 years old (range 21 to 64 years old). Two patients required hospitalization though none required intensive care or intubation. All 11 patients recovered from COVID-19 and there were no reported deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our case series suggests that GD patients acquired COVID-19 at a similar frequency as the general population, though experienced a milder overall course despite harboring underlying immune system dysfunction and other known co-morbidities that confer high risk of adverse outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Gaucher Disease/immunology , Gaucher Disease/virology , Immune System/immunology , Rare Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofab027, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254809

ABSTRACT

Rapid information dissemination is critical in a world changing rapidly due to global threats. Ubiquitous internet access has created new methods of information dissemination that are rapid, far-reaching, and universally accessible. However, inaccuracies may accompany rapid information dissemination, and rigorous evaluation of primary data through various forms of peer review is crucial. In an era in which high-quality information can save lives, it is critical that infectious diseases specialists are well versed in digital strategy to effectively disseminate information to colleagues and the community and diminish voices spreading misinformation. In this study, we review how social media can be used for rapid dissemination of quality information, benefits and pitfalls of social media use, and general recommendations for developing a digital strategy as an infectious diseases specialist. We will describe how the Infectious Diseases Society of America has leveraged digital strategy and social media and how individuals can amplify these resources to disseminate information, provide clinical knowledge, community guidance, and build their own person brand. We conclude in providing guidance to infectious diseases specialists in aiming to build and preserve public trust, consider their audience and specific goals, and use social media to highlight the value of the field of infectious diseases.

15.
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2774-2784, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234215

ABSTRACT

Lung transplant recipients (LTR) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have higher mortality than non-lung solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR), but direct comparisons are limited. Risk factors for mortality specifically in LTR have not been explored. We performed a multicenter cohort study of adult SOTR with COVID-19 to compare mortality by 28 days between hospitalized LTR and non-lung SOTR. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess comorbidity-adjusted mortality among LTR vs. non-lung SOTR and to determine risk factors for death in LTR. Of 1,616 SOTR with COVID-19, 1,081 (66%) were hospitalized including 120/159 (75%) LTR and 961/1457 (66%) non-lung SOTR (p = .02). Mortality was higher among LTR compared to non-lung SOTR (24% vs. 16%, respectively, p = .032), and lung transplant was independently associated with death after adjusting for age and comorbidities (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.6, p = .04). Among LTR, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (aOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.0-11.3, p = .05) was the only independent risk factor for mortality and age >65 years, heart failure and obesity were not independently associated with death. Among SOTR hospitalized for COVID-19, LTR had higher mortality than non-lung SOTR. In LTR, chronic allograft dysfunction was independently associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lung , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(4): 738-747, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064554

ABSTRACT

We describe the cytokine profiles of a large cohort of hospitalized patients with moderate to critical COVID-19, focusing on IL-6, sIL2R, and IL-10 levels before and after receiving immune modulating therapies, namely, tocilizumab and glucocorticoids. We also discuss the possible roles of sIL2R and IL-10 as markers of ongoing immune dysregulation after IL-6 inhibition. We performed a retrospective chart review of adult patients admitted to a tertiary care center with moderate to critical SARS-CoV-2 infection. Disease severity was based on maximum oxygen requirement during hospital stay to maintain SpO2 > 93% (moderate, 0-3 L NC; severe, 4-6 L NC or non-rebreather; critical, HFNC, NIPPV, or MV). All patients were treated using the institution's treatment algorithm, which included consideration of tocilizumab for severe and critical disease. The most common cytokine elevations among all patients included IL-6, sIL2R, IFN-γ, and IL-10; patients who received tocilizumab had higher incidence of IL-6 and sIL2R elevations. Pre-tocilizumab IL-6 levels increased with disease severity (p = .0151). Both IL-6 and sIL2R levels significantly increased after administration of tocilizumab in all severity groups; IL-10 levels decreased in severe (p = .0203), but not moderate or critical, patients after they received tocilizumab. Cluster analysis revealed association between higher admission IL-6, sIL2R, and CRP levels and disease severity. Mean IL-6, sIL2R, and D-dimer were associated with mortality, and tocilizumab-treated patients with elevated IL-6, IL-10, and D-dimer were more likely to also receive glucocorticoids. Accessible clinical cytokine panels may be useful for monitoring response to treatment in COVID-19. The increase in sIL2R post-tocilizumab, despite administration of glucocorticoids, may indicate the need for combination therapy in order to modulate more than one hyperinflammatory pathway in COVID-19. We also discuss the role of cytokines as potential biomarkers for use of adjunct glucocorticoid therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokines/blood , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Feasibility Studies , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(2): e13556, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999164

ABSTRACT

This retrospective matched cohort study describes 30 solid organ transplant (SOT) patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) matched 1:2 to 60 non-SOT patients (control group) based on age, body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities (hypertension and diabetes mellitus with hemoglobin A1c > 8.0%). The SOT group had a higher proportion of cardiovascular disease (P < .05). During the index hospitalization, there were no significant differences with regard to disease severity or critical care needs (mechanical intubation, vasopressors, and renal replacement therapy). At 28 days, 4 (13%) patients died in the SOT group and 8 (13%) patients died in the control group (P = 1.0). Nineteen patients received tocilizumab in the SOT group compared to 29 patients in the control group. Among these patients, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R) levels increased after tocilizumab and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels decreased after tocilizumab. Overall, SOT patients had comparable mortality to non-SOT patients, although numerically more SOT patients received tocilizumab (63% vs 48%) and steroids (37% vs 20%). Larger, multi-center studies are needed to ascertain these findings. Lastly, the complex cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19 remains an area of intense research and the analysis of key interleukin levels (IL-6, IL-10, and sIL2R) in this study contributes to the understanding of this process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Female , Heart Transplantation , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-2/immunology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Chest ; 158(4): 1397-1408, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, can be used to treat cytokine release syndrome (CRS), with observed improvements in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case series. RESEARCH QUESTION: The goal of this study was to determine if tocilizumab benefits patients hospitalized with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This observational study of consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized between March 10, 2020, and March 31, 2020, and followed up through April 21, 2020, was conducted by chart review. Patients were treated with tocilizumab using an algorithm that targeted CRS. Survival and mechanical ventilation (MV) outcomes were reported for 14 days and stratified according to disease severity designated at admission (severe, ≥ 3 L supplemental oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation > 93%). For tocilizumab-treated patients, pre/post analyses of clinical response, biomarkers, and safety outcomes were assessed. Post hoc survival analyses were conducted for race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Among the 239 patients, median age was 64 years; 36% and 19% were black and Hispanic, respectively. Hospital census increased exponentially, yet MV census did not. Severe disease was associated with lower survival (78% vs 93%; P < .001), greater proportion requiring MV (44% vs 5%; P < .001), and longer median MV days (5.5 vs 1.0; P = .003). Tocilizumab-treated patients (n = 153 [64%]) comprised 90% of those with severe disease; 44% of patients with nonsevere disease received tocilizumab for evolving CRS. Tocilizumab-treated patients with severe disease had higher admission levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (120 vs 71 mg/L; P < .001) and received tocilizumab sooner (2 vs 3 days; P < .001), but their survival was similar to that of patients with nonsevere disease (83% vs 91%; P = .11). For tocilizumab-treated patients requiring MV, survival was 75% (95% CI, 64-89). Following tocilizumab treatment, few adverse events occurred, and oxygenation and inflammatory biomarkers (eg, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6) improved; however, D-dimer and soluble IL-2 receptor (also termed CD25) levels increased significantly. Survival in black and Hispanic patients, after controlling for age, was significantly higher than in white patients (log-rank test, P = .002). INTERPRETATION: A treatment algorithm that included tocilizumab to target CRS may influence MV and survival outcomes. In tocilizumab-treated patients, oxygenation and inflammatory biomarkers improved, with higher than expected survival. Randomized trials must confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 30(1): 45-59, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977330

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is an urgent need for safe and efficacious antiviral drugs to improve outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 virology can elucidate potential drug targets for the inhibition of viral replication. Areas covered: This review offers insights into novel and repurposed drugs that may have activity against SARS-CoV-2. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Web of Science and ClinicalTrials.gov for COVID-19 related therapy until 28 October 2020. using search words 'SARS-CoV-2', 'COVID-19', 'antiviral', and/or 'treatment'. Expert opinion: Remdesivir decreased symptom duration modestly but had no significant impact on survival. Antivirals alone may be insufficient for a specific subset of patients with severe disease because of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Treatment may require a combination of antivirals and immunomodulators to inhibit viral replication and CRS, respectively. A safe and efficacious SARS-CoV-2 specific vaccine is critical for prevention and mortality reduction. Moreover, we cannot overstate the importance of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in testing of novel treatments. The pervasive stumbling block, however, is the low representation of minority groups. The benefit of remdesivir may not be generalizable to these populations because of significant underrepresentation in trials. Future endeavors should encompass the recruitment of patient populations that are reflective of the demographics significantly impacted by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Virus Replication/drug effects
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