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Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 155, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021318


BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been challenging health care systems and made it necessary to use rapid and cost-effective testing methods, particularly in Emergency Department (ED) settings. Rapid Antigen Diagnostic Tests (RADTs) are a valid alternative to the gold standard RT-PCR, even in pediatric populations. This retrospective observational study has been conducted on a pediatric cohort afferent to the ED of the San Giovanni di Dio and Ruggi d'Aragona University Hospital in Salerno, tested at Point of Care with RADT Panbio® (Abbott), from September 1st, 2021 to February 28th, 2022, analyzing the positivity rate and clinical features of the cohort, also in reference to the rise of positive cases observed in the aforementioned period, and to the introduction in Italy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for children and teens on December 16th, 2021. METHODS: Data regarding access to the pediatric ED were extracted from the hospital's electronic database system. Parallel to this, we conducted a narrative literature search using PubMed database focusing on the use of RADT in pediatric ED and compared our data with the national pandemic trend. RESULTS: During the observation period, 1890 patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 with RADT and the 2.7% of children resulted positive, with a peak in January 2022. The main symptoms in positive patients were: fever (n = 34; 66.7%), cough (n = 11; 21.5%), headache (n = 4; 7.8%), chest pain (n = 2; 3.9%) and abdominal pain (n = 1; 2%). Patients were divided into three different age groups (A, B, C) basing on the different access timing to vaccination; no statistically significant difference was detected in the distribution of positivity in these three groups (p > 0.05). Number of positive children in group A was greater in the post-vaccine group. Our data are concordant with the national trend of the pandemic showing a fourth wave peak in January 2022. CONCLUSION: The use of RADT as a first point-of-care screening may be helpful, time-saving and cost-sparing. Our study shows that, during the observation period, most children admitted to the ED for fever, actually tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with a statistically greater difference than negative children. Instead, number of patients admitted for cough was statistically higher among negative than positive ones, probably due to the circulation of other respiratory viruses in children.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cough , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever , Humans
Children (Basel) ; 9(4)2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792795


Liver and pancreatic involvement in children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 (MIS-C) has been poorly investigated so far. We reviewed a cohort of MIS-C patients to analyze the prevalence of acute liver injury (ALI) and pancreatic injury and their correlation with clinical outcomes. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and imaging features of children with MIS-C at admission and during hospital stay were prospectively collected. Fifty-five patients (mean age 6.5 ± 3.7 years) were included. At admission, 16 patients showed ALI and 5 had increased total serum lipase. During observation, 10 more patients developed ALI and 19 more subjects presented raised pancreatic enzymes. In comparison to those with normal ALT, subjects with ALI were significantly older (p = 0.0004), whereas pancreatic involvement was associated to a longer duration of hospital stay compared with patients with normal pancreatic enzymes (p = 0.004). Time between hospital admission and onset of ALI was shorter compared to the onset of raised pancreatic enzymes (3.2 ± 3.9 versus 5.3 ± 2.7 days, respectively; p = 0.035). Abdominal ultrasound showed liver steatosis in 3/26 (12%) and hepatomegaly in 6/26 (16%) patients with ALI; 2 patients presented enlarged pancreas. Although liver and pancreatic involvement is commonly observed in MIS-C patients, it is mild in most cases with a complete recovery.

J Pediatr Surg Case Rep ; 69: 101838, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174236


BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a potentially life-threatening condition occurring 2-6 weeks after Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in previously healthy children and adolescents, characterized by clinical and laboratory evidence of multiorgan inflammation. We reported the case of a 6-year-old child presented with acute abdomen and then diagnosed with MIS-C. In addition, to better portray this new entity, we performed a systematic review of MIS-C gastrointestinal features and particularly on those mimicking surgical emergencies. METHODS: We described the clinical presentation, the diagnostic approach and the therapeutic outcomes of our MIS-C patient. Parallel to this, we conducted a systematic literature search using Google Scholar, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, focusing on gastrointestinal MIS-C. RESULTS: Our patient was initially assessed by the surgical team due to his query acute abdomen. Following the diagnosis of MIS-C with myocarditis, intravenous methylprednisolone (2 mg/Kg/day) and intravenous immunoglobulins (2 gr/Kg single infusion) were promptly started, leading to clinical improvement. According to our literature search, patients with MIS-C have a high rate of severe abdominal symptoms resembling surgical emergencies (appendicitis, obstruction, etc.) and a not negligible number of those patients have been surgically explored with variable findings. CONCLUSIONS: We encourage pediatric surgeons in the upcoming months of COVID-19 pandemic to evaluate myocardial function prior to surgical abdominal exploration. In children with query acute abdomen, MIS-C should be promptly ruled out in order to avoid unnecessary surgeries that could worsen the already frail outcome of this new syndrome. Nevertheless, it should be considered that MIS-C might well encompass complications (e.g. appendicitis, segmental intestinal ischemia) which need swift surgical treatment.

Med Hypotheses ; 149: 110529, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078090