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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 170: 10-16, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906967

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of patients with cancer who recover from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience COVID-19 sequelae in the early post-infection phase, which negatively affect their continuity of care and oncological outcome. The long-term prevalence and clinical impact of the post-COVID-19 syndrome in patients with cancer are largely unknown. METHODS: In this study, we describe the time course of COVID-19 sequelae in patients with non-advanced cancers enrolled in the OnCovid registry. RESULTS: Overall, 186 patients were included, with a median observation period of 9.9 months (95%CI:8,8-11.3) post-COVID-19 resolution. After a median interval of 2.3 months post-COVID-19 (interquartile range: 1.4-3.7), 31 patients (16.6%) reported ≥1 sequelae, including respiratory complications (14, 7.6%), fatigue (13, 7.1%), neuro-cognitive sequelae (7, 3.8%). The vast majority of the patients were not vaccinated prior to COVID-19. COVID-19-related sequelae persisted in 9.8% and 8% of patients 6 and 12 months after COVID-19 resolution. Persistence of sequelae at first oncological follow-up was associated with history of complicated COVID-19 (45.2% vs 24.8%, p = 0.0223), irrespective of oncological features at COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study confirms for the first time that, in a largely unvaccinated population, post-COVID-19 syndrome can affect a significant proportion of patients with non-advanced cancer who recovered from the acute illness. COVID-19 sequelae may persist up to 12 months in some patients, highlighting the need for dedicated prevention and supportive strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Progression , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Registries
2.
The Lancet. Oncology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877254

ABSTRACT

Background The omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible and escapes vaccine-induced immunity. We aimed to describe outcomes due to COVID-19 during the omicron outbreak compared with the prevaccination period and alpha (B.1.1.7) and delta (B.1.617.2) waves in patients with cancer in Europe. Methods In this retrospective analysis of the multicentre OnCovid Registry study, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, who had a history of solid or haematological malignancy that was either active or in remission. Patient were recruited from 37 oncology centres from UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany. Participants were followed up from COVID-19 diagnosis until death or loss to follow-up, while being treated as per standard of care. For this analysis, we excluded data from centres that did not actively enter new data after March 1, 2021 (in France, Germany, and Belgium). We compared measures of COVID-19 morbidity, which were complications from COVID-19, hospitalisation due to COVID-19, and requirement of supplemental oxygen and COVID-19-specific therapies, and COVID-19 mortality across three time periods designated as the prevaccination (Feb 27 to Nov 30, 2020), alpha-delta (Dec 1, 2020, to Dec 14, 2021), and omicron (Dec 15, 2021, to Jan 31, 2022) phases. We assessed all-cause case-fatality rates at 14 days and 28 days after diagnosis of COVID-19 overall and in unvaccinated and fully vaccinated patients and in those who received a booster dose, after adjusting for country of origin, sex, age, comorbidities, tumour type, stage, and status, and receipt of systemic anti-cancer therapy. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04393974, and is ongoing. Findings As of Feb 4, 2022 (database lock), the registry included 3820 patients who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 between Feb 27, 2020, and Jan 31, 2022. 3473 patients were eligible for inclusion (1640 [47·4%] were women and 1822 [52·6%] were men, with a median age of 68 years [IQR 57–77]). 2033 (58·5%) of 3473 were diagnosed during the prevaccination phase, 1075 (31·0%) during the alpha-delta phase, and 365 (10·5%) during the omicron phase. Among patients diagnosed during the omicron phase, 113 (33·3%) of 339 were fully vaccinated and 165 (48·7%) were boosted, whereas among those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase, 152 (16·6%) of 915 were fully vaccinated and 21 (2·3%) were boosted. Compared with patients diagnosed during the prevaccination period, those who were diagnosed during the omicron phase had lower case-fatality rates at 14 days (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·32 [95% CI 0·19–0·61) and 28 days (0·34 [0·16–0·79]), complications due to COVID-19 (0·26 [0·17–0·46]), and hospitalisation due to COVID-19 (0·17 [0·09–0·32]), and had less requirements for COVID-19-specific therapy (0·22 [0·15–0·34]) and oxygen therapy (0·24 [0·14–0·43]) than did those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase. Unvaccinated patients diagnosed during the omicron phase had similar crude case-fatality rates at 14 days (ten [25%] of 40 patients vs 114 [17%] of 656) and at 28 days (11 [27%] of 40 vs 184 [28%] of 656) and similar rates of hospitalisation due to COVID-19 (18 [43%] of 42 vs 266 [41%] of 652) and complications from COVID-19 (13 [31%] of 42 vs 237 [36%] of 659) as those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase. Interpretation Despite time-dependent improvements in outcomes reported in the omicron phase compared with the earlier phases of the pandemic, patients with cancer remain highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 if they are not vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support universal vaccination of patients with cancer as a protective measure against morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Funding National Institute for Health and Care Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre and the Cancer Treatment and Research Trust.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 171: 64-74, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccines immunogenicity in patients with cancer has been investigated, whether they can significantly improve the severity of COVID-19 in this specific population is undefined. METHODS: Capitalizing on OnCovid (NCT04393974) registry data we reported COVID-19 mortality and proxies of COVID-19 morbidity, including post-COVID-19 outcomes, according to the vaccination status of the included patients. RESULTS: 2090 eligible patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 02/2020 and 11/2021 were included, of whom 1930 (92.3%) unvaccinated, 91 (4.4%) fully vaccinated and 69 (3.3%) partially vaccinated. With the exception of a higher prevalence of patients from the UK (p = 0.0003) and receiving systemic anticancer therapy at COVID-19 diagnosis (p = 0.0082) among fully vaccinated patients, no demographics/oncological features were associated with vaccination status. The 14-days case fatality rate (CFR) (5.5% vs 20.7%, p = 0.0004) and the 28-days CFR (13.2% vs 27.4%, p = 0.0028) demonstrated a significant improvement for fully vaccinated patients in comparison with unvaccinated patients. The receipt of prior full vaccination was also associated with reduced symptomatic COVID-19 (79.1% vs 88.5%, p = 0.0070), need of COVID-19 oriented therapy (34.9% vs 63.2%, p < 0.0001), complications from COVID-19 (28.6% vs 39.4%, p = 0.0379), hospitalizations due to COVID-19 (42.2% vs 52.5%, p = 0.0007) and oxygen therapy requirement (35.7% vs 52%, p = 0.0036). Following Inverse Probability Treatment Weighting (IPTW) procedure no statistically significant difference according to the vaccination status was confirmed; however, all COVID-19 related outcomes were concordantly in favour of full vaccination. Among the 1228 (58.8%) patients who underwent a formal reassessment at participating centres after COVID-19 resolution, fully vaccinated patients experienced less sequelae than unvaccinated patients (6.7% vs 17.2%, p = 0.0320). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provides initial evidence in support of the beneficial effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Morbidity , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(7): 979-987, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fifteen percent of patients with cancer experience symptomatic sequelae, which impair post-COVID-19 outcomes. In this study, we investigated whether a proinflammatory status is associated with the development of COVID-19 sequelae. METHODS: OnCovid recruited 2795 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection between February 27, 2020, and February 14, 2021. This analysis focused on COVID-19 survivors who underwent a clinical reassessment after the exclusion of patients with hematological malignancies. We evaluated the association of inflammatory markers collected at COVID-19 diagnosis with sequelae, considering the impact of previous systemic anticancer therapy. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Of 1339 eligible patients, 203 experienced at least 1 sequela (15.2%). Median baseline C-reactive protein (CRP; 77.5 mg/L vs 22.2 mg/L, P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase (310 UI/L vs 274 UI/L, P = .03), and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR; 6.0 vs 4.3, P = .001) were statistically significantly higher among patients who experienced sequelae, whereas no association was reported for the platelet to lymphocyte ratio and the OnCovid Inflammatory Score, which includes albumin and lymphocytes. The widest area under the ROC curve (AUC) was reported for baseline CRP (AUC = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 0.69), followed by the NLR (AUC = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.61) and lactate dehydrogenase (AUC = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.61). Using a fixed categorical multivariable analysis, high CRP (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.67 to 3.91) and NLR (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.10) were confirmed to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of sequelae. Exposure to chemotherapy was associated with a decreased risk of sequelae (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.91), whereas no associations with immune checkpoint inhibitors, endocrine therapy, and other types of systemic anticancer therapy were found. CONCLUSIONS: Although the association between inflammatory status, recent chemotherapy and sequelae warrants further investigation, our findings suggest that a deranged proinflammatory reaction at COVID-19 diagnosis may predict for sequelae development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Progression , Humans , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Lymphocytes/chemistry , Neutrophils/chemistry , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Registries , Retrospective Studies
5.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211042224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specialist palliative care team (SPCT) involvement has been shown to improve symptom control and end-of-life care for patients with cancer, but little is known as to how these have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report SPCT involvement during the first wave of the pandemic and compare outcomes for patients with cancer who received and did not receive SPCT input from multiple European cancer centres. METHODS: From the OnCovid repository (N = 1318), we analysed cancer patients aged ⩾18 diagnosed with COVID-19 between 26 February and 22 June 2020 who had complete specialist palliative care team data (SPCT+ referred; SPCT- not referred). RESULTS: Of 555 eligible patients, 317 were male (57.1%), with a median age of 70 years (IQR 20). At COVID-19 diagnosis, 44.7% were on anti-cancer therapy and 53.3% had ⩾1 co-morbidity. Two hundred and six patients received SPCT input for symptom control (80.1%), psychological support (54.4%) and/or advance care planning (51%). SPCT+ patients had more 'Do not attempt cardio-pulmonary resuscitation' orders completed prior to (12.6% versus 3.7%) and during admission (50% versus 22.1%, p < 0.001), with more SPCT+ patients deemed suitable for treatment escalation (50% versus 22.1%, p < 0.001). SPCT involvement was associated with higher discharge rates from hospital for end-of-life care (9.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001). End-of-life anticipatory prescribing was higher in SPCT+ patients, with opioids (96.3% versus 47.1%) and benzodiazepines (82.9% versus 41.2%) being used frequently for symptom control. CONCLUSION: SPCT referral facilitated symptom control, emergency care and discharge planning, as well as high rates of referral for psychological support than previously reported. Our study highlighted the critical need of SPCTs for patients with cancer during the pandemic and should inform service planning for this population.

6.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):34-35, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1338997

ABSTRACT

IntroductionCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) has shown higher mortality in patients with comorbidities, including cancer. First reports from China, Italy, and US showed mortality comprised between 20% and 40% in this specific population. However, the number of patients in these studies was limited and the percentage of hematological patients was underrepresented. In our study, we present a prospective evaluation of patients affected by solid and liquid tumors who were affected by COVID19 from the same geographical area and time period. Survival outcomes, prognostic risk factors, and effects of oncological treatments received were analyzed.MethodsWAll consecutive oncological patients with age >18 years old affected by COVID19 (confirmed by pharyngeal PCR test) who were hospitalized in 5 tertiary oncological referral centers in the Catalonia region were included in the study. The recruitment period started from 13/03/2020 to 24/04/2020.Two-hundred thirty-one patients were recruited. Thirty-three percent had hematological malignancies and 67% had solid tumors. The median age was 65 years (range 58-75 years). Female patients were 41%. Twenty-six percent of patients were not considered candidates to intensive care treatments (tracheal intubation) due to their advanced oncological status. Of the hematological cohort, lymphoid malignancies represented 36% of the population, multiple myeloma 20%;acute leukemias 15%;chronic lymphoproliferative diseases 12% and other malignancies 17%. At the time of infection, 11% of patients were receiving steroids (more than 0.5mg/kg/24 hours >15 days), 4% were on active immunosuppressive therapy (calcineurin inhibitors, sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil) and 5% had grade >3 neutropenia. Most importantly, 61% were on active oncological treatment, 18% were on follow-up, 10% had been diagnosed without having received any treatment.ResultsAt COVID19 diagnosis, 75% of patients had a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) <24% and 63% had fever. Only 16% had cough,16 % had mucous secretion and 12% had dyspnea. All the other symptoms (myalgia, diarrhea, anosmia, ageusia, fatigue, headache) had an incidence <10%. Chest X-ray was abnormal in 60% of cases. Regarding in-hospital treatments, 85% received antibiotics, 76% hydroxychloroquine, 12% tocilizumab, 30% corticoids, 70% prophylactic anticoagulation and 55% oxygen support.The median duration of hospitalization was 9.00 days (range 5-16 days).WThe overall mortality rate was 26% with a non-significant difference between hematological (32%) and oncological (23%) patients (p-value = 0.23, figure 1). A significant difference was observed between patients who were candidates to intensive care treatments (21.5%) and not candidates (42.6%)(p-value = 0.0038, figure 1).The following risk factors were associated with decreased survival on multivariate analysis: having the oncological disease in progression (HR 3.33, 95%Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.73-6-41, p<0.001);use of steroids (>0.5mg/kg/24 hours) in the last 15 days (HR 3.76;95%CI=1.69-8.40, p<0.001);age (continuous variable, HR 1.05, 95%CI= 1.01-1-08, p=0.005);grade 4 neutropenia. When considering COVID19 in-hospital treatments, only steroids were associated with a protective effect on survival (HR 0.51, 95%CI=0.27-0.94, p=0.032) while hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab had no significant effect.Severe respiratory insufficiency (defined as use of >50% FiO2 as oxygen support) was present or developed in 46% of patients. On multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with a higher risk of developing severe respiratory insufficiency: use of steroids (>0.5mg/kg/24 hours) in the last 15 days (HR 2.36;95%CI=1.12-4.97, p=0.023);age (HR 1.05, 95%CI= 1.01-1-08, p=0.009) and dyspnea at diagnosis (HR 3.95;95%CI=1.77-8.78, p=0.001).ConclusionWCOVID19 is associated to increased mortality in patients affected by solid and liquid tumors. Being a candidate for intensive care treatments could improve survival while having progressive disease, older age and gra e >3 neutropenia were considered negative factors. Interestingly, the use of steroids was associated to reduced survival if received within 15 days before COVID19 diagnosis, while it has protective effect when used as part of COVID19 therapy.

7.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(10): e801-e809, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 infection has bimodal distribution in Europe with a first wave in March to June 2020 and a second in September 2020 to February 2021. We compared the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcomes of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and infection in the first vs. second pandemic waves in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study the characteristics of ALL and COVID-19 infection, comorbidities, treatment and outcome in the two periods were compared. The study ended when vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 was implemented in Spain. RESULTS: Twenty eight patients were collected in the first wave and 24 in the second. The median age was 46.5 years (range 20-83). Patients from the first wave had a trend to more severe ALL (higher frequency of patients under induction or submitted to transplantation or under immunosuppressive therapy). No significant differences were observed in need for oxygen support, intensive care unit (ICU) requirement, days in ICU and time to COVID-19 infection recovery. Seventeen patients (33%) died, with death attributed to COVID infection in 15 (29%), without significant differences in the 100 day overall survival (OS) probabilities in the two waves (68% ± 17% vs. 56% ± 30%). The only prognostic factor for OS identified by was the presence of comorbidities at COVID-19 infection (HR: 5.358 [95% CI: 1.875- 15.313]). CONCLUSION: The frequency and mortality of COVID-19 infection were high in adults with ALL, without changes over time, providing evidence in favor of vaccination priority for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 4(4): e1358, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes of novel coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) in onco-hematological patients are unknown. When compared to non-immunocompromised patients, onco-hematological patients seem to have higher mortality rates. AIMS: We describe the characteristics and outcomes of a consecutive cohort of 24 onco-hematological patients with COVID-19 during the first month of the pandemic. We also describe variations in healthcare resource utilization within our hematology department. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from patients between the first month of the pandemic were retrospectively collected. Clinical and logistic data were also collected and compared with the average values from the prior 3 months of activity. Prevalence of COVID-19 in our hematological population was 0.4%. Baseline characteristics were as follows: male sex: 83%, lymphoid diseases: 46%, median age: 69 (22-82) years. Median follow-up in survivors was 14 (9-28) days and inpatient mortality rate was 46%. Average time to moderate/severe respiratory insufficiency and death were 3 (1-10) and 10 (3-18) days, respectively. Only 1 out of every 12 patients who developed moderate to severe respiratory insufficiency recovered. Upon univariate analysis, the following factors were associated with higher mortality: age ≥ 70 years (P = .01) and D-dimer ≥900 mcg/L (P = .04). With respect to indirect effects during the COVID-19 pandemic, and when compared with the prior 3 months of activity, inpatient mortality (excluding patients with COVID-19 included in the study) increased by 56%. This was associated with a more frequent use of vasoactive drugs (+300%) and advanced respiratory support (+133%) in the hematology ward. In the outpatient setting, there was a reduction in initial visits (-55%) and chemotherapy sessions (-19%). A significant increase in phone visits was reported (+581%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic is associated with elevated mortality in hematological patients. Negative indirect effects are also evident within this setting.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Young Adult
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