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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884124

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to high levels of fear worldwide. Given that fear is an important factor in causing psychological distress and facilitating preventive behaviors, assessing the fear of COVID-19 is important. The seven-item Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) is a widely used psychometric instrument to assess this fear. However, the factor structure of the FCV-19S remains unclear according to the current evidence. Therefore, the present study used a network analysis to provide further empirical evidence for the factor structure of FCV-19S. A total of 24,429 participants from Iran (n = 10,843), Bangladesh (n = 9906), and Norway (n = 3680) completed the FCV-19S in their local language. A network analysis (via regularized partial correlation networks) was applied to investigate the seven FCV-19S items. Moreover, relationships between the FCV-19S items were compared across gender (males vs. females), age groups (18-30 years, 31-50 years, and >50 years), and countries (Iran, Bangladesh, and Norway). A two-factor structure pattern was observed (three items concerning physical factors, including clammy hands, insomnia, and heart palpitations; four items concerning psychosocial factors, including being afraid, uncomfortable, afraid of dying, and anxious about COVID-19 news). Moreover, this pattern was found to be the same among men and women, across age groups and countries. The network analysis used in the present study verified the two-factor structure for the FCV-19S. Future studies may consider using the two-factor structure of FCV-19S to assess the fear of COVID-19 during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0269044, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865348

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that the COVID-19 pandemic has predisposed adolescents to risky behaviors such as substance use and subsequent substance use disorder (SUD). However, it is unknown how the pandemic has changed the prevalence of SUD among adolescents in Uganda. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SUD and associated factors among adolescents in southwestern Uganda. Retrospectively, psychiatry ward records from November 2018 to July 2021 were collected from the largest tertiary hospital in southwestern Uganda. A total of 441 adolescent records were included in the analysis, with a mean age was 17±1.88 years, and the majority were males (50.34%). The overall prevalence of SUD was 7.26% (5.90% and 9.80% before and during the pandemic). Despite a little rise in SUD (3.9% increment) during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was no statistical difference compared to before the pandemic. The likelihood of being diagnosed with SUD was more among older adolescents at any period. In addition, having a diagnosis of bipolar mood disorder reduced the likelihood of SUD during the pandemic. This study indicated no statistical change in the diagnosis of SUD among adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. As older-male adolescents (17 to 19 years) were at higher risk of SUD, there is a need for early intervention for this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychiatric Department, Hospital , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Uganda/epidemiology
3.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103805, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850607

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has turned into emergent psychological impacts across cohorts with devastating consequences related to preventive measures. Health organizations recommended some preventive measures (e.g., wearing masks, frequent handwashing, etc.) to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. However, performing these behaviors may increase anxiety among populations. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the role of behavioral changes to prevent COVID-19 infection and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. Subjects and methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted for 10 days during July 2020 among the general public of Karachi after the imposition of lockdown amid the COVID-19 pandemic, with a sample size of 331 participants. The questionnaire consisted of three parts i.e., (i) socio-demographics, (ii) perception and preventive behaviors towards COVID-19, and (iii) anxiety-related questions using the Urdu Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7). The data was analyzed using logistic regression to investigate the association between behavior change and anxiety. Results: Almost half of the participants (i.e., 48.9%) reported being anxious. Although most of the participants were compliant with preventive behavioral changes in their daily lives but no associations between preventive behaviors and anxiety were found. There were significant associations between anxiety and some of the socio-demographic variables (i.e., gender: females were more anxious; age group and marital status single participants were more anxious). Conclusion: Based on the present findings, it is clearly evident that Pakistani people are suffering psychiatric problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, appropriate initiatives should be adopted as soon as possible. Besides, COVID-19 related preventive behavioral measures are highly recommended to practice without putting anything back for psychological fears.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 842466, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822406

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted psychosocial well-being and mental health of students across the world. Although students are vulnerable to depression and suicidal ideation, few studies have been conducted in Uganda. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation, and associated factors among undergraduate university students in Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduates [N = 540; 363 males; mean age = 23.3 (± 2.64) years] recruited from four universities using an online questionnaire that explored sociodemographic factors, depression, and other associated factors. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression, and Item 9 was used to assess suicidal ideation in the past 2 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with depression and suicidal ideation. Results: The prevalence of moderate to severe depression was 20% (n = 108) (cut-off: 10/27 based on the PHQ-9), and the prevalence of past-2-week suicidal ideation was 13.89% (n = 75) (cut-off: 1/3 based on the PHQ-9 Item 9). About half of the individuals who screened positive for depression had suicidal ideation. Factors associated with depression were: having relationship issues [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.81, p = 0.012], and having a history of sexual abuse (aOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.10-3.84, p = 0.023). Factors associated with reducing the risk of depression were: satisfaction with current academic performance (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.32-0.79, p = 0.003), and being in the fifth year of academic study (aOR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.03-0.73, p = 0.018). Factors associated with suicidal ideation were: smoking cigarettes and/or marijuana (aOR = 4.83, 95% CI = 1.10-21.12, p = 0.037), and having financial tuition constraints (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.08-3.16, p = 0.024), However, satisfaction with current academic performance reduced the likelihood of suicidal ideation (aOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.23-0.70, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Approximately one-fifth of undergraduate university students were moderately to severely depressed, especially those who had relationship issues and those with a history of sexual abuse. Suicidal ideation was common among smokers and those having financial tuition constraints. Therefore, it is recommended that the university authorities implement measures to provide psychological support for the students with problems concerning financial tuition constraints, relationships, and sexual abuse. Also, all students with depression should be screened for suicidality.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266024, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is undoubtedly a major threat to the world. The preventive strategies designed to minimize the virus transmission by remaining at home, being isolated, and keeping social distance, which would substantially reform people's lifestyle, physical activity, eating habits, etc. Consequently, those measures might create a disturbance in weight management and overweight. Therefore, how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the physical activities of individuals and its impacts on the Body Mass Index (BMI) is explored herein. METHODS: An online-based cross-sectional study collected data from 338 Bangladeshi adults in November 2020. The questionnaire included socio-demographics, health-related variables, physical activity-related variables, and diet measurement. Inferential statistics (i.e., chi-square test, McNemar test) were used to measure the associations between BMI and studied variables with a consideration of two scenarios ('before' and 'during' the pandemic inception), where p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Results showed that the prevalence of overweight was 30.5% 'before' the COVID-19 pandemic, which increased to 34.9% 'during' the pandemic; that means 4.4% of the participants significantly gained weight after the pandemic inception. There was no significant role of socio-demographic (e.g., gender, age, current residence, occupation) or physical activity-related factors (e.g., unavailability of outdoor space, not performing regular physical exercise, exercising with a partner) in changing the BMI status after the pandemic inception. However, following a proper diet plan during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed to decrease BMI status significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that a minor portion of the participants reported increasing their overweight status after the pandemic inception, whereas having a proper diet plan during the pandemic can significantly decrease BMI status. Therefore, the importance of the appropriate diet plan should be considered while implementing any policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Exercise , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology
7.
Psych J ; 11(1): 18-29, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603473

ABSTRACT

This systematic review and meta-analysis generates evidence of the prevalence and associated factors of common mental disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) related to the pandemic among the Saudi general population. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a comprehensive literature search was performed in the respective databases (e.g., PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science), from 22 July to 17 August 2021, and identified a total of 220 articles. Adhering to the inclusion criteria (i.e., original research concerning the prevalence and/or associated factors of depression and/or anxiety and/or stress disorders among the general Saudi population, published in English peer-reviewed journals), 15 studies were included in this review which consisted of a total of 262,656 participants. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was 30% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22% to 38%, I2  = 99.58%), 20% (95% CI: 16% to 24%, I2  = 99.32%), and 29% (95% CI: 11% to 47%, I2  = 99.76%), respectively. Risk factors of mental health problems were found to be female sex, younger age group, single/divorced marital status, lower education, lower income, non-Saudis, unemployment status, students, being in a small family and living with elderly of the sociodemographic factors. Smokers, less physical activities, lower resilience, reduced immune status, chronic health problems, and psychiatric illness history were associated with a higher degree of mental health problems. In addition, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related risk factors of mental illness included lack of knowledge, fear, worry and concern, family member or friends' infection or death, lockdown restrictions, quarantine, confirmed or suspected of COVID-19 infection, and even pandemic effects. In conclusion, appropriate mental health preventive approaches for the Saudi general people are highly needed, where this review can be worthy of help by providing in detailed information to the respective authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
8.
Glob Ment Health (Camb) ; 8: e47, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594157

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic affects people's psychological well-being as well as their risk of physical complications. Under the circumstance, it is essential to synthesize the existing evidence on psychological consequences with a view to fostering policymaking. Thus, a systematic attempt was compiled to review the Bangladeshi literature related to common mental health problems (i.e. depression, anxiety, and stress) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adhering to the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search was performed using Medline or PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar, PsyArxiv, MedRxiv, and ResearchGate, between 20 December 2020 and 5 March 2021, followed by predetermined eligibility criteria. The inclusion criteria for this review were observational studies involving at least one mental health problem (i.e. stress, depression, and anxiety) published in peer-reviewed journals or preprint servers in the English language after the inception of the pandemic in Bangladesh. The pooled prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was 47% (95% CI 39-55%, I 2 = 99.14%), 47% (95% CI 39-54%, I 2 = 99.78%), and 44% (95% CI 30-58%, I 2 = 99.36%), respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that students were experiencing a higher rate of depression, anxiety, and stress than general people and healthcare professionals. The associated risk factors of mental health problems were gender, age, residence area, family size, monthly family income, educational status, marital status, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol use, fear of COVID-19, presence of chronic illness, unemployment status, and exposure to COVID-19-related news and social media. This systematic review provides baseline data on the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress across various Bangladeshi cohorts, which are anticipated to be helpful to the respective authorities for implementing cohort-specific mental health strategies.

9.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640211065670, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Students are one of the most vulnerable groups to suicide. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, a Bangladeshi study was conducted assessing their suicide patterns regarding gender-based associations. But how has the pandemic changed the Bangladeshi students' suicide patterns is not studied yet, which is investigated herein. Besides, for the first time, this study provides GIS-based distribution of suicide cases across the country's administrative district. METHODS: As Bangladesh has no suicide surveillance system, this study utilized media reporting suicide cases following the prior studies. A total of 127 students' suicide cases from March 2020 to March 2021 were finally analyzed after eliminating the duplicate ones, and data were synthesized following the prior studies. Arc-GIS was also used to distribute the suicide cases across the administrative district. RESULTS: Results revealed that female (72.4%; n = 92/127) was more prone to die by suicide than males. About 42.5% of the cases were aged between 14 and 18 years (mean age 16.44 ± 3.512 years). The most common method of suicide was hanging (79.5%; n = 101), whereas relationship complexities (15.7%), being emotional (12.6%), not getting the desired one (11%), conflict with a family member (9.4%), academic failure (9.4%), mental health problem (8.7%), sexual complexities (6.3%), scolded or forbidden by parents (3.9%) were the prominent suicide causalities. In respect to gender and suicide patterns, only the suicide stressor was significantly distributed, whereas the method of suicide was significantly associated with GIS-based distribution. However, a higher number of suicide cases was documented in the capital (i.e. Dhaka) and the northern region than in its surrounding districts. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reported herein are assumed to be helpful to identify the gender-based suicide patterns and suicide-prone regions in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic to initiate suicide prevention programs of the risky students.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580815

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is associated with sleep problems and mental health issues among individuals. Therefore, there is a need to assess sleep efficiency during this tough period. Unfortunately, the commonly used instrument on insomnia severity-the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)-has never been translated and validated among Bangladeshis. Additionally, the ISI has never been validated during a major protracted disaster (such as the COVID-19 outbreak) when individuals encounter mental health problems. The present study aimed to translate the ISI into Bangla language (ISI-Bangla) and validate its psychometric properties. First, the linguistic validity of the ISI-Bangla was established. Then, 9790 Bangladeshis (mean age = 26.7 years; SD = 8.5; 5489 [56.1%] males) completed the Bangla versions of the following questionnaires: ISI, Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). All the participants also answered an item on suicidal ideation. Classical test theory and Rasch analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ISI-Bangla. Both classical test theory and Rasch analyses support a one-factor structure for the ISI-Bangla. Moreover, no substantial differential item functioning was observed across different subgroups (gender, depression status (determined using PHQ-9), and suicidal ideation). Additionally, concurrent validity of the ISI-Bangla was supported by significant and moderate correlations with FCV-19S and PHQ-9; known-group validity was established by the significant difference of the ISI-Bangla scores between participants who experienced suicidal ideation and those without. The present psychometric validation conducted during the COVID-19 outbreak suggests that the ISI-Bangla is a promising and operationally adequate instrument to assess insomnia in Bangladeshis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
11.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-16, 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549538

ABSTRACT

The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) assesses the fear of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has been translated and validated into over 20 languages. The present study conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory (IRT) analyses on the FCV-19S among a sample of 937 Pakistani adults (mean [SD] age of 25.83 [11.80] years; 537 [57.3%] females). The CFA and IRT confirmed the unidimensionality of the FCV-19S. The Likert-type scale used in the FCV-19S was supported by the proper threshold orderings. Additionally, no DIF contrast had an absolute value larger than 0.5 regarding the participants' characteristics of gender, age, living status, and education in the IRT findings. The FCV-19S was found to be valid and reliable with strong psychometric properties among the Pakistani adult population.

12.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 4051-4061, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is said that psychological stressors have risen during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may contribute to suicidality. A few studies were conducted investigating suicidality amid the first wave of the pandemic in Bangladesh, but none of these studies explored the predictive role of the suicidality-related factors (eg, behavior and health-related variables, COVID-19 risk, fear of COVID-19). Thus, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of suicidality and the predictive models explaining suicidality variance among Bangladeshi young adults during the second wave of the pandemic. METHODS: An online-based cross-sectional survey was conducted during the second wave of the pandemic (between 1 and 13 April 2021; a year after the pandemic's inception in the country). The survey questionnaire collected information on socio-demographics, behavior and health-related variables, COVID-19 risk, fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, and suicidality. A total of 756 data were analyzed (male 59%; mean age 22.24 ±4.39 years), and hierarchical regression was performed considering suicidality as the dependent variable. A p-value <0.05 was set to be statistically significant with a 95% of confidence interval. RESULTS: About 8.2% reported having at least suicidal thoughts within the pandemic inception to survey time (one-year suicidal ideation). More specifically, 7.40% had only suicidal ideation, whereas 0.10% planned for suicide, 0.70% attempted suicide. None of the socio-demographic variables was significantly associated with suicidality. Taking drugs, performing less physical activity, poor self-reporting health condition, being comorbid, being at higher COVID-19 risk, having fear of COVID-19 infection, and suffering from depression and anxiety were significantly associated with a higher risk of suicidality. However, the final model including all of the studied variables explained a 17.1% (F=8.245, p<0.001) variance in terms of suicidality. CONCLUSION: Although this study reported a lower severity of suicidality than prior Bangladeshi studies conducted during the first wave of the pandemic, a portion of people are still at risk of suicide and they should be given attention.

13.
Health Sci Rep ; 4(4): e398, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically impacted students' psychological well-being by interchanging their regular activities. Students are more engaged with online activities, which may affect their mental health. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the magnitude of psychological health of the Bangladeshi students, where the role of online use behaviors is also investigated. METHODS: An online-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between 7 October 2020 and 2 November, 2020 among Bangladeshi students utilizing a convenience sampling technique. The survey questionnaire included items concerning sociodemographics, behavior and health-related variables, online use behaviors, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the data (i.e., binary logistic regression was performed to examine the association between variables and hierarchical regression analysis was performed to predict the variance for depression and anxiety). RESULTS: Out of 601 included students, 260 and 196 students reported the symptoms of depression (43.3%) and anxiety (32.6%), respectively, where female students experienced a higher level of psychological problems. The psychological suffering was also significantly associated with medical college students, having an affair, less sleep time, not performing physical exercise, excessive internet use, and not watching news during online activities. After adjusting all of the studied variables in the hierarchical regression models, it explained 10% and 9.6% variance of depression and anxiety, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: During this pandemic situation, a relatively higher level of psychological complications was observed among the Bangladeshi students. Regrettably, any specific policy was absent in the country to assuage that outcome. Therefore, based on the study finding, a few strategies and policies were recommended that may be helpful to alleviate psychological issues among the students.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 708430, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438438

ABSTRACT

Background: Psychological stressors like panic, fear, phobia, etc., are being substantially reported during the COVID-19 outbreak. In the prior outbreaks, fear of being infected was reported as the prominent suicide stressor. Therefore, fear of infection has become a concern in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic because it worsens emotion, cognition, and behavioral responses. Understanding the extent of fear of COVID-19 infection in various cohorts would aid in gauging the mental health services, which was a remedy in the present review. Methods: Adhering to Arksey and O'Malley's framework for conducting a scoping review, a systematic search was performed in the month of September 2020 in several databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, etc. Considering the inclusion criteria, a total of 14 articles were included in the present review. Results: All of the included studies were conducted via online platforms, whereas all but one of the studies were cross-sectional in nature (including a mixed-method study, and a comparative study). Most of the studies were conducted among the general population (n = 12), within March and May 2020 (n = 9), from Asian countries (n = 7), and considered a self-developed item for fear of COVID-19 assessment (n = 8; whereas the Fear of COVID-19 Scale was used in 6-studies). The prevalence of fear of COVID-19 was reported to be 18.1-45.2%, although no cutoff point or criteria was mentioned for such a prevalence estimation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. However, females, younger adults, urban residents, divorcees, healthcare workers, those in quarantine settings, those in suspicion of being infected, and those with mental health problems, etc., were found to be at an increased risk of COVID-19 fear. Conclusions: Being one of the first reviews in this context, the findings are anticipated to be helpful to predict the possible solutions for reducing fear of COVID-19 and facilitate further studies on strategies of how to alleviate such a stressful situation.

15.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 3797-3805, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Problematic smartphone use (PSU) has been increasing hastily in recent decades, and it has become inseparable during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially among the students who are at risk of problematic smartphone use. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of PSU during the COVID-19 pandemic among the Bangladeshi students. METHODS: A total of 601 Bangladeshi students were recruited through an online-based cross-sectional survey that was conducted between October 7 and November 2, 2020. The survey collected information related to socio-demographics, behavioral health, internet use behaviors, depression, anxiety, and PSU. Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were performed to present the relationship between the studied variables and PSU. Multiple linear regression analysis was also used for investigating the explanatory power of the predictive models for PSU. RESULTS: Surprisingly, about 86.9% of the students scored to be problematic smartphone users (≥21 out of a total 36 based on the Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale). In addition, medical students, engaging in a relationship, performing less physical activity, longer duration of internet use, some sorts of internet use purpose (eg, messaging, watching videos, using social media), depression, and anxiety were significantly associated with higher scores of PSU. After adjusting all the studied variables, the final model explained a 31.3% variance predicting PSU. CONCLUSION: The present study is one of the first approaches to assess the prevalence of PSU among the Bangladeshi students during the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas the addiction level was superfluous (and this may be due to more online engagement related to the pandemic). Thus, the study recommended strategies or policies related to the students' risk-reducing and healthy use of smartphones.

17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363984

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease - 2019 (COVID-19) is a multisystem illness associated with several metabolic derangements. Studies report that post-acute COVID-19 syndromes (PACs) continue to evolve, however, polyphagia is not uncommon. Herein, we report a rare occurrence of polyphagia in a patient following acute COVID-19 illness. A-41-year-old Ugandan female with a negative past medical history presented with complains of excessive appetite, eating large amounts of food, inability to feel satisfied, failure to control desire to eat, and weight gain 6 months following recovery from a mild episode of acute COVID-19 pneumonia. Her body mass index rose to 30 Kg/m2 from 22 Kg/m2 prior to suffering from COVID-19. There was no history of polyuria, polydipsia, pruritus, or prior eating disorder or related history. Investigation found that brain computed tomography scan was normal, fasting blood sugar to be 5.6 mmol/L (normal range, 3.9-7.0 mmol/L), adrenocorticotropin hormone level to be 8.763 pg/mL (normal range, 6-40 pg/mL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate to be 12 mm/hour (0-30 mm/hour), but there was an elevation in glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c, 7.7%). She was commenced on psychotherapy and behavioral changes with good outcomes. Polyphagia may be one of the rare PACs, requiring further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hyperphagia/diagnosis , Weight Gain , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Hyperphagia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Uganda
18.
BJPsych Open ; 7(5): e150, 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health threat of international concern, intensifying peoples' psychological risk and vulnerability by strengthening mental health stressors such as fear, panic and uncertainty. The unexpected fear of COVID-19 has been reported to be associated with suicide occurrences, similar to prior pandemics. AIMS: Identifying the factors associated with fear of COVID-19 could help us to develop better mental health strategy and practice to improve the situation here in Bangladesh. This was the first attempt to present a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based distribution of fear of COVID-19 across the country's administrative districts in a nationwide sample. METHOD: Data for a total of 10 067 individuals were collected by an online survey during the first wave of the pandemic (1 to 10 April 2020); data for 10 052 participants were finally analysed after excluding 15 transgender individuals. The survey questionnaire included items concerning sociodemographic, behavioural and health-related variables, COVID-19-related issues, and the Bangla Fear of COVID-19 Scale. RESULTS: The mean fear of COVID-19 scores was 21.30 ± 6.01 (out of a possible 35) in the present sample. Female gender, highly educated, non-smoker, non-alcohol consumer, having chronic diseases, using social media, and using social media and not using newspapers as COVID-19 information sources were associated with a higher level of fear of COVID-19. Higher levels of fear of COVID-19 were found in districts of Magura, Panchagarh, Tangail, Sunamganj and Munshiganj; by contrast, Kushtia, Pirojpur, Chapainawabganj, Jhalokathi and Naogaon districts had lower fear of COVID-19. Based on the GIS-distribution, fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with the district as well as in respect to its gender-based and education-level-based associations. However, fear of COVID-19 and COVID-19 cases were heterogeneously distributed across the districts; that is, no consistent association of higher COVID-19 cases with higher fear of COVID-19 was found. CONCLUSIONS: This study being exploratory in nature may help to facilitate further studies, as well as directing governmental initiatives for reducing fear of COVID-19 in at-risk individuals. Providing adequate resources and mental health services in the administrative regions identified as highly vulnerable to fear of COVID-19 is recommended.

19.
Sleep Vigil ; 5(2): 315-322, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the importance of sleep, several studies were conducted during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh, but no study was conducted during the second wave. Thus, this study assessed the prevalence rate, associated factors, and predictive models of insomnia during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online-based cross-sectional survey was conducted during the second wave of the pandemic (within April 1-13, 2021) and collected information on sociodemographic, behavior and health, COVID-19 risk, fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, suicidality, and insomnia. A total of 756 data from Bangladeshi young adults (22.24 ± 4.39 years) were finally analyzed. RESULTS: About 13% of the participants (n = 98 out of a total of 756) had the symptoms of insomnia. Insomnia had a significant gender difference, where females were more prone to be insomniac. Besides, middle class, urban residence, smoking status, not engaging in physical exercise, poor health status, and multi-comorbidities were also profoundly associated with insomnia. In addition, fear of COVID-19, COVID-19 risk, and mental health problems (i.e., depression, anxiety, and suicidality) showed a significant relationship in terms of insomnia. A total of 31.2% variance predicting insomnia was identified considering all of the studied variables. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of insomnia reported herein seems relatively lower than the prior studies, but this figure is not neglectable. Thus, the identified associated factors are highly suggested to consider in policy actions with a special focus on mental health problems to elevate the risk of sleep problems.

20.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1127-1138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic-related "stay-at-home" and confinement orders has led individuals to be more engaged with technology use (eg, internet use). For a minority of individuals, excessive use can become problematic and addictive. However, the investigation of problematic internet use in the COVID-19 context is only just emerging. Therefore, the present study investigated the changes in internet use behaviors and addiction rates in comparison with prior Bangladeshi studies. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was carried out among a total of 601 Bangladeshi students between October 7 and November 2, 2020. The survey included questions relating to socio-demographic, behavioral health, online use behaviors, and psychopathological variables. RESULTS: A quarter of the participants (26%) reported having low levels of internet addiction, whereas 58.6% were classed as having moderate internet addiction and 13% severe internet addiction. A total of 4% of the sample were classed as being at risk of severe internet dependency (ie, scoring over ≥80 on IAT). Risk factors for internet addiction included smartphone addiction, Facebook addiction, depression, and anxiety. However, the final hierarchical regression model comprising all variables explained a total of 70.6% variance of problematic internet use. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, it is concluded that individuals are at elevated risk of problematic internet use like other psychological impacts that have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, risk-reducing measures and healthy control use strategies should be implemented for vulnerable individuals.

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