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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722269

ABSTRACT

We identified the first case in Italy of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant by whole genome sequencing in an Italian subject travelling from Mozambique. Specific mutation profiles deserve further investigations to clarify potential effects on vaccination efficacy. This case highlights the crucial role of rapid and continuous surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 variant circulation.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317012

ABSTRACT

An Italian male with no link to China SARS-CoV-2 epidemic presented at Emergency Room with severe respiratory impairment. The RT-PCR on 20th February, 2020, nasopharyngeal swab revealed SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed with viral culture and sequencing. This was the first identified autochthonous SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Italy, that unveiled global pathogen diffusion.

3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(3): 299-304, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on HIV suppression rates in people living with HIV (PLWH) attending a large Italian HIV clinic. SETTING: The HIV outpatient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Department of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, which serves more than 5000 PLWH per year. METHODS: A before and after quasi-experimental study design was used to make a retrospective assessment of the monthly trend of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 among the PLWH attending our clinic, with "before" being the period from January 1, 2016 to February 20, 2020, and "after" being the period from February 21, 2020 to December 31, 2020 (the COVID-19 period). Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate any changes in the trend. RESULTS: During the study period, 70,349 HIV-RNA viral load determinations were made, and the percentage of HIV-RNA viral load determinations of <50 copies/mL increased from 88.4% in 2016 to 93.2% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). There was a significant monthly trend toward a decrease in the number of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 copies/mL before the pandemic (ß -0.084; standard error 0.015; P < 0.001), and this did not significantly change after it started (ß -0.039, standard error 0.161; P = 0.811). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of viral suppression was maintained among the PLWH referring to our clinic, despite the structural barriers raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of simplified methods of delivering care (such as teleconsultations and multiple antiretroviral treatment prescriptions) may have contributed to preserving this continuum.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Delivery of Health Care/methods , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects
4.
Clin Case Rep ; : e04154, 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217347

ABSTRACT

An Italian male with no link to China Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic presented at Emergency Room (ER) with severe respiratory impairment. The RT-PCR on 20 February 2020, nasopharyngeal swab revealed SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed with viral culture and sequencing. This was the first identified autochthonous SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Italy, that unveiled global pathogen diffusion. This clinical case highlights an underestimation of SARS-CoV-2 circulation, making initial containment measures unfit to face the real situation and delaying the management of potentially affected SARS-CoV-2 patients.

5.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1752-1757, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196461

ABSTRACT

The first identification of autochthonous transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy was documented by the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Virology and Bioemergencies of L. Sacco Hospital (Milano, Italy) on 20th February 2020 in a 38 years old male patient, who was found positive for pneumonia at the Codogno Hospital. Thereafter Lombardy has reported the highest prevalence of COVID-19 cases in the country, especially in Milano, Brescia and Bergamo provinces. The aim of this study was to assess the potential presence of different viral clusters belonging to the six main provinces involved in Lombardy COVID-19 cases in order to highlight peculiar province-dependent viral characteristics. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted on 20 full length genomes obtained from patients addressing to several Lombard hospitals from February 20th to April 4th, 2020, aligned with 41 Italian viral genome assemblies available on GISAID database as of 30th March, 2020: two main monophyletic clades, containing 8 and 53 isolates, respectively, were identified. Noteworthy, Bergamo isolates mapped inside the small clade harbouring M gene D3G mutation. The molecular clock analysis estimated a cluster divergence approximately one month before the first patient identification, supporting the hypothesis that different SARS-CoV-2 strains had spread worldwide at different times, but their presence became evident only in late February along with Italian epidemic emergence. Therefore, this epidemiological reconstruction suggests that virus initial circulation in Lombardy was ascribable to multiple introduction. The phylogenetic reconstruction robustness, however, will be improved when more genomic sequences are available, in order to guarantee a complete epidemiological surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , Geography , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Phylogeny
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 631-633, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093057

ABSTRACT

This study addressed the case of a patient with prolonged COVID-19 viral shedding, reported by Real-Time PCR, until 71 days from symptom onset. However, viral culture received negative results after 30 days from symptom onset. Therefore, viral culture may be a worthwhile test for patients requiring discharge, in particular for those presenting prolonged viral shedding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Aged, 80 and over , Cell Culture Techniques , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5128, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851277

ABSTRACT

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection during gestation remains unclear. Here, we analyse the viral genome on maternal and newborns nasopharyngeal swabs, vaginal swabs, maternal and umbilical cord plasma, placenta and umbilical cord biopsies, amniotic fluids and milk from 31 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we also test specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in placentas, and in maternal and umbilical cord plasma. We detect SARS-CoV-2 genome in one umbilical cord blood and in two at-term placentas, in one vaginal mucosa and in one milk specimen. Furthermore, we report the presence of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in one umbilical cord blood and in one milk specimen. Finally, in the three documented cases of vertical transmission, SARS-CoV-2 infection was accompanied by a strong inflammatory response. Together, these data support the hypothesis that in utero SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission, while low, is possible. These results might help defining proper obstetric management of COVID-19 pregnant women, or putative indications for mode and timing of delivery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140911, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641165

ABSTRACT

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in raw wastewaters has been demonstrated in many countries affected by this pandemic. Nevertheless, virus presence and infectivity in treated wastewaters, but also in the receiving water bodies are still poorly investigated. In this study, raw and treated samples from three wastewater treatment plants, and three river samples within the Milano Metropolitan Area, Italy, were surveyed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by means of real time RT-PCR and infectivity test on culture cells. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in raw, but not in treated wastewaters (four and two samples, respectively, sampled in two dates). The isolated virus genome was sequenced, and belonged to the strain most spread in Europe and similar to another found in the same region. RNA presence in raw wastewater samples decreased after eight days, probably following the epidemiological trend estimated for the area. Virus infectivity was always null, indicating the natural decay of viral pathogenicity in time from emission. Samples from receiving rivers (three sites, sampled in the same dates as wastewaters) showed in some cases a positivity to real time RT-PCR, probably due to non-treated, or inefficiently treated discharges, or to the combined sewage overflows. Nevertheless, also for rivers infectivity was null. Risks for public health should be limited, although a precautionary approach to risk assessment is here advocated, giving the preliminary nature of the presented data.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Rivers , Waste Water , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
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