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1.
Homeopathy ; 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several homeopathic prognostic factor research (PFR) projects have been undertaken. We found two projects with comparable outcomes to assess consistency and possible flaws. METHODS: Two comparisons were made. (1) Outcome of a PFR data collection from the Liga Medicorum Homoeopathica Internationalis (LMHI) by about 100 doctors with 541 cases was compared with a previous analysis of 161 cases in the same database. (2) The updated LMHI database was also compared with a data collection carried out in India by four doctors with a total of 1,445 cases. Differences that resulted in conflicting outcomes (indication in one, contraindication in the other) were examined for possible causes. RESULTS: There was only a single outcome in the updated LMHI database that conflicted with the previous dataset, and this could have been due to statistical variation. The Indian data contained many cases, from few doctors, while the LMHI database had few cases per doctor, but many doctors. The overlap between the projects (individual cases entered in both) was between zero and 22%. In 72 comparisons we found six (8.3%) conflicting outcomes. Possible causes were statistical error due to small numbers of cases and/or observers, confirmation bias, and keynote prescribing if this resulted in symptoms being inadequately checked. CONCLUSION: There was little conflict between the outcomes of the two versions of one project and between the two different PFR projects. Differences could mostly be explained by causes that can be managed. This consistency should primarily be interpreted as showing a strong overall consensus between homeopathic practitioners worldwide, but with variation of consensus between small groups of practitioners.

2.
Homeopathy ; 111(1): 57-65, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prognostic factor research (PFR), prevalence of symptoms and likelihood ratio (LR) play an important role in identifying prescribing indications of useful homeopathic remedies. It involves meticulous unbiased collection and analysis of data collected during clinical practice. This paper is an attempt to identify causes of bias and suggests ways to mitigate them for improving the accuracy in prescribing for better clinical outcomes and execution of randomized controlled studies. METHODS: A prospective, open label, observational study was performed from April 2020 to December 2020 at two COVID Health Centers. A custom-made Excel spreadsheet containing 71 fields covering a spectrum of COVID-19 symptoms was shared with doctors for regular reporting. Cases suitable for PFR were selected. LR was calculated for commonly occurring symptoms. Outlier values with LR ≥5 were identified and variance of LRs was calculated. RESULTS: Out of 1,889 treated cases of confirmed COVID-19, 1,445 cases were selected for pre-specified reasons. Nine medicines, Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens, Pulsatilla nigricans, Hepar sulphuricus, Magnesia muriaticum, Phosphorus, Nux vomica and Belladonna, were most frequently prescribed. Outlier values and large variance for Hepar sulphuricus and Magnesia muriaticum were noticed as indication of bias. Confirmation bias leading to lowering of symptom threshold, keynote prescribing, and deficiency in checking of all symptoms in each case were identified as the most important sources of bias. CONCLUSION: Careful identification of biases and remedial steps such as training of doctors, regular monitoring of data, checking of all pre-defined symptoms, and multicenter data collection are important steps to mitigate biases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeopathy , Bias , Data Collection , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Homeopathy ; 110(3): 160-167, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease; its clinical profile and natural history are evolving. Each well-recorded case in homeopathic practice is important for deciding the future course of action. This study aims at identifying clinically useful homeopathic remedies and their prescribing symptoms using the prognostic factor research model. METHODS: This was an open-label, multi-centric, observational study performed from April 2020 to July 2020 at various public health care clinics. The data were collected prospectively from clinical practice at integrated COVID-19 care facilities in India. Good-quality cases were selected using a specific set of criteria. These cases were analyzed for elucidating prognostic factors by calculating the likelihood ratio (LR) of each frequently occurring symptom. The symptoms with high LR values (>1) were considered as prescribing indications of the specific remedy. RESULTS: Out of 327 COVID-19 cases reported, 211 met the selection criteria for analysis. The most common complaints were fatigue, sore throat, dry cough, myalgia, fever, dry mouth and throat, increased thirst, headache, decreased appetite, anxiety, and altered taste. Twenty-seven remedies were prescribed and four of them-Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens, and Pulsatilla nigricans-were the most frequently used. A high LR was obtained for certain symptoms, which enabled differentiation between the remedies for a given patient. CONCLUSION: Homeopathic medicines were associated with improvement in symptoms of COVID-19 cases. Characteristic symptoms of four frequently indicated remedies have been identified using prognostic factor research, findings that can contribute to accurate homeopathic prescribing during future controlled research in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Homeopathy , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Likelihood Functions , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Homeopathy ; 110(2): 86-93, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify indicated homeopathic remedies based on the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in India. METHODS: In this retrospective, cohort study, confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted at a COVID Health Centre in New Delhi between April 29 and June 17, 2020 were given conventional and homeopathic treatment. Patients were grouped into mild, moderate or severe categories of disease. Their symptomatologic profiles were analyzed to identify indicated homeopathic medicines. RESULTS: A total of 196 COVID-19 patients were admitted. One hundred and seventy-eight patients had mild symptoms; eighteen patients had moderate symptoms; no patients with severe symptoms were included as they were referred to tertiary care centers with ventilatory support. The mean age of patients with mild symptoms was significantly lower (38.6 years; standard deviation or SD ± 15.8) compared with patients in the moderate category (66.0 years; SD ± 9.09). The most important symptoms identified were fever (43.4%), cough (47.4%), sore throat (29.6%), headache (18.4%), myalgia (17.9%), fatigue (16.8%), chest discomfort (13.8%), chills (12.6%), shortness of breath (11.2%) and loss of taste (10.2%). Twenty-eight homeopathic medicines were prescribed, the most frequently indicated being Bryonia alba (33.3%), Arsenicum album (18.1%), Pulsatilla nigricans (13.8%), Nux vomica (8%), Rhus toxicodendron (7.2%) and Gelsemium sempervirens (5.8%), in 30C potency. CONCLUSION: Data from the current study reveal that Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Pulsatilla nigricans, Nux vomica, Rhus toxicodendron and Gelsemium sempervirens are the most frequently indicated homeopathic medicines. A randomized controlled clinical trial based on this finding is the next step.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Phytotherapy , Adult , Aged , Arsenicals/therapeutic use , Bryonia , Cohort Studies , Female , Gelsemium , Homeopathy , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulsatilla , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Strychnos nux-vomica , Toxicodendron
6.
Homeopathy ; 110(2): 94-101, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel pandemic disease offered the opportunity to create new, disease-specific, symptom rubrics for the homeopathic repertory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to discover the relationship between specific symptoms and specific medicines, especially of symptoms occurring frequently in this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worldwide collection of data in all possible formats by various parties was coordinated by the Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis. As the data came in, more symptoms were assessed prospectively. Frequent analysis and feedback by electronic newsletters were used to improve the quality of the data. Likelihood ratios (LRs) of symptoms were calculated. An algorithm for combining symptom LRs was programmed and published in the form of an app. The app was tested against 18 well-described successful cases from Hong Kong. RESULTS: LRs of common symptoms such as 'Fatigue' and 'Headache' provided better differentiation between medicines than did existing repertory entries, which are based only on the narrow presence or absence of symptoms. A mini-repertory for COVID-19 symptoms was published and supported by a web-based algorithm. With a choice of 20 common symptoms, this algorithm produced the same outcome as a full homeopathic analysis based upon a larger number of symptoms, including some that are traditionally considered more specific to particular medicines. CONCLUSION: A repertory based on clinical data and LRs can differentiate between homeopathic medicines using a limited number of frequently occurring epidemic symptoms. A Bayesian computer algorithm to combine symptoms can complement a full homeopathic analysis of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Phytotherapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Collection , Databases, Factual , Female , Homeopathy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Likelihood Functions , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
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