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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine rollout is lagging in Africa, where there has been a high rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination with the ChAdOx-nCoV19 (AZD1222) vaccine on antibody responses through to 180 days. METHODS: We did an unmasked post-hoc immunogenicity analysis after the first and second doses of AZD1222 in a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 1b-2a study done in seven locations in South Africa. AZD1222 recipients who were HIV-uninfected, were stratified into baseline seropositive or seronegative groups using the serum anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) immunoglobulin G (IgG) electroluminescence immunoassay to establish SARS-CoV-2 infection before the first dose of AZD1222. Binding IgG to spike (anti-S) and receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) were measured before the first dose (day 0), second dose (day 28), day 42, and day 180. Neutralising antibody (NAb) against SARS-CoV-2 variants D614G, beta, delta, gamma, and A.VOI.V2, and omicron BA1 and BA.4 variants, were measured by pseudovirus assay (day 28, day 42, and day 180). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04444674, and the Pan African Clinicals Trials Registry, PACTR202006922165132. FINDINGS: Of 185 individuals who were randomly assigned to AZD1222, we included 91 individuals who were baseline seropositive and 58 who were baseline seronegative, in the final analysis. In the seropositive group, there was little change of anti-S IgG (and anti-RBD IgG) or neutralising antibody (NAb) titres at day 42 compared with at day 28. Anti-S (and anti-RBD) IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher throughout in the seropositive compared with the seronegative group, including at day 180 (GMCs 517·8 [95% CI 411·3-651·9] vs 82·1 [55·2-122·3] BAU/mL). Also D614G NAb geometric mean titres (GMTs) were higher in the seropositive group than the seronegative group, as was the percentage with titres of at least 185 (80% putative risk reduction threshold [PRRT] against wild-type-alpha COVID-19), including at day 180 (92·0% [74·0-99·0] vs 18·2% [2·3-51·8). Similar findings were observed for beta, A.VOI.V2, and gamma. For delta, BA.1, and BA.4, NAb GMTs and the proportion with titres above the PRRT were substantially higher in the seropositive compared with seronegative group at day 28 and day 42, but no longer differed between the groups by day 180. INTERPRETATION: A single dose of AZD1222 in the general African population, where COVID-19 vaccine coverage is low and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity is 90%, could enhance the magnitude and quality of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the South African Medical Research Council, the UK Research and Innovation, the UK National Institute for Health Research, and the South African Medical Research Council. TRANSLATION: For the Zulu translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

2.
Cell Rep ; 42(2): 112044, 2023 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209948

ABSTRACT

Despite prolific efforts to characterize the antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infections, the response to chronic co-infection with these two ever-evolving viruses is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the antibody repertoire of a chronically HIV-1/HCV co-infected individual using linking B cell receptor to antigen specificity through sequencing (LIBRA-seq). We identify five HIV-1/HCV cross-reactive antibodies demonstrating binding and functional cross-reactivity between HIV-1 and HCV envelope glycoproteins. All five antibodies show exceptional HCV neutralization breadth and effector functions against both HIV-1 and HCV. One antibody, mAb688, also cross-reacts with influenza and coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We examine the development of these antibodies using next-generation sequencing analysis and lineage tracing and find that somatic hypermutation established and enhanced this reactivity. These antibodies provide a potential future direction for therapeutic and vaccine development against current and emerging infectious diseases. More broadly, chronic co-infection represents a complex immunological challenge that can provide insights into the fundamental rules that underly antibody-antigen specificity.

3.
Cell Rep Med ; 4(1): 100910, 2023 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165957

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 variants caused major waves of infections. Here, we assess the sensitivity of BA.4 to binding, neutralization, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) potential, measured by FcγRIIIa signaling, in convalescent donors infected with four previous variants of SARS-CoV-2, as well as in post-vaccination breakthrough infections (BTIs) caused by Delta or BA.1. We confirm that BA.4 shows high-level neutralization resistance regardless of the infecting variant. However, BTIs retain activity against BA.4, albeit at reduced titers. BA.4 sensitivity to ADCC is reduced compared with other variants but with smaller fold losses compared with neutralization and similar patterns of cross-reactivity. Overall, the high neutralization resistance of BA.4, even to antibodies from BA.1 infection, provides an immunological mechanism for the rapid spread of BA.4 immediately after a BA.1-dominated wave. Furthermore, although ADCC potential against BA.4 is reduced, residual activity may contribute to observed protection from severe disease.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19 Serotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies , Breakthrough Infections , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
J Virol ; 96(15): e0055822, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962090

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve, several variants of concern (VOCs) have arisen which are defined by multiple mutations in their spike proteins. These VOCs have shown variable escape from antibody responses and have been shown to trigger qualitatively different antibody responses during infection. By studying plasma from individuals infected with either the original D614G, Beta, or Delta variants, we showed that the Beta and Delta variants elicit antibody responses that are overall more cross-reactive than those triggered by D614G. Patterns of cross-reactivity varied, and the Beta and Delta variants did not elicit cross-reactive responses to each other. However, Beta-elicited plasma was highly cross-reactive against Delta Plus (Delta+), which differs from Delta by a single K417N mutation in the receptor binding domain, suggesting that the plasma response targets the N417 residue. To probe this further, we isolated monoclonal antibodies from a Beta-infected individual with plasma responses against Beta, Delta+, and Omicron, which all possess the N417 residue. We isolated an N417-dependent antibody, 084-7D, which showed similar neutralization breadth to the plasma. The 084-7D MAb utilized the IGHV3-23*01 germ line gene and had somatic hypermutations similar to those of previously described public antibodies which target the 417 residue. Thus, we have identified a novel antibody which targets a shared epitope found on three distinct VOCs, enabling their cross-neutralization. Understanding antibodies targeting escape mutations, such as K417N, which repeatedly emerge through convergent evolution in SARS-CoV-2 variants, may aid in the development of next-generation antibody therapeutics and vaccines. IMPORTANCE The evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in variants of concern (VOCs) with distinct spike mutations conferring various immune escape profiles. These variable mutations also influence the cross-reactivity of the antibody response mounted by individuals infected with each of these variants. This study sought to understand the antibody responses elicited by different SARS-CoV-2 variants and to define shared epitopes. We show that Beta and Delta infections resulted in antibody responses that were more cross-reactive than the original D614G variant, but they had differing patterns of cross-reactivity. We further isolated an antibody from Beta infection which targeted the N417 site, enabling cross-neutralization of Beta, Delta+, and Omicron, all of which possess this residue. The discovery of antibodies which target escape mutations common to multiple variants highlights conserved epitopes to target in future vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Epitopes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(6): 880-886.e4, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889288

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant escapes neutralizing antibodies elicited by vaccines or infection. However, whether Omicron triggers cross-reactive humoral responses to other variants of concern (VOCs) remains unknown. We used plasma from 20 unvaccinated and 7 vaccinated individuals infected by Omicron BA.1 to test binding, Fc effector function, and neutralization against VOCs. In unvaccinated individuals, Fc effector function and binding antibodies targeted Omicron and other VOCs at comparable levels. However, Omicron BA.1-triggered neutralization was not extensively cross-reactive for VOCs (14- to 31-fold titer reduction), and we observed 4-fold decreased titers against Omicron BA.2. In contrast, vaccination followed by breakthrough Omicron infection associated with improved cross-neutralization of VOCs with titers exceeding 1:2,100. This has important implications for the vulnerability of unvaccinated Omicron-infected individuals to reinfection by circulating and emerging VOCs. Although Omicron-based immunogens might be adequate boosters, they are unlikely to be superior to existing vaccines for priming in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests
6.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100535, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815266

ABSTRACT

The Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) Ad26.COV2.S non-replicating viral vector vaccine has been widely deployed for COVID-19 vaccination programs in resource-limited settings. Here we confirm that neutralizing and binding antibody responses to Ad26.COV2.S vaccination are stable for 6 months post-vaccination, when tested against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. Secondly, using longitudinal samples from individuals who experienced clinically mild breakthrough infections 4 to 5 months after vaccination, we show dramatically boosted binding antibodies, Fc effector function, and neutralization. These high titer responses are of similar magnitude to humoral immune responses measured in convalescent donors who had been hospitalized with severe illness, and are cross-reactive against diverse SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the neutralization-resistant Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant that currently dominates global infections, as well as SARS-CoV-1. These data have implications for population immunity in areas where the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine has been widely deployed, but where ongoing infections continue to occur at high levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100510, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636907

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) exhibit escape from neutralizing antibodies, causing concern about vaccine effectiveness. However, while non-neutralizing cytotoxic functions of antibodies are associated with improved disease outcome and vaccine protection, Fc effector function escape from VOCs is poorly defined. Furthermore, whether VOCs trigger Fc functions with altered specificity, as has been reported for neutralization, is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Beta VOC partially evades Fc effector activity in individuals infected with the original (D614G) variant. However, not all functions are equivalently affected, suggesting differential targeting by antibodies mediating distinct Fc functions. Furthermore, Beta and Delta infection trigger responses with significantly improved Fc cross-reactivity against global VOCs compared with D614G-infected or Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated individuals. This suggests that, as for neutralization, the infecting spike sequence affects Fc effector function. These data have important implications for vaccine strategies that incorporate VOCs, suggesting these may induce broader Fc effector responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Ad26COVS1/immunology , Ad26COVS1/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , THP-1 Cells , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(11): 1611-1619.e5, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466221

ABSTRACT

The Johnson and Johnson Ad26.COV2.S single-dose vaccine represents an attractive option for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in countries with limited resources. We examined the effect of prior infection with different SARS-CoV-2 variants on Ad26.COV2.S immunogenicity. We compared participants who were SARS-CoV-2 naive with those either infected with the ancestral D614G virus or infected in the second wave when Beta predominated. Prior infection significantly boosts spike-binding antibodies, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and neutralizing antibodies against D614G, Beta, and Delta; however, neutralization cross-reactivity varied by wave. Robust CD4 and CD8 T cell responses are induced after vaccination, regardless of prior infection. T cell recognition of variants is largely preserved, apart from some reduction in CD8 recognition of Delta. Thus, Ad26.COV2.S vaccination after infection could result in enhanced protection against COVID-19. The impact of the infecting variant on neutralization breadth after vaccination has implications for the design of second-generation vaccines based on variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
9.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100313, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240648

ABSTRACT

The continual emergence of novel coronaviruses (CoV), such as severe acute respiratory syndrome-(SARS)-CoV-2, highlights the critical need for broadly reactive therapeutics and vaccines against this family of viruses. From a recovered SARS-CoV donor sample, we identify and characterize a panel of six monoclonal antibodies that cross-react with CoV spike (S) proteins from the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and demonstrate a spectrum of reactivity against other CoVs. Epitope mapping reveals that these antibodies recognize multiple epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 S, including the receptor-binding domain, the N-terminal domain, and the S2 subunit. Functional characterization demonstrates that the antibodies mediate phagocytosis-and in some cases trogocytosis-but not neutralization in vitro. When tested in vivo in murine models, two of the antibodies demonstrate a reduction in hemorrhagic pathology in the lungs. The identification of cross-reactive epitopes recognized by functional antibodies expands the repertoire of targets for pan-coronavirus vaccine design strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phagocytosis , Protein Subunits/immunology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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