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1.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(1): 140-144, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As most COVID-19 transmission occurs locally, targeted measures where the likelihood of infection and hospitalization is highest may be a prudent risk management strategy. To date, in the Republic of Ireland, a regional comparison of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations has not been completed. Here, we investigate (i) the variation in rates of confirmed infection and hospital admissions within geographical units of the Republic of Ireland and (ii) frequency of deviations in risk of infection or risk of hospitalization. METHODS: We analyzed routinely collected, publicly available data available from the National Health Protection and Surveillance Centre and Health Service Executive from nine geographical units, known as Community Health Organization areas. The observational period included 206 14-day periods (1 September 2020-15 April 2021). RESULTS: A total of 206 844 laboratory-confirmed cases and 7721 hospitalizations were reported. The national incidence of confirmed infections was 4508 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4489-4528] per 100 000 people. The risk of hospital admission among confirmed cases was 3.7% (95% CI 3.5-3.9). Across geographical units, the likelihood that rolling 14-day risk of infection or hospitalization exceeded national levels was 9-86% and 0-88%, respectively. In the most affected regions, we estimate this resulted in an excess of 15 180 infections and 1920 hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to future COVID-19 outbreaks should consider the risk and harm of infection posed to people living in specific regions. Given the recent surges of COVID-19 cases in Europe, every effort should be made to strengthen local surveillance and to tailor community-centred measures to control transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis ; 5(SUPPL 2), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1509030

ABSTRACT

Background : COVID-19 confers an increased risk of thrombosis however the mechanisms underlying this coagulopathy and the optimal approach to thromboprophylaxis are unknown. Thrombotic risk is likely greatest among patients with severe COVID-19 requiring critical organ support however patients with moderate disease may be at risk and might also benefit from intensified thromboprophylaxis. Aims : To characterise plasma thrombin generation (TG) in patients with COVID-19 of moderate severity, treated with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. Methods : Blood was collected from individuals admitted to hospital with COVID-19 of moderate severity (not requiring critical care support) and a group of age-matched patients admitted with infective/ inflammatory illness (negative for COVID-19). All subjects received standard dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) thromboprophylaxis with samples taken at time of predicted trough levels (confirmed by measuring anti-FXa activity). TG in platelet-poor plasma was determined by calibrated automated thrombography in the presence/absence of tissue factor (TF) (ppp-LOW reagent, 1 pM TF & 4 μM phospholipid;MP-reagent, 4 μM phospholipid;Thrombinoscope BV™). Results : Fourteen COVID-19 positive subjects and 11 hospitalised COVID-19 negative controls were recruited. Mean trough plasma anti-Xa activity was similar in both groups (0.06 vs 0.04 IU/mL;P = 0.2). In the presence of TF, mean endogenous thrombin potential was significantly higher in the COVID group in comparison to controls (1929 ± 119.7 vs 1528 ± 138.9 nM∗min;P = 0.02). Peak thrombin was also higher in COVID-19 (267.3 ± 22.2 vs 208.6 ± 17.8 nM;P = 0.06). Despite increased TG overall, lagtime to TG was significantly prolonged in COVID-19 (8.1 ± 0.5 vs 6.2 ± 0.5 mins;P = 0.02). No difference in any parameter of TG was observed between groups in the absence of TF. Conclusions : Despite pharmacological thromboprophylaxis plasma TG is enhanced in COVID-19. The underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Specific clinical implications of increased TG despite pharmacological thromboprophylaxis have yet to be determined although clinical trials evaluating intensified anticoagulant regimens in a similar population are ongoing.

4.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis ; 5(SUPPL 2), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508974

ABSTRACT

Background : Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected over 100 million globally to date. Although high rates of venous thromboembolism and evidence of COVID-19-induced endothelial dysfunction have been reported, the precise aetiology of the increased thrombotic risk associated with COVID-19 infection remains to be fully elucidated. Several studies to date suggest a role for platelets in COVID-19-associated thrombosis. Aims : To assess the impact of COVID-19 on platelet activity and to characterise the proteome of the platelet releasate from COVID-19 patients, compared with healthy controls. Methods : Ethical approval was granted by the Institutional Review Board of the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. Haematologic parameters of patients with severe COVID-19 disease (requiring intensive care;n = 34), with non-severe disease (not requiring intensive care;n = 20) and in general medical in-patients without COVID-19 ( n = 20) were assessed. Platelet function and activity were evaluated by secretion and platelet marker analysis ( n = 6 each cohort). The proteome of the platelet releasate was assessed using label-free mass spectrometry. Results : We demonstrated agonist-induced ADP release was 30-to-90 fold higher in COVID-19 patients compared with hospitalized controls (Fig. 1) and circulating levels of platelet-factor 4 (PF4), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) and thrombopoietin (TPO) were also significantly elevated in COVID-19. This study shows that COVID-19 patients possess hyperactive circulating platelets combined with a decreased activation threshold. Mass spectrometry analysis identified over 400 proteins from the releasate of COVID-19 patients and controls, including a multitude of inflammatory, vasoactive and vesicular proteins. The release of a subset of highly-relevant platelet proteins was modified based on the severity of COVID-19 infection. controls (Fig. 1) and circulating levels of platelet-factor 4 (PF4), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) and thrombopoietin (TPO) were also significantly elevated in COVID-19. This study shows that COVID-19 patients possess hyperactive circulating platelets combined with a decreased activation threshold. Mass spectrometry analysis identified over 400 proteins from the releasate of COVID-19 patients and controls, including a multitude of inflammatory, vasoactive and vesicular proteins. The release of a subset of highly-relevant platelet proteins was modified based on the severity of COVID-19 infection.

7.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(1): 140-144, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As most COVID-19 transmission occurs locally, targeted measures where the likelihood of infection and hospitalization is highest may be a prudent risk management strategy. To date, in the Republic of Ireland, a regional comparison of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations has not been completed. Here, we investigate (i) the variation in rates of confirmed infection and hospital admissions within geographical units of the Republic of Ireland and (ii) frequency of deviations in risk of infection or risk of hospitalization. METHODS: We analyzed routinely collected, publicly available data available from the National Health Protection and Surveillance Centre and Health Service Executive from nine geographical units, known as Community Health Organization areas. The observational period included 206 14-day periods (1 September 2020-15 April 2021). RESULTS: A total of 206 844 laboratory-confirmed cases and 7721 hospitalizations were reported. The national incidence of confirmed infections was 4508 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4489-4528] per 100 000 people. The risk of hospital admission among confirmed cases was 3.7% (95% CI 3.5-3.9). Across geographical units, the likelihood that rolling 14-day risk of infection or hospitalization exceeded national levels was 9-86% and 0-88%, respectively. In the most affected regions, we estimate this resulted in an excess of 15 180 infections and 1920 hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to future COVID-19 outbreaks should consider the risk and harm of infection posed to people living in specific regions. Given the recent surges of COVID-19 cases in Europe, every effort should be made to strengthen local surveillance and to tailor community-centred measures to control transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):87-88, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250347

ABSTRACT

Background: Although reports suggest that most individuals with COVID-19 infection develop detectable antibodies post infection, the kinetics, durability, and relative differences between IgM and IgG responses remain poorly understood beyond the first few weeks after symptom onset. Methods: Within a large, well-phenotyped, diverse, prospective cohort of subjects with and without SARS-CoV-2 PCR-confirmed infection and historical controls derived from cohorts with high prevalence of viral coinfections and samples taken during prior flu seasons, we measured SARS-CoV-2 serological responses (both IgG and IgM) using three commercially available assays. We calculated sensitivity and specificity, relationship with disease severity and mapped the kinetics of antibody seropositivity and antibody levels over time using generalised additive models. Results: We analysed 1,001 samples (327 confirmed SARS-CoV-2, of whom 30% developed severe disease) from 752 subjects spanning a period of 90 days from symptom onset. Overall sensitivity was lower (44.1-47.1%) early (<10 days) after symptom onset but increased to >80% after 10 days. IgM positivity increased earlier than IgG-targeted assay but positivity peaked between day 32 and 38 post onset of symptoms and declined thereafter, a dynamic that was confirmed when antibody levels were analysed and was more rapid with IgM. Early (<10 days) IgM but not IgG levels were significantly higher in those who subsequently developed severe disease (signal / cut-off 4.20 (0.75-17.93) versus 1.07 (0.21-5.46), P=0.048). Conclusion: This study suggests that post-infectious antibody responses in those with confirmed COVID-19 infection begin to decline relatively early post infection and suggests a potential role for higher IgM levels early in infection predicting subsequent disease severity.

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