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2.
Cherubini, Valentino, Marino, Monica, Scaramuzza, Andrea E.; Tiberi, Valentina, Bobbio, Adriana, Delvecchio, Maurizio, Piccinno, Elvira, Ortolani, Federica, Innaurato, Stefania, Felappi, Barbara, Gallo, Francesco, Ripoli, Carlo, Ricciardi, Maria Rossella, Pascarella, Filomena, Stamati, Filomena A.; Citriniti, Felice, Arnaldi, Claudia, Monti, Sara, Graziani, Vanna, De Berardinis, Fiorella, Giannini, Cosimo, Chiarelli, Francesco, Zampolli, Maria, De Marco, Rosaria, Bracciolini, Giulia Patrizia, Grosso, Caterina, De Donno, Valeria, Piccini, Barbara, Toni, Sonia, Coccioli, Susanna, Cardinale, Giuliana, Bassi, Marta, Minuto, Nicola, D’Annunzio, Giuseppe, Maffeis, Claudio, Marigliano, Marco, Zanfardino, Angela, Iafusco, Dario, Rollato, Assunta S.; Piscopo, Alessia, Curto, Stefano, Lombardo, Fortunato, Bombaci, Bruno, Sordelli, Silvia, Mameli, Chiara, Macedoni, Maddalena, Rigamonti, Andrea, Bonfanti, Riccardo, Frontino, Giulio, Predieri, Barbara, Bruzzi, Patrizia, Mozzillo, Enza, Rosanio, Francesco, Franzese, Adriana, Piredda, Gavina, Cardella, Francesca, Iovane, Brunella, Calcaterra, Valeria, Berioli, Maria Giulia, Lasagni, Anna, Pampanini, Valentina, Patera, Patrizia Ippolita, Schiaffini, Riccardo, Rutigliano, Irene, Meloni, Gianfranco, De Sanctis, Luisa, Tinti, Davide, Trada, Michela, Guerraggio, Lucia Paola, Franceschi, Roberto, Cauvin, Vittoria, Tornese, Gianluca, Franco, Francesca, Musolino, Gianluca, Maltoni, Giulio, Talarico, Valentina, Iannilli, Antonio, Lenzi, Lorenzo, Matteoli, Maria Cristina, Pozzi, Erica, Moretti, Carlo, Zucchini, Stefano, Rabbone, Ivana, Gesuita, Rosaria.
Frontiers in endocrinology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998567
3.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2181-2185, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic has forced a decrease in physical activity (PA), an increase in sedentary behavior (SB) and a possibly worsening of fat accumulation in already obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate how social restriction may have contributed to weight changes in adolescents with obesity. Secondary aim was to evaluate possible parameters influencing weight changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Parameters of 51 obese adolescents were compared between two visits: within 2 months before 8 March, start of lockdown, and within 40 days after the end of it. RESULTS: Mean weight gain during lockdown was 2.8 ± 3.7 kg (p < 0.001). Weight increase was higher in males than in females (3.8 ± 3.4 kg vs 1.2 ± 3.7 kg, p = 0.02). The hours dedicated to SB increased (+2.9 ± 2.8 h/day; p < 0.001) while the hours of PA decreased (-1.0 ± 1.6 h/week; p < 0.001). Males spent more hours in SB than females (+3.8 ± 2.7 h/day vs +1.5 ± 2.5 h/day; p = 0.003). There were minor changes in diet during lockdown. The most significant variables influencing both delta BMI and waist/height ratio increase were hours devoted to SB during lockdown and differences in mild and moderate PA before and after lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents showed a worsening of obesity during lockdown, with males mainly affected, mainly due to a reduced mild PA and increased hours spent in SB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Factors , Time Factors
4.
Children (Basel) ; 8(3)2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211900

ABSTRACT

Prevalence of childhood obesity is progressively increasing, reaching worldwide levels of 5.6% in girls and of 7.8% in boys. Several evidences showed that obesity is a major preventable risk factor and disease modifier of some respiratory conditions such as asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Co-occurrence of asthma and obesity may be due to common pathogenetic factors including exposure to air pollutants and tobacco smoking, Western diet, and low Vitamin D levels. Lung growth and dysanapsis phenomenon in asthmatic obese children play a role in impaired respiratory function which appears to be different than in adults. Genes involved in both asthma and obesity have been identified, though a gene-by-environment interaction has not been properly investigated yet. The identification of modifiable environmental factors influencing gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms may change the natural history of both diseases. Another important pediatric respiratory condition associated with obesity is Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB), especially Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). OSAS and obesity are linked by a bidirectional causality, where the effects of one affect the other. The factors most involved in the association between OSAS and obesity are oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and gut microbiota. In OSAS pathogenesis, obesity's role appears to be mainly due to mechanical factors leading to an increase of respiratory work at night-time. However, a causal link between obesity-related inflammatory state and OSAS pathogenesis still needs to be properly confirmed. To prevent obesity and its complications, family education and precocious lifestyle changes are critical. A healthy diet may lead to an improved quality of life in obese children suffering from respiratory diseases. The present review aimed to investigate the links between obesity, asthma and OSAS, focusing on the available evidence and looking for future research fields.

5.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 8(2)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894865

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic forced the Italian government to issue extremely restrictive measures on daily activities since 11 March 2020 ('lockdown'), which may have influenced the metabolic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). The aims of the study were to investigate continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics in children and adults with T1D during lockdown and to identify their potentially related factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled 130 consecutive patients with T1D (30 children (≤12 years), 24 teenagers (13-17 years), and 76 adults (≥18 years)) using either Dexcom or FreeStyle LibreCGM>70% during the study period, without hybrid closed-loop insulin pump. CGM metrics during the 20 days before and the 20 days after lockdown were calculated. By telephonic contact, we performed validated physical activity and perceived stress questionnaires. RESULTS: In children, significantly lower glucose SD (SDglu) (p=0.029) and time below range (TBR)<54 mg/dL (TBR2) (p=0.029) were detected after lockdown. CGM metrics were comparable in teenagers before and during lockdown. After lockdown, adults improved significantly time in range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL (p<0.001) and remaining metrics, except percent coefficient of variation and TBR2. In adults, considering the changes in SDglu and TIR occurred before and during lockdown, we identified a group with improved TIR and SDglu who performed more physical activity, one with improved glucose variability who was younger than the other patients, and one with worsened glucose variability who showed higher perceived stress than others. CONCLUSION: In patients with T1D during lockdown, CGM metrics mostly improved in children and adults, whereas it was unchanged in teenagers. In adults, age, physical activity, and perceived stress may be relevant contributing factors.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Exercise , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Ambulatory , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/metabolism
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