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1.
ASAIO Journal ; 68:62, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032180

ABSTRACT

Background: Veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being utilized to manage critical COVID-19 associated ARDS (CCAA) in patients who fail medical optimization and mechanical ventilatory support. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of weaning patients from ECMO over time and whether a subset of patients should be considered for lung transplantation. Additionally, we investigated when lung transplant should be considered after VV ECMO support. Methods: 49 patients with CCAA who required ECMO between January 2020 and September 2021 were investigated. Baseline patient demographics, clinical, laboratory, and follow-up data were compared. The change in probability of ECMO weaning based on duration of ECMO support was studied using a univariate analysis. Additionally, patients who received lung transplantation following VV ECMO for COVID-19 during this same period were studied to compare outcomes to those of patients with only VV ECMO support. Cox proportion hazard analysis was performed to determine predictors of survival in patients who required greater than 28 days of ECMO support. Yuden index was used to determine change in probability of survival with time on ECMO. Results: Of 49 patients, 17 (35%) received lung transplants and 32 (65%) remained on ECMO for >28 days. The probability of weaning patients from ECMO was highest within the first 10 days (60%);beyond 40 days, it was 5.1% (Fig. A). The probability of successfully weaning patients from ECMO significantly decreased over time and ECMO support greater than 28 days (Yuden index, Hazard ratio: 1.09, 95% CI;1.00-1.03) was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. Additionally, both survival to hospital discharge (p<0.001, Fig. B) and post-discharge survival (p<0.001, Fig. C) were significantly greater in those who were weaned from ECMO prior to 28 days than those who were weaned after 28 days. In those who could not be weaned from ECMO, lung transplantation (HR:0.47, p<0.01, 95% CI 0.17-0.94), ECMO duration (HR:1.09, p=0.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03) and higher BUN levels (HR:1.02, p<0.01, 95% CI 1.01- 1.46) prior to ECMO initiation were independent predictors of survival. ECMO support of greater than 8 days was associated with a statistically significant increase in mortality compared to those who received fewer than 8 days of support (Yuden index, HR 1.96, CI 1.06-5.51). Furthermore, the projected survival of patients on ECMO support for greater than 8 days was substantially worse than those requiring fewer than 8 days of support (Fig. C and D). Conclusion: This study suggests that survival and accompanying lung recovery is more probable in patients who require a short duration of ECMO support whereas those who require longer durations, particularly exceeding 28 days, is associated with a lower rate of survival. (Figure Presented).

2.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation ; 41(4):S371-S372, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989197

ABSTRACT

Purpose Traditionally, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) receive significant sedation and neuromuscular blockade (NMB) to facilitate lung protective mechanical ventilation. However, we previously showed the feasibility of managing these patients without mechanical ventilation, sedation, or NMB. Reduced levels of sedation allows patients to begin physical and occupational therapy (PT/OT) early on. Here, we investigate the impact of early PT/OT initiation on day of discharge (DOD) functional activity for severe ARDS patients managed on VV ECMO. Methods This is a retrospective review of all patients who underwent VV ECMO as management for severe ARDS at a single academic center from February 2018 to June 2021. Data collected included patients’ demographics, co-morbidities, etiology of ARDS, days of ECMO support before PT/OT initiation, and ambulation distance and PT/OT Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AMPAC) Six-Clicks score on DOD. Results 67 patients were included in this study. Those with >7 days on VV ECMO had decreased ambulation and AMPAC scores compared to those with < 7 days (N=41, 70.5 ± 113.3ft vs N=26, 162.1 ± 154.1ft, p<0.01, 12.3 ± 5.9 vs 16.4 ± 6.8, p=0.01, respectively). PT/OT initiation within 7 days after starting VV ECMO significantly improved ambulation and AMPAC scores compared to those with >7 days of VV ECMO prior to any PT/OT (N=30, 163.5 ± 160.5ft vs N=37, 59.5 ± 93.5ft, p<0.001, 16.6 ± 7.1 vs 11.8 ± 5.2, p<0.01, respectively). In patients with >7 days on VV ECMO, those who began PT/OT within 10 days of starting VV-ECMO had improved ambulation and AMPAC scores compared to those with >10 days of VV ECMO prior to PT/OT (N=9, 151.8 ± 164.8ft vs N=32, 44.2 ± 77.8ft, p<0.01, 16.5 ± 7.7 vs 11.0 ± 54.5, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion Early PT/OT initiation in severe ARDS patients managed on VV ECMO is associated with improved patient functional activity on DOD. This may provide benefits such as enhanced recovery, increased ability to complete activities of daily living, and improved cognitive health. Our study further supports the use of VV ECMO in treatment of severe ARDS without mechanical ventilation, sedation or NMB and specifically demonstrates PT/OT should be started early following initiation of VV ECMO to improve patients’ functional outcomes.

3.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S525-S525, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848874
4.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333581

ABSTRACT

Lung transplantation can potentially be a life-saving treatment for patients with non-resolving COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Concerns limiting transplant include recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the allograft, technical challenges imposed by viral-mediated injury to the native lung, and potential risk for allograft infection by pathogens associated with ventilator-induced pneumonia in the native lung. Additionally, the native lung might recover, resulting in long-term outcomes preferable to transplant. Here, we report the results of the first two successful lung transplantation procedures in patients with non-resolving COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome in the United States. We performed smFISH to detect both positive and negative strands of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the explanted lung tissue, extracellular matrix imaging using SHIELD tissue clearance, and single cell RNA-Seq on explant and warm post-mortem lung biopsies from patients who died from severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Lungs from patients with prolonged COVID-19 were free of virus but pathology showed extensive evidence of injury and fibrosis which resembled end-stage pulmonary fibrosis. Single cell RNA-Seq of the explanted native lungs from transplant and paired warm post-mortem autopsies showed similarities between late SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory distress syndrome and irreversible end-stage pulmonary fibrosis requiring lung transplantation. There was no recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 or pathogens associated with pre-transplant ventilator associated pneumonias following transplantation in either patient. Our findings suggest that some patients with severe COVID-19 develop fibrotic lung disease for which lung transplantation is the only option for survival. SINGLE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Some patients with severe COVID-19 develop end-stage pulmonary fibrosis for which lung transplantation may be the only treatment.

5.
Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S524-S524, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1783382

ABSTRACT

: Lung transplantation is a potentially lifesaving treatment for severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), when optimized medical treatment fails to accomplish lung recovery. However, since the long-term outcomes remain unknown, concerns related to the use of lung transplantation in critically ill COVID-19 patients persist. In the current study, we evaluated consecutive patients that underwent lung transplantation for severe COVID-19 ARDS at our center and compared their post-transplant outcomes with those undergoing transplantation for non-COVID-19 pathology during the concurrent study period. All consecutive patients undergoing lung transplantation between January 2020 to May 2021 were included. The study included two cohorts of patients that underwent transplantation for non-COVID-19 disease (nC19) or refractory COVID-19 ARDS (C19). For additional analysis, we included consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 that required veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We found that post-procedure complications and length of stay were significantly greater compared to transplants performed for non-COVID-19 lung diseases during the concurrent study period. Following transplant the COVID-19 cohort demonstrated a more rapid improvement in Karnofsky performance status. At one year, all recipients in COVID-19 cohort were alive with post-transplant survival no different than institutional non-COVID-19 recipients. Furthermore, when compared to propensity-matched recipients from SRTR, post-transplant survival of institutional COVID-19 ARDS patients was non-inferior. There was progressive reduction in the probability of separation from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with time and ECMO support greater than 30 days was associated with a significantly greater risk of death in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. In those who remained unweanable from ECMO after 30 days, lung transplant was an independent predictor of survival. We conclude that lung transplantation in selected patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS who remain unweanable from extracorporeal life support can result in post-transplant outcomes comparable to recipients with chronic end-stage lung diseases and non-COVID-19 ARDS. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277303

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause severe respiratory failure that worsens despite maximal medical management. When to initiate extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and how to manage these patients on ECMO is not clear. Here, we present our experience with venovenous ECMO to support patients with COVID-19 and compare it to historic patients supported with VV-ECMO for other causes of respiratory failure. Methods: Patients admitted to our tertiary academic medical center in 2019 and 2020 who received VV ECMO support were included in this retrospective chart review. We examined patients with and without COVID-19 infection. We placed COVID-19 patients on ECMO who failed supportive care with mechanical ventilation using a high PEEP low tidal volume strategy, prone positioning, and neuromuscular blockade. Data analysis were done in Excel and Prism. Non-parametric data were compared with unpaired, two-tailed Mann-Whitney tests. Results: ECMO was provided to 26 COVID-19 patients and 38 patients without COVID-19. Median (interquartile range) age of COVID-19 patients was 49.5 (40.5-56.25), compared with non-COVID-19 patients: 53.5 (30.5-60.25), p=0.28. COVID-19 patients had a significantly higher BMI: 32 (30.1-35.9) vs. 26.4 (23.6-29.4), p<0.001. There were 27% female COVID-19 patients compared with 37% female non-COVID patients (p=0.43). COVID-19 patients had similar PaO2:FiO2 ratios as non-COVID patients on day of cannulation: 74 (69-112) vs 78 (60-205), p=0.65. COVID-19 patients had longer ventilator duration pre-cannulation (not including time spent intubated at outside hospitals prior to transfer to our center)-1.9 (1.4-7.0) days vs 0.7 (-.2-1.0) days, p<0.001. COVID patients spent more days on ECMO compared with non-COVID patients: 20.7 (7.3-36.5) vs. 11.5 (3.8-26.8), p=0.14. Twelve (46%) of the COVID-19 ECMO patients died, compared with 9 (25%) of the non-COVID ECMO patients, p=0.10. Conclusions: In patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia induced ARDS who fail maximal supportive therapy with mechanical ventilation, outcomes are similar or worse than patients historically receiving VV ECMO support for respiratory failure. These findings highlight the need to determine the optimal timing of ECMO initiation and management in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

9.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 40(4):S398-S398, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1187474
10.
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 40(4, Supplement):S12, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1141835

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions of people across the world and caused several thousands of deaths. Given advances in extracorporeal life support technology, ECMO for COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has proven to be successful in sustaining life, however, has left a significant number of patients fully depended on devices and incapable of being weaned. Lung transplantation, as a well-established therapy for end-stage lung disease, has been considered for some patients with COVID-19 ARDS in the absence of lung recovery and the presence of findings suggestive of end-stage lung disease. Methods This is an International collaborative effort to assess the role of lung transplantation in COVID-19 ARDS. There is worldwide representation with centers from US (3), Europe (2) and Asia (1). Patients with COVID-19 ARDS supported on ECMO and/or mechanical ventilation who were deemed unweanable and developed features of end-stage lung disease were evaluated for lung transplantation. We followed ISHLT conventional recipient selection criteria recommendations and a 2 negative COVID-19 PCRs from bronchoalveaolar lavage or viral culture depending on medical urgency. Endpoints We will present demographics, intraoperative challenges, primary graft dysfunction, postoperative complications, survival and functional outcomes of patients with COVID-19 ARDS who underwent lung transplantation. Additionally, referral patterns, reasons for listing denial and waitlist outcomes will be presented. So far, this collaborative group has transplanted 17 patients. There have been no deaths on the waitlist, there was one post-transplant mortality at day 61. Ten patients have been discharged from the hospital and are doing well. Six patients are recovering well however less than 30 days post-transplantation and remain admitted.

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