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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313026

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibody testing are often used for serosurveillance of COVID-19. ELISA and Chemiluminesence based antibody test are quiet sensitive and specific for such serological testing. Rapid antibody tests are developed and effectively used for this purpose. But their diagnostic efficiency needs to be evaluated. So, the present study was conducted in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in Delhi, India to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a Rapid antibody kit for COVID-19. Material and Method : Sixty COVID-19 confirmed cases by RT-PCR were recruited and categorized as early, intermediate and late cases based on the number of days of their first RT-PCR + ve tests, 20 subjects in each category. Twenty samples from pre-covid era were taken as controls. IgM and IgG antibodies against RBD of spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV2 virus were detected by Rapid antibody test and compared with total antibody against the nucleocapsid (N) antigen of SARS-CoV-2 by Electrochemiluminescence based Immunoassay (ECLIA). Results The detection IgM against Receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein by rapid kit was 0-37.5% sensitive and 0-100% specific for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, efficacy of detection of IgG by rapid kit was 87–89% sensitive and 75–100% specific when compared with total antibody against N antigen measured by ECLIA based immunoassay. Conclusion It can be concluded that detection of IgM against RBD of S protein by rapid kit is not effective but IgG detection can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for SARS-COV-2 infection.

2.
Lab Med ; 52(6): e154-e158, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the performance of an antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 677 patients. Two nasopharyngeal swabs and 1 oropharyngeal swab were collected from patients. The RDT was performed onsite by a commercially available immune-chromatographic assay on the nasopharyngeal swab. The nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were examined for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of the SARS-CoV-2 RDT was 34.5% and the specificity was 99.8%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the test were 96.6% and 91.5%, respectively. The detection rate of RDT in RT-qPCR positive results was high (45%) for cycle threshold values <25. CONCLUSION: The utility of RDT is in diagnosing symptomatic patients and may not be particularly suited as a screening tool for patients with low viral load. The low sensitivity of RDT does not qualify its use as a single test in patients who test negative; RT-qPCR continues to be the gold standard test.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automation, Laboratory , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load/genetics
6.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S66-S66, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1517244
7.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S62-S63, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1517232
8.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5339-5349, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363673

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted from July 1, 2020 to September 25, 2020 in a dedicated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospital in Delhi, India to provide evidence for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in atmospheric air and surfaces of the hospital wards. Swabs from hospital surfaces (patient's bed, ward floor, and nursing stations area) and suspended particulate matter in ambient air were collected by a portable air sampler from the medicine ward, intensive care unit, and emergency ward admitting COVID-19 patients. By performing reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for E-gene and RdRp gene, SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected from hospital surfaces and particulate matters from the ambient air of various wards collected at 1 and 3-m distance from active COVID-19 patients. The presence of the virus in the air beyond a 1-m distance from the patients and surfaces of the hospital indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 virus has the potential to be transmitted by airborne and surface routes from COVID-19 patients to health-care workers working in COVID-19 dedicated hospital. This warrants that precautions against airborne and surface transmission of COVID-19 in the community should be taken when markets, industries, educational institutions, and so on, reopen for normal activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Fomites/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Air/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Particulate Matter/analysis
10.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 690-696, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223201

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare the cycle threshold (Ct) values of tears and nasopharyngeal (NP) swab in severe COVID-19 ICU patients with positive NP swabs.Procedure: A cross-sectional study for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time RT-PCR on simultaneously collected NP swabs and tears was performed. Detailed demographic profile, including comorbidities, ocular, and systemic features were analyzed.Results: In the 78 cases, the mean tear positivity was 26.92% (21/78), 2 tear samples being positive despite a negative NP swab. The mean Ct value of tears and NP were 28.17 ± 4.76 and 23.71 ± 6.19, respectively (p= .003). None of the cases had ocular findings or relationship between tear positivity and comorbidity.Conclusions: The viral load of tears is less than the NP secretions with the possibility of prolonged shedding in tears. Tears act as an additional source of contact transmission in ICU that can possibly be decreased by frequent hand hygiene by the patient.Abbreviations: SARS-CoV-2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; RT-PCR: Real-time Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; COVID-19: Corona virus disease 2019; ICU: Intensive care unit; RdRp: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; ORF 1b: Open reading frame 1b; AIIR: Airborne infection isolation room; HCW: Health care workers; VTM: viral transport media; NP: Nasopharyngeal swab; PPE: Personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Intensive Care Units , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tears/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Specimen Handling , Viral Load , Young Adult
11.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217396

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV -2 infection is rapidly evolving as a serious global pandemic. The present study describes the clinical characteristics of SARS CoV-2 infection patients. The Samples were subjected to RT - PCR or Rapid Antigen test for diagnosis of SARS CoV- 2. A cohort of 3745 patients with confirmed diagnosis of SARS CoV -2 infection in a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India were included in this study. Data was collected from offline and online medical records over a period of six months. Amongst 3745 SARS CoV -2 infected patients, 2245 (60%) were symptomatic and 1500 (40%) were asymptomatic. Most common presenting symptom was cough (49.3%) followed febrile episodes (47.1%), breathlessness (42.7%) and sore throat (35.1%). Cough along with breathlessness (24.1) was the most common combination of symptoms followed by fever with cough (22.7). The most common comorbidity found among symptomatic group was diabetes (42.5%) followed by hypertension (21.4%) and chronic kidney disease (18%). Comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, chronic diseases of lungs, heart and kidneys were found to be common in symptomatic group and this was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). COVID-19 is an evolving disease and data from our study help in understanding the clinic-epidemiological profile of patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Cornea ; 40(8): 1044-1047, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211435

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the analysis of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal (NP) samples of cornea donors dying because of causes unrelated to severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all cornea donors dying from causes other than SARS-CoV-2 between August 2020 and December 2020 was performed. Informed consent was obtained from the next of kin of the deceased for RT-PCR testing from NP swabs. Rapid antigen testing from all the deceased was performed before in situ cornea excision. In addition, NP samples in viral transport media for RT-PCR were also collected for SARS-CoV-2 analysis. Corneas were released from the eye bank only after a negative RT-PCR report. RESULT: One hundred eighteen corneas from 59 donors were obtained by the eye bank. Eleven donors (18.64%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR testing. Six of these 11 donors had a Ct value of E gene less than 25. CONCLUSIONS: NP samples of cornea donors dying due to causes other than coronavirus disease-19 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR. This implicates that donors could be having asymptomatic/undetected coronavirus disease infection. We recommend adding the routine testing of NP samples of all cornea donors in the eye banking protocol in this ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tissue Donors/supply & distribution , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cornea , Humans , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5339-5349, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206833

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted from July 1, 2020 to September 25, 2020 in a dedicated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospital in Delhi, India to provide evidence for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in atmospheric air and surfaces of the hospital wards. Swabs from hospital surfaces (patient's bed, ward floor, and nursing stations area) and suspended particulate matter in ambient air were collected by a portable air sampler from the medicine ward, intensive care unit, and emergency ward admitting COVID-19 patients. By performing reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for E-gene and RdRp gene, SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected from hospital surfaces and particulate matters from the ambient air of various wards collected at 1 and 3-m distance from active COVID-19 patients. The presence of the virus in the air beyond a 1-m distance from the patients and surfaces of the hospital indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 virus has the potential to be transmitted by airborne and surface routes from COVID-19 patients to health-care workers working in COVID-19 dedicated hospital. This warrants that precautions against airborne and surface transmission of COVID-19 in the community should be taken when markets, industries, educational institutions, and so on, reopen for normal activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Fomites/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Air/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Particulate Matter/analysis
14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(3 & 4): 385-389, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914616

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In the absence of effective treatment or vaccine, the current strategy for the prevention of further transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection is early diagnosis and isolation of cases. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 is done by detecting viral RNA in the nasopharyngeal and throat swabs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Many commercial assays are now available for performing the PCR assay. AIMS: The aim was to evaluate the performance of the SD Biosensor nCoV real-time detection kit with the real-time PCR kit provided by the Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology (ICMR-NIV), Pune (NIV Protocol). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 253 pairs of nasopharyngeal-oropharyngeal swabs combined in a single viral transport medium were tested for viral RNA by both the protocols. The sensitivity and specificity of the SD Biosensor were calculated considering the ICMR-NIV kit as the gold standard. Matched pairs of recorded cycle threshold values (Ct values) were compared by Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Concordant COVID-19 negative and positive PCR results were reported for 113 and 77 samples, respectively. The SD Biosensor kit additionally detected 62 cases, which were found negative by the NIV protocol. In all discordant positive results by the SD Biosensor kit, the average Ct values were higher than the concordant positive results. A total of forty samples tested positive for E gene by SD Biosensor and having Ct values <25 had 100% concordance with NIV protocol results and 39 samples tested positive for E gene by SD Biosensor having Ct value >32 were all found negative by the NIV protocol. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the need for careful evaluation of commercial kits before being deployed for screening of COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Pathology, Molecular/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
16.
Ophthalmology ; 128(4): 494-503, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735347

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in tears of patients with moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with laboratory-proven moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: Tears were collected within 48 hours of laboratory confirmation using 3 methods: conjunctival swab plus Schirmer's test strips (group 1), conjunctival swab (group 2), and Schirmer's test strips (group 3). Samples from both the eyes of each patient were transported in a single viral transport media for real-time RT-PCR. Detailed demographic profiles, systemic symptoms, comorbidities, and ocular manifestations were noted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Viral load of a sample was determined using cycle threshold (Ct) value of E gene. A specimen was considered to show positive results if the amplification curve for the E gene crossed the threshold line within 35 cycles and if it showed positive results on an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or open reading frame 1b gene assay. RESULTS: Of the 78 patients enrolled in the study, samples from 3 patients were found to be inadequate for analysis. Thirty-six patients (48%) had moderate disease, whereas 39 patients (52%) had severe disease, with no ocular involvement in any patient. In the 75 patients, RT-PCR analysis of tears showed positive results in 18 patients (24%), and 29 of 225 samples (12.9%) showed positive results. Positive results were found in 11 (14.7%), 11 (14.7%), and 7 (9.3%) patients in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P = 0.3105). Mean Ct values in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 28.36 ± 6.15, 29.00 ± 5.58, and 27.86 ± 6.46 (P = 0.92), respectively. Five patients showed positive RT-PCR results by all 3 methods (mean Ct value, 25.24 ± 6.33), and 12 patients showed positive results by any of the 3 methods (mean Ct value, 32.16 ± 1.94), the difference in Ct values being statistically significant (P = 0.029). The median value of symptomatology in patients with positive RT-PCR results from tears was 5 days (range, 4-9 days). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in tears of 24% of patients with laboratory-proven moderate to severe COVID-19. Conjunctival swab remains the gold standard of tear collection for RT-PCR assay. A significantly higher possibility of viral transmission exists through tears in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Conjunctiva/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling , Viral Load , Young Adult
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