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2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 524: 11-17, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long-term kinetics of anti-RBD IgG and neutralizing antibodies were analyzed in a cohort of COVID-19 naïve health care workers (HCW) undergoing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: An anti-RBD IgG immunoassay and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) were performed at different time points up to 6 months after vaccination in 57 HCWs. Values of anti-RBD IgG predicting an high neutralizing bioactivity (>60%) were also calculated. RESULTS: Mean (range) values of anti-RBD IgG were 294.7 (11.6-1554), 2583 (398-8391), 320.4 (42.3-1134) BAU/mL at T1 (21 days after the 1st dose [T0]), T2 (30 days after the 2nd dose) and T3 (+180 days after T0), respectively. Mean (range) percentages of neutralization (NS%) were 24 (0-76), 86 (59-96) and 82 (52-99) at T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Anti-RBD IgG values and NS% were positively correlated at T2 and T3 while anti-RBD IgG value predicting a NS% > 60 markedly differed at T2 and T3 (594 vs. 108 BAU/mL, respectively). CONCLUSION: While a high neutralizing bioactivity was maintained at least 6 months after vaccination in almost all individuals, the mean values of anti-RBD-IgG showed a marked decline at 6 months. The absolute value of anti-RBD IgG is a poor marker of neutralizing bioactivity.

3.
Immunol Res ; 69(6): 576-583, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366407

ABSTRACT

The development of vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection has mainly relied on the induction of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, but there is growing evidence that T cell immune response can contribute to protection as well. In this study, an anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody assay and an INFγ-release assay (IGRA) were used to detect humoral and cellular responses to the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine in three separate cohorts of COVID-19-naïve patients: 108 healthcare workers (HCWs), 15 elderly people, and 5 autoimmune patients treated with immunosuppressive agents. After the second dose of vaccine, the mean values of anti-RBD antibodies (Abs) and INFγ were 123.33 U/mL (range 27.55-464) and 1513 mIU/mL (range 145-2500) in HCWs and 210.7 U/mL (range 3-500) and 1167 mIU/mL (range 83-2500) in elderly people. No correlations between age and immune status were observed. On the contrary, a weak but significant positive correlation was found between INFγ and anti-RBD Abs values (rho = 0.354, p = 0.003). As to the autoimmune cohort, anti-RBD Abs were not detected in the two patients with absent peripheral CD19+B cells, despite high INFγ levels being observed in all 5 patients after vaccination. Even though the clinical relevance of T cell response has not yet been established as a correlate of vaccine-induced protection, IGRA testing has showed optimal sensitivity and specificity to define vaccine responders, even in patients lacking a cognate antibody response to the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
6.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(3): 708-715, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064566

ABSTRACT

Background Italy has been the first non-Asian country affected by Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Community pharmacies are essential services authorized to continue their activity during the emergency. To date, a clear image is lacking of the critical issues Italian community pharmacists had to face and of how they responded in their daily work.. Objective To describe procedures and critical logistical-organizational issues encountered by Italian community pharmacists and to collect the main requests reported by patients to pharmacists. Setting A national survey on Italian community pharmacists. Method A cross-sectional survey using a reasoned questionnaire was sent during the pandemic peak to Italian pharmacies, divided in two groups according to the incidence of COVID-19: "Red Zones" and "non-Red Zones". Main outcome measure Exploring the most frequently adopted measures by the pharmacists. Results 169 community Pharmacists answered the questionnaire. The most frequently adopted measures were the use of gloves, surgical masks and protective barriers at the drug counter. Most implemented services for customers were: booking of prescriptions, delivery of medications and implementation of phone consultations. Overall, the questionnaire highlighted an increase in the number of health-related consultations and requests by customers. In Red Zones, there was a higher use of FFP2 and FFP3 masks by pharmacists, where customers were mainly interested in gaining information about specific classes of medications. Conclusion Community pharmacists adapted to lockdown measures by implementing a number of measures. There was an overall increase in pharmacists' personal protective equipment in Red Zones possibly linked to increased risk perception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pharmacists/organization & administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Pharmacy Services/organization & administration , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergencies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pharmacists/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 10: 23, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602114

ABSTRACT

Background: Almost the entire World is experiencing the Coronavirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, responsible, at the end of May 2020, of more than five million people infected worldwide and about 350,000 deaths. In this context, a deep reorganization of allergy clinics, in order to ensure proper diagnosis and care despite of social distancing measures expose, is needed. Main text: The reorganization of allergy clinics should include programmed checks for severe and poorly controlled patients, application of digital medicine service for mild-to-moderate disease in well-controlled ones, postponement of non urgent diagnostic work-ups and domiciliation of therapies, whenever possible. As far as therapies, allergen immunotherapy (AIT) should not be stopped and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) fits perfectly for this purpose, since a drug home-delivery service can be activated for the entire pandemic duration. Moreover, biologic agents for severe asthma, chronic spontaneous urticaria and atopic dermatitis should be particularly encouraged to achieve best control possible of severe disease in times of COVID-19 and, whenever possible, home-delivery and self-administration should be the preferred choice. Conclusion: During COVID-19 pandemic, allergists have the responsibility of balancing individual patients' needs with public health issues, and innovative tools, such as telemedicine and digital medicine services, can be helpful to reduce the risk of viral spreading while delivering up-to-date personalized care.

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