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1.
Struct Chem ; 33(5): 1609-1617, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014345

ABSTRACT

Scientific insights gained from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks have been assisting scientists and researchers in the quest of antiviral drug discovery process against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronaviruses and influenza viruses both rely on the host type 2 transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS2, for entry and propagation. Recent studies report SARS-CoV-2 also uses TMPRSS2 to enter cells. In the current study, we employed structure-based virtual screening of 1,82,651 natural compounds downloaded from the zin database against the homology model of the TMPRSS2 protein, followed by a molecular dynamics-based simulation to identify potential TMPRSS2 hits. The virtual screening yielded 110 hits with docking scores ranging from -8.654 to -6.775 and glide energies ranging from -55.714 to -29.065 kcal/mol. The binding mode analysis revealed that the hit molecules made H-bond, Pi-Pi stacking and salt bridge contacts with the TMPRSS2 active site residues. MD simulations of the top two hits (ZINC000095912839 and ZINC000085597504) revealed to form a stable complex with TMPRSS2, with a minimal RMSD and RMSF fluctuation. Both the hit structures interacted strongly with the Asp180, Gln183, Gly184, Ser186, Gly207 and Gly209, as predicted by Glide XP docking, and formed a significant H-bond interaction with Ser181 in MD simulation. Among these two, ZINC000095912839 was having the most stable binding interaction with TMPRSS2 of the two molecules. The present study successfully identified TMPRSS2 ligands from a database of zinc natural molecules as potential leads for novel SARs-CoV-2 treatment. Supplementary Inform: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11224-022-01991-3.

2.
Struct Chem ; 33(5): 1529-1541, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942556

ABSTRACT

The scientific insights gained from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks are helping scientists to fast-track the antiviral drug discovery process against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronaviruses, as well as influenza viruses, depend on host type 2 transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS2, for entry and propagation in the human cell. Recent studies show that SARS-CoV-2 also uses TMPRSS2 for its cell entry. In the present study, a structure-based virtual screening of 52,337, protease ligands downloaded from the Zinc database was carried out against the homology model of TMPRSS2 protein followed by the molecular dynamics-based simulation to identify potential TMPRSS2 hits. The virtual screening has identified 13 hits with a docking score range of -10.447 to -9.863 and glide energy range of -60.737 to -40.479 kcal/mol. The binding mode analysis shows that the hit molecules form H-bond (Asp180, Gly184 & Gly209), Pi-Pi stacking (His41), and salt bridge (Asp180) type of contacts with the active site residues of TMPRSS2. In the MD simulation of ZINC000013444414, ZINC000137976768, and ZINC000143375720 hits show that these molecules form a stable complex with TMPRSS2. The complex equilibrates well with a minimal RMSD and RMSF fluctuation. All three structures, as predicted in Glide XP docking, show a prominent interaction with the Asp180, Gly184, Gly209, and His41. Further, MD simulation also identifies a notable H-bond interaction with Ser181 for all three hits. Among these hits, ZINC000143375720 shows the most stable binding interaction with TMPRSS2. The present study is successful in identifying TMPRSS2 ligands from zinc data base for a possible application in the treatment of COVID-19.

3.
Structural Chemistry ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1897991

ABSTRACT

Scientific insights gained from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks have been assisting scientists and researchers in the quest of antiviral drug discovery process against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronaviruses and influenza viruses both rely on the host type 2 transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS2, for entry and propagation. Recent studies report SARS-CoV-2 also uses TMPRSS2 to enter cells. In the current study, we employed structure-based virtual screening of 1,82,651 natural compounds downloaded from the zin database against the homology model of the TMPRSS2 protein, followed by a molecular dynamics-based simulation to identify potential TMPRSS2 hits. The virtual screening yielded 110 hits with docking scores ranging from −8.654 to −6.775 and glide energies ranging from −55.714 to −29.065 kcal/mol. The binding mode analysis revealed that the hit molecules made H-bond, Pi-Pi stacking and salt bridge contacts with the TMPRSS2 active site residues. MD simulations of the top two hits (ZINC000095912839 and ZINC000085597504) revealed to form a stable complex with TMPRSS2, with a minimal RMSD and RMSF fluctuation. Both the hit structures interacted strongly with the Asp180, Gln183, Gly184, Ser186, Gly207 and Gly209, as predicted by Glide XP docking, and formed a significant H-bond interaction with Ser181 in MD simulation. Among these two, ZINC000095912839 was having the most stable binding interaction with TMPRSS2 of the two molecules. The present study successfully identified TMPRSS2 ligands from a database of zinc natural molecules as potential leads for novel SARs-CoV-2 treatment. Supplementary Inform The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11224-022-01991-3.

4.
Chem Zvesti ; 76(2): 1063-1083, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653736

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for reliable cure and preventive measures in this hour of the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2. Siddha- and Ayurvedic-based classical formulations have antiviral properties and great potential therapeutic choice in this pandemic situation. In the current study, in silico-based analysis for the binding potential of phytoconstituents from the classical formulations suggested by the Ministry of Ayush (Kabasura Kudineer, Shwas Kuthar Rasa with Kantakari and pippali churna, Talisadi churna) to the interface domain of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was performed. Maestro software from Schrodinger and tools like Glide Docking, induced fit docking, MM-GBSA, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and thermal MM-GBSA was used to analyze the binding of protein PDB ID:6VW1 and the selected 133 ligands in comparison with drug molecules like favipiravir and ribavirin. QikProp-based ADMET evaluation of all the phytoconstituents found them nontoxic and with drug-like properties. Selection of top ten ligands was made based on docking score for further MM-GBSA analysis. After performing IFD of top five molecules iso-chlorogenic acid, taxiphyllin, vasicine, catechin and caffeic acid, MD simulation and thermal MM-GBSA were done. Iso-chlorogenic acid had formed more stable interaction with key residue among all phytoconstituents. Computational-based study has highlighted the potential of the many constituents of traditional medicine to interact with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and ACE2, which might stop the viral entry into the cell. However, in vivo experiments and clinical trials are necessary for supporting this claim. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11696-021-01917-z.

5.
Chemicke zvesti ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1472942

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for reliable cure and preventive measures in this hour of the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2. Siddha- and Ayurvedic-based classical formulations have antiviral properties and great potential therapeutic choice in this pandemic situation. In the current study, in silico-based analysis for the binding potential of phytoconstituents from the classical formulations suggested by the Ministry of Ayush (Kabasura Kudineer, Shwas Kuthar Rasa with Kantakari and pippali churna, Talisadi churna) to the interface domain of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was performed. Maestro software from Schrodinger and tools like Glide Docking, induced fit docking, MM-GBSA, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and thermal MM-GBSA was used to analyze the binding of protein PDB ID:6VW1 and the selected 133 ligands in comparison with drug molecules like favipiravir and ribavirin. QikProp-based ADMET evaluation of all the phytoconstituents found them nontoxic and with drug-like properties. Selection of top ten ligands was made based on docking score for further MM-GBSA analysis. After performing IFD of top five molecules iso-chlorogenic acid, taxiphyllin, vasicine, catechin and caffeic acid, MD simulation and thermal MM-GBSA were done. Iso-chlorogenic acid had formed more stable interaction with key residue among all phytoconstituents. Computational-based study has highlighted the potential of the many constituents of traditional medicine to interact with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and ACE2, which might stop the viral entry into the cell. However, in vivo experiments and clinical trials are necessary for supporting this claim. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11696-021-01917-z.

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