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1.
Information Systems and eBusiness Management ; 20(1):223-255, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1767519

ABSTRACT

While embracing digitalization that is further accentuated by the Covid-19 pandemic, the real business outcome is achieved through a robust and well-crafted ‘Data Science Strategy’ (DSS), as significant constituent of Enterprise Digital Strategy. Extant literature has studied the challenges in adoption of components of ‘Data Science’ in discrete for various industry sectors and domains. There is dearth of studies on comprehensive ‘Data Science’ adoption as an umbrella constituting all of its components. The study conducts a “Systematic Literature Review (SLR)” on enablers and barriers affecting the implementation and success of DSS in enterprises. The SLR comprised of 113 published articles during the period 1998 and 2021. In this SLR, we address the gap by synthesizing and proposing a novel framework of ‘Enablers and Barriers’ influencing the success of DSS in enterprises. The proposed framework of ‘Data Science Strategy’ can help organizations taking the right steps towards successful implementation of ‘Data Science’ projects.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321099

ABSTRACT

Background: Whilst an effective vaccine may present the safest way to achieve adequate population immunity from the COVID-19 pandemic, a key challenge towards successful uptake is vaccine hesitancy. We examine and provide novel insights on the key drivers and barriers towards COVID-19 vaccine uptake.Methods: This study involved an anonymous cross-sectional online survey circulated across the UK. Multi-nominal logistic models examined demographic factors that may impact vaccine uptake. We used principle component analysis and text mining to explore perception related to vaccine uptake.Findings: The survey had 4884 respondents of which 9·44% were BAME (Black Asian Minority Ethnic). Overall 3873 (79·3%) respondents were interested in taking approved vaccines while 677 (13·9%) respondents were unsure, and 334 (6·8%) respondents would not take a vaccine. Participants aged over 70 years (Odds Ratio (OR) = 4·63) and the BAME community (OR = 5·48) were more likely to accept approved vaccines. Smokers (OR=0·45) and respondents with no known illness (OR = 0·70) were less likely to accept approved vaccines. The study identified 16 key reasons for not accepting approved vaccines - the most common (60%) being the possibility of the COVID-19 vaccine having side effects.Interpretation: This study provides an insight into potential governmental policy recommendations essential in designing strategies to reduce vaccine hesitancy. These strategies could increase engagement and encourage participation from BAME groups, smokers and those with no diagnosed health conditions, ensuring adequate immunity. This proves crucial in managing the COVID-19 pandemic.Funding: This study was independently funded and there was no funding source associated with this study.Declaration of Interests: This research has been supported by NIHR CRN West Midlands. MJB has received grants and travel expenses from Vifor International and Tillots Pharma, outside of the submitted work. All other authors report no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The interview questions were collated, reviewed and refined internally by a group of researchers. This was followed by an external review and further refinement by a group of volunteers made up of patients, public and user groups, the CRN West Midlands Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Research Champions Group. Feedback from this group was used to modify questions prior to the survey going live. The study was approved by local approval processes and by theClinical Research Network, West Midlands. From ethics discussions, no ethical-related issues were identified. Consent was obtained from participants prior to completion of the form. Participants were provided with information about the study, and how the data was going to be disseminated in the initial page of the survey.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321098

ABSTRACT

Background: Developing a safe and effective vaccine will be the principal way of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. However, current COVID-19 vaccination trials are not adequately representing a diverse participant population in terms of age, ethnicity and comorbidities. Achieving the representative recruitment targets that are adequately powered to the study remains one of the greatest challenges in clinical trial management. To ensure accuracy and generalizability of the safety and efficacy conclusions generated by clinical trials, it is crucial to recruit patient cohorts as representative as possible of the future target population. Missing these targets can lead to reduced validity of the study results, and can often slow down drug development leading to costly delays. This study explores the key factors related to perceptions and participation in vaccination trials. Methods: This study involved an anonymous cross-sectional online survey circulated across the UK. Statistical analysis was done in six phases. Multi-nominal logistic models examined demographic and geographic factors that may impact vaccine uptake. Results: The survey had 4884 participants of which 9·44% were BAME (Black Asian Minority Ethnic). Overall 2020 (41.4%) respondents were interested in participating in vaccine trials;27.6% of the respondents were not interested and 31.1.% were unsure. The most interested groups were male (OR=1.290), graduates (OR=1.277), the 40-49 and 50-59 age group (OR=1.880 and OR=1.460 respectively) and those with no health issues (OR=1.064). The least interested groups were BAME (OR=0.427), those from villages and small towns (OR=0.66 and 0.54 respectively), and those aged 70 and above (OR=1.11). Conclusions: : In order to have a vaccination that is generalizable to the entire population, greater work needs to be done in engaging a diverse cohort of participants. Public health campaigns need to be targeted in improving trial recruitment rates for the elderly, BAME community and the less educated rural population.

4.
Information Systems and e-Business Management ; : 1-33, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652227

ABSTRACT

While embracing digitalization that is further accentuated by the Covid-19 pandemic, the real business outcome is achieved through a robust and well-crafted ‘Data Science Strategy’ (DSS), as significant constituent of Enterprise Digital Strategy. Extant literature has studied the challenges in adoption of components of ‘Data Science’ in discrete for various industry sectors and domains. There is dearth of studies on comprehensive ‘Data Science’ adoption as an umbrella constituting all of its components. The study conducts a “Systematic Literature Review (SLR)” on enablers and barriers affecting the implementation and success of DSS in enterprises. The SLR comprised of 113 published articles during the period 1998 and 2021. In this SLR, we address the gap by synthesizing and proposing a novel framework of ‘Enablers and Barriers’ influencing the success of DSS in enterprises. The proposed framework of ‘Data Science Strategy’ can help organizations taking the right steps towards successful implementation of ‘Data Science’ projects. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10257-022-00550-x.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2173, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has initiated several initiatives to better understand its behavior, and some projects are monitoring its evolution across countries, which naturally leads to comparisons made by those using the data. However, most "at a glance" comparisons may be misleading because the curve that should explain the evolution of COVID-19 is different across countries, as a result of the underlying geopolitical or socio-economic characteristics. Therefore, this paper contributes to the scientific endeavour by creating a new evaluation framework to help stakeholders adequately monitor and assess the evolution of COVID-19 in countries, considering the occurrence of spikes, "secondary waves" and structural breaks in the time series. METHODS: Generalized Additive Models were used to model cumulative and daily curves for confirmed cases and deaths. The Root Relative Squared Error and the Percentage Deviance Explained measured how well the models fit the data. A local min-max function was used to identify all local maxima in the fitted values. The pure Markov-Switching and the family of Markov-Switching GARCH models were used to identify structural breaks in the COVID-19 time series. Finally, a quadrants system to identify countries that are more/less efficient in the short/long term in controlling the spread of the virus and the number of deaths was developed. Such methods were applied in the time series of 189 countries, collected from the Centre for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. RESULTS: Our methodology proves more effective in explaining the evolution of COVID-19 than growth functions worldwide, in addition to standardizing the entire estimation process in a single type of function. Besides, it highlights several inflection points and regime-switching moments, as a consequence of people's diminished commitment to fighting the pandemic. Although Europe is the most developed continent in the world, it is home to most countries with an upward trend and considered inefficient, for confirmed cases and deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The new outcomes presented in this research will allow key stakeholders to check whether or not public policies and interventions in the fight against COVID-19 are having an effect, easily identifying examples of best practices and promote such policies more widely around the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Europe , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048856, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270894

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A key challenge towards a successful COVID-19 vaccine uptake is vaccine hesitancy. We examine and provide novel insights on the key drivers and barriers towards COVID-19 vaccine uptake. DESIGN: This study involved an anonymous cross-sectional online survey circulated across the UK in September 2020. The survey was designed to include several sections to collect demographic data and responses on (1) extent of agreement regarding various statements about COVID-19 and vaccinations, (2) previous vaccination habits (eg, if they had previously declined vaccination) and (3) interest in participation in vaccine trials. Multinominal logistic models examined demographic factors that may impact vaccine uptake. We used principle component analysis and text mining to explore perception related to vaccine uptake. SETTING: The survey was circulated through various media, including posts on social media networks (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Instagram), national radio, news articles, Clinical Research Network website and newsletter, and through 150 West Midlands general practices via a text messaging service. PARTICIPANTS: There were a total of 4884 respondents of which 9.44% were black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) group. The majority were women (n=3416, 69.9%) and of white ethnicity (n=4127, 84.5%). RESULTS: Regarding respondents, overall, 3873 (79.3%) were interested in taking approved COVID-19 vaccines, while 677 (13.9%) were unsure, and 334 (6.8%) would not take a vaccine. Participants aged over 70 years old (OR=4.63) and the BAME community (OR=5.48) were more likely to take an approved vaccine. Smokers (OR=0.45) and respondents with no known illness (OR=0.70) were less likely to accept approved vaccines. The study identified 16 key reasons for not accepting approved vaccines, the most common (60%) being the possibility of the COVID-19 vaccine having side effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an insight into focusing on specific populations to reduce vaccine hesitancy. This proves crucial in managing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , Vaccination
7.
Trials ; 22(1): 296, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Developing a safe and effective vaccine will be the principal way of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. However, current COVID-19 vaccination trials are not adequately representing a diverse participant population in terms of age, ethnicity and comorbidities. Achieving the representative recruitment targets that are adequately powered to the study remains one of the greatest challenges in clinical trial management. To ensure accuracy and generalisability of the safety and efficacy conclusions generated by clinical trials, it is crucial to recruit patient cohorts as representative as possible of the future target population. Missing these targets can lead to reduced validity of the study results and can often slow down drug development leading to costly delays. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the key factors related to perceptions and participation in vaccination trials. METHODS: This study involved an anonymous cross-sectional online survey circulated across the UK. Statistical analysis was done in six phases. Multi-nominal logistic models examined demographic and geographic factors that may impact vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The survey had 4884 participants of which 9.44% were Black Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME). Overall, 2020 (41.4%) respondents were interested in participating in vaccine trials; 27.6% of the respondents were not interested and 31.1% were unsure. The most interested groups were male (OR = 1.29), graduates (OR = 1.28), the 40-49 and 50-59 age groups (OR = 1.88 and OR = 1.46 respectively) and those with no health issues (OR = 1.06). The least interested groups were BAME (OR = 0.43), those from villages and small towns (OR = 0.66 and 0.54 respectively) and those aged 70 and above (OR = 1.11). CONCLUSIONS: In order to have a vaccination that is generalisable to the entire population, greater work needs to be done in engaging a diverse cohort of participants. Public health campaigns need to be targeted in improving trial recruitment rates for the elderly, BAME community and the less educated rural population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Patient Selection , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom , Vaccination , Young Adult
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