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1.
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering ; 10(30):9811-9819, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2016557

ABSTRACT

For the past two years, doxycycline has been employed hugely for the treatment of COVID 19 over the globe. Excessive use of doxycycline can result in bacteria and gene resistance, which affects the future treatment of infectious diseases. Furthermore, unused doxycycline left from the hospital and pharmaceutical industries may have an adverse effect on the environment, posing a significant menace to modern society. As a result, doxycycline detection is required. Herein, we developed blue luminous nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) using ascorbic acid and diethylenetriamine (DETA) as carbon and nitrogen sources via a microwave-assisted technique for the differential detection of doxycycline (DC) via a fluorescence quenching mechanism, even when other tetracycline derivatives interfere. The quenching mechanism has been elaborately explained by using a Stern-Volmer plot, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, and TCSPC to attribute the static quenching and inner filter effect. In addition, the limit of detection of our suggested sensor is 0.25 μM. To confirm the structural properties and the size of the N-CQDs, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, HRTEM, DLS, and EDX have been performed. Moreover, this approach was used to identify doxycycline in pharmaceutical waste and bacterial cells. Because of its great sensitivity and selectivity, N-CQDs are ideal for measuring DC in environmental applications. © 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

2.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 99(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1596717

ABSTRACT

Background: The recent pandemic by COVID-19 is a global threat to human health. The disease is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and the infection rate is increased more quickly than MERS and SARS as their rapid adaptation to varied climatic conditions through rapid mutations. It becomes more severe due to the lack of proper therapeutic drugs, insufficient diagnostic tool, scarcity of appropriate drug, life supporting medical facility and mostly lack of awareness. Therefore, preventive measure is one of the important strategies to control. In this context, herbal medicinal plants received a noticeable attention to treat COVID-19 in Indian subcontinent. Here, 44 Indian traditional plants have been discussed with their novel phytochemicals that prevent the novel corona virus. The basic of SARS-CoV-2, their common way of transmission including their effect on immune and nervous system have been discussed. We have analysed their mechanism of action against COVID-19 following in-silico analysis. Their probable mechanism and therapeutic approaches behind the activity of phytochemicals to stimulate immune response as well as inhibition of viral multiplication discussed rationally. Thus, mixtures of active secondary metabolites/phytochemicals are the only choice to prevent the disease in countries where vaccination will take long time due to overcrowded population density. © 2021 Indian Chemical Society

3.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 97(8):1287-1294, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1292451

ABSTRACT

Both, zinc and copper play important roles in human metabolic processes. In humans, zinc (Zn) is required directly for the chemical catalysis and/or maintaining the structure of nearly 10% of total body proteins. It plays a significant role not only in immune defence but also takes part in DNA and protein synthesis, growth and development throughout the life span as well as in tissue repair. On the other hand, copper (Cu) is crucial to strengthen the skin, epithelial tissue, connective tissue and blood vessels. Cu helps to increase the level of haemoglobin, melanin and myelin in our body. Both of these trace metals possess antioxidant like properties. However, it is necessary to balance the optimal concentration of Zn or Cu in blood serum to avoid the associated organ damage. Excess zinc intake increases the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is harmful to normal renal function and thus elevated the risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, the one and only reason for heart, kidney and liver failure including Wilson disease is the excess amount of copper. Both of these trace metals are responsible to deal with brain diseases. Thus, there are many "faces" of Zn and Cu in the maintenance of cellular network including immunomodulatory regulation and infection prevention. Zinc appears to inhibit the enzymatic processes of viral protease and polymerase, as well as different physical processes for instance virus attachment, inflammation, and viral uncoating. Ideally, the clinicians should monitor zinc status of the individuals and advice for the supplements when necessary, otherwise deficiency of these micronutrients could lead to the onset of severe secondary diseases.

4.
New Microbes New Infect ; 40: 100837, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047762

ABSTRACT

Defined as helpful live bacteria that can provide medical advantages to the host when administered in tolerable amounts, oral probiotics might be worth considering as a possible preventive or therapeutic modality to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom severity. This hypothesis stems from an emerging understanding of the gut-lung axis wherein probiotic microbial species in the digestive tract can influence systemic immunity, lung immunity, and possibly viral pathogenesis and secondary infection co-morbidities. We review the principles underlying the gut-lung axis, examples of probiotic-associated antiviral activities, and current clinical trials in COVID-19 based on oral probiotics.

5.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 97(8):1305-1315, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-958812

ABSTRACT

Ayurveda extends various concepts which direct us about the management of infectious diseases including deadly viral infections in either preventive or curative manner. In cases of emerging viral diseases where there is little scientific knowledge, a vigilant observation can help prepare plan and management in future outbreaks. This work summarizes few important viral pathogens that have gained particular attention in recent years and their possible remedies with ayurvedic medicine. To challenge against the deadly viruses without medicine, immunity is the only choice. Ayurvedic medicines guide us to strengthen our natural defense systems by increasing the body's immunity level. The recent viral pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, identified as the cause of COVID-19 and there is no approved drug to control the infection yet. The viral proteases including human proteases have significant role in disease progression. Among all the human proteases, furin is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in viral diseases as it cleaves and activates several types of viral proteins including the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Results obtained from in silico analysis of the common metabolites of tulsi (Ocimum sp.) revealed their effectiveness to inactive the furin enzyme. Interestingly, Ayurvedic medicines have been prepared as different formulations with several ingredients or metabolites might have potential to inactivate the furin protein by binding at various positions. Thus, it suggests that the combined or synergistic action of metabolites present in ayurvedic medicine may be a promising therapeutics to prevent viral diseases. © 2020 Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.

6.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 97(8):1287-1294, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-958794

ABSTRACT

Both, zinc and copper play important roles in human metabolic processes. In humans, zinc (Zn) is required directly for the chemical catalysis and/or maintaining the structure of nearly 10% of total body proteins. It plays a significant role not only in immune defence but also takes part in DNA and protein synthesis, growth and development throughout the life span as well as in tissue repair. On the other hand, copper (Cu) is crucial to strengthen the skin, epithelial tissue, connective tissue and blood vessels. Cu helps to increase the level of haemoglobin, melanin and myelin in our body. Both of these trace metals possess antioxidant like properties. However, it is necessary to balance the optimal concentration of Zn or Cu in blood serum to avoid the associated organ damage. Excess zinc intake increases the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is harmful to normal renal function and thus elevated the risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, the one and only reason for heart, kidney and liver failure including Wilson disease is the excess amount of copper. Both of these trace metals are responsible to deal with brain diseases. Thus, there are many “faces” of Zn and Cu in the maintenance of cellular network including immunomodulatory regulation and infection prevention. Zinc appears to inhibit the enzymatic processes of viral protease and polymerase, as well as different physical processes for instance virus attachment, inflammation, and viral uncoating. Ideally, the clinicians should monitor zinc status of the individuals and advice for the supplements when necessary, otherwise deficiency of these micronutrients could lead to the onset of severe secondary diseases. © 2020 Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 97(8):1279-1285, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-958718

ABSTRACT

In this article we have tried to address the plausible identification of a novel lead drug molecule against COVID-19. Nine different arsenic (As) based molecules, roxarsone derivatives were designed and optimized for computational analysis to determine its binding affinity against SARS-CoV-2. The molecules were screened based on their chemical reactivity with respect to conceptual density functional theory (CDFT) and global reactivity descriptors. The screened molecules were docked blindly against RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) using molecular docking software iGEMDOCK v2.1. On the basis of idock score in their respective catalytic domain, di-phenyl phenoxy roxarsone identified as promising inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 with binding free energy calculated as -86.8 kcal/mol. Site specific docking was also executed with target site, receptor binding domain (RDB) of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 whose structure was computationally designed using Phyre2 server. The interaction study of RDB with di-phenyl phenoxy roxarsone revealed a binding energy -133.3 kcal/mol. Thus it can be concluded from the above in silico experiment that screening of potential arsenic based roxarsone derivative would help in development of new therapeutic drug for COVID-19. © 2020 Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.

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