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1.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(1): e3465, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292067

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore variables associated with the serological response following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. METHODS: Eighty-six healthcare workers adhering to the vaccination campaign against COVID-19 were enrolled in January-February 2021. All subjects underwent two COVID-19 mRNA vaccine inoculations (Pfizer/BioNTech) separated by 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected before the 1st and 1-4 weeks after the second inoculation. Clinical history, demographics, and vaccine side effects were recorded. Baseline anthropometric parameters were measured, and body composition was performed through dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Higher waist circumference was associated with lower antibody (Ab) titres (R = -0.324, p = 0.004); smokers had lower levels compared to non-smokers [1099 (1350) vs. 1921 (1375), p = 0.007], as well as hypertensive versus normotensive [650 ± 1192 vs. 1911 (1364), p = 0.001] and dyslipideamic compared to those with normal serum lipids [534 (972) vs 1872 (1406), p = 0.005]. Multivariate analysis showed that higher waist circumference, smoking, hypertension, and longer time elapsed since second vaccine inoculation were associated with lower Ab titres, independent of BMI, age. and gender. CONCLUSIONS: Central obesity, hypertension, and smoking are associated with lower Ab titres following COVID-19 vaccination. Although it is currently impossible to determine whether lower SARS-CoV-2 Abs lead to higher likelihood of developing COVID-19, it is well-established that neutralizing antibodies correlate with protection against several viruses including SARS-CoV-2. Our findings, therefore, call for a vigilant approach, as subjects with central obesity, hypertension, and smoking could benefit from earlier vaccine boosters or different vaccine schedules.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hypertension/immunology , Obesity, Abdominal/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Smoking/immunology
2.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(7): 1624-1630, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175046

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational, multicentre, retrospective study conducted in the Lazio region, Italy, we compared the differences in the HbA1c levels of 141 subjects with T2D exposed to lockdown with 123 matched controls with T2D who attended the study centres 1 year before. Basal data were collected from 9 December to 9 March and follow-up data from 3 June to 10 July in 2020 for the lockdown group, and during the same timeframes in 2019 for the control groups. Changes in HbA1c (ΔHbA1c) and body mass index (ΔBMI) during lockdown were compared among patients with different psychological well-being, as evaluated by tertiles of the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBS). RESULTS: No difference in ΔHbA1c was found between the lockdown and control groups (lockdown group -0.1% [-0.5%-0.3%] vs. control group -0.1% [-0.4%-0.2%]; p = .482). Also, no difference was found in ΔBMI (p = .316) or ΔGlucose (p = .538). In the lockdown group, subjects with worse PGWBS showed a worsening of HbA1c (p = .041 for the trend among PGWBS tertiles) and BMI (p = .022). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown did not significantly impact glycaemic control in people with T2D. People with poor psychological well-being may experience a worsening a glycaemic control because of restrictions resulting from lockdown. These findings may aid healthcare providers in diabetes management once the second wave of COVID-19 has ended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycemic Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 37(1): e3354, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059440

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 is especially severe for elderly subjects with cardiometabolic and respiratory comorbidities. Neck circumference (NC) has been shown to be strongly related to cardiometabolic and respiratory illnesses even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). We performed a prospective study to investigate the potential of NC to predict the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in adult COVID-19 inpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively and consecutively enrolled COVID-19 adult patients admitted to dedicated medical wards of two Italian hospitals from 25 March to 7 April 2020. On admission, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data, including BMI and NC were collected. As primary outcome measure, the maximum respiratory support received was evaluated. Follow-up time was 30 days from hospital admission. RESULTS: We enrolled 132 subjects (55.0-75.8 years, 32% female). During the study period, 26 (19.7%) patients underwent IMV. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension and COPD, NC resulted independently and significantly associated with IMV risk (adjusted OR 1.260-per 1 cm increase 95% CI:1.120-1.417; P < .001), with a stronger association in the subgroup with BMI ≤30 Kg/m2 (adjusted OR 1.526; 95% CI:1.243-1.874; P < .001). NC showed a good discrimination power in predicting patients requiring IMV (AUC 0.783; 95% CI:0.684-0.882; P < .001). In particular, NC > 40.5 cm (>37.5 for females and >42.5 for males) showed a higher and earlier IMV risk compared to subjects with lower NC (Log-rank test: P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: NC is an easy to measure parameter able to predict the need for IMV in adult COVID-19 inpatients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neck/pathology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate
4.
Metabolism ; 111: 154319, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity was recently identified as a major risk factor for worse COVID-19 severity, especially among the young. The reason why its impact seems to be less pronounced in the elderly may be due to the concomitant presence of other comorbidities. However, all reports only focus on BMI, an indirect marker of body fat. AIM: To explore the impact on COVID-19 severity of abdominal fat as a marker of body composition easily collected in patients undergoing a chest CT scan. METHODS: Patients included in this retrospective study were consecutively enrolled among those admitted to an Emergency Department in Rome, Italy, who tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 and underwent a chest CT scan in March 2020. Data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: 150 patients were included (64.7% male, mean age 64 ±â€¯16 years). Visceral fat (VAT) was significantly higher in patients requiring intensive care (p = 0.032), together with age (p = 0.009), inflammation markers CRP and LDH (p < 0.0001, p = 0.003, respectively), and interstitial pneumonia severity as assessed by a Lung Severity Score (LSS) (p < 0.0001). Increasing age, lymphocytes, CRP, LDH, D-Dimer, LSS, total abdominal fat as well as VAT were found to have a significant univariate association with the need of intensive care. A multivariate analysis showed that LSS and VAT were independently associated with the need of intensive care (OR: 1.262; 95%CI: 1.0171-1.488; p = 0.005 and OR: 2.474; 95%CI: 1.017-6.019; p = 0.046, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: VAT is a marker of worse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Given the exploratory nature of our study, further investigation is needed to confirm our findings and elucidate the mechanisms underlying such association.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Intra-Abdominal Fat/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
5.
Eat Weight Disord ; 26(6): 1737-1747, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734037

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has radically impacted the world lifestyle. Epidemics are well-known to cause mental distress, and patients with a current or past history of obesity are at increased risk for the common presence of psychological comorbidities. This study investigates the psychological impact of the current pandemic in patients participating in a bariatric surgery program. METHODS: Patients were consecutively enrolled during the Italian lockdown among those waiting for bariatric surgery or attending a post-bariatric follow-up, and were asked to complete through an online platform the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and a self-assessment questionnaire of 22 items evaluating the resilience, change in eating behavior and emotional responses referring to the ongoing pandemic. RESULTS: 59% of the 434 enrolled subjects reported of being worried about the pandemic, and 63% specifically reported of being worried about their or their relatives' health. 37% and 56% felt lonelier and more bored, respectively. 66% was hungrier with increased frequency of snacking (55%) and 39% reported more impulse to eat. Noteworthy, 49% felt unable to follow a recommended diet. No difference in terms of psychological profile was recorded among pre and post-bariatric subjects. Logistic regression analysis on post-bariatric patients showed a relationship between snacking, hunger, eating impulsivity, and anxiety, stress, and/or depression symptoms. CONCLUSION: The pandemic led to increased psychological distress in patients with a current or past history of obesity, reducing quality of life and affecting dietary compliance. Targeted psychological support is warranted in times of increased stress for fragile subjects such as pre- and post-bariatric patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V: cross-sectional descriptive study.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
6.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3325, 2020 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-99621

ABSTRACT

Evidence has lately emerged regarding an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 with worse prognosis in patients with obesity, especially among the young. Weight excess is a well-established respiratory disease risk factor, and the newly reported correlation is therefore unsurprising. The underlying pathophysiology is likely multi-stranded, ranging from complement system hyperactivation, increased Interleukin-6 secretion, chronic inflammation, presence of comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension, and a possible local, detrimental effect within the lung. Further understanding the link between obesity and SARS-CoV-2 is crucial, as this could aid proper tailoring of immunomodulatory treatments, together with improving stratification among those possibly requiring critical care.

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