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1.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 18(11): 1187-1202, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are associated with alterations in blood cells that regulate immunity, inflammation, and hemostasis. We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between the neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and COVID-19 progression and mortality. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for studies published between January 2020 and June 2022. RESULTS: In 71 studies reporting the investigated parameters within 48 hours of admission, higher NLR (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.27, p < 0.0001), relative neutrophilia (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.80, p < 0.0001), relative lymphopenia (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.08, p < 0.001), and relative thrombocytopenia (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.22, p < 0.001), but not PLR (p = 0.11), were significantly associated with disease progression and mortality. Between-study heterogeneity was large-to-extreme. The magnitude and direction of the effect size were not modified in sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: NLR and neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet count significantly discriminate COVID-19 patients with different progression and survival outcomes. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021267875).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , Platelet Count , Lymphocyte Count , Prognosis , Lymphocytes , Blood Platelets , Retrospective Studies
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006259

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccines reduce the risk of severe disease and mortality. However, the association between vaccination status and number of doses and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, a clinical measure of hypoxemia associated with an increased risk of intensive care treatment and mortality, has not been investigated. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed a consecutive series of 116 patients admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 between January and April 2022. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected within 24 h from admission. RESULTS: There was a significant positive relationship between the number of vaccine doses and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio (r = 0.223, p = 0.012). This association remained significant after adjusting for confounders. Vaccinated patients had significantly higher PaO2/FiO2 ratios than the unvaccinated (median: 250; IQR: 195-309 vs. 200; IQR: 156-257, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of the number of vaccine doses received in reducing the degree of hypoxia on admission in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

4.
Clin Exp Med ; 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525546

ABSTRACT

Alterations in cardiac and renal biomarkers have been reported in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate serum concentrations of hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), a combined marker of myocardial and renal injury, in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with different disease severity and survival status. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, between December 2019 and April 2021, for studies reporting HBDH in COVID-19. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, publication bias was assessed with the Begg's and Egger's tests, and certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE. In 22 studies in 15,019 COVID-19 patients, serum HBDH concentrations on admission were significantly higher in patients with high disease severity or non-survivor status when compared to patients with low severity or survivor status (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.07, p < 0.001; moderate certainty of evidence). Extreme between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 93.5%, p < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis, performed by sequentially removing each study and re-assessing the pooled estimates, showed that the magnitude and the direction of the effect size were not substantially modified. A significant publication bias was observed. In meta-regression, the SMD of HBDH concentrations was significantly associated with markers of inflammation, sepsis, liver damage, non-specific tissue damage, myocardial injury, and renal function. Higher HBDH concentrations were significantly associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality. This biomarker of cardiac and renal injury might be useful for risk stratification in COVID-19. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021258123).

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 705916, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399192

ABSTRACT

Lipid profile alterations have been observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in relation to disease severity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression of studies reporting total, HDL, and LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, between January 2020 and January 2021, for studies describing lipid concentrations, COVID-19 severity, and survival status (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021253401). Twenty-two studies in 10,122 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that hospitalized patients with severe disease or non-survivor status had significantly lower total cholesterol (standardized mean difference, SMD = -0.29, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.16, p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (SMD = -0.30, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.18, p < 0.001), and HDL-cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.26, p < 0.001), but not triglyceride (SMD = 0.04, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.19, p = 0.57), concentrations compared to patients with milder disease or survivor status during follow up. Between-study heterogeneity was large-to-extreme. In sensitivity analysis, the effect size of different lipid fractions was not affected when each study was in turn removed. The Begg's and Egger's t-tests did not show evidence of publication bias, except for studies investigating LDL-cholesterol. In meta-regression, significant associations were observed between the SMD of LDL-cholesterol and age and hypertension, and between the SMD of triglycerides and study endpoint and aspartate aminotransferase. In our systematic review and meta-analysis, lower total, HDL, and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglyceride, concentrations were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Cholesterol concentrations might be useful, in combination with other clinical and demographic variables, for risk stratification and monitoring in this group. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021253401.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
6.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 372-380, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: D-dimer elevations, suggesting a pro-thrombotic state and coagulopathy, predict adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the clinical significance of other coagulation markers, particularly the international normalized ratio (INR), is not well established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the INR in COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, between January 2020 and February 2021, for studies reporting INR values, measures of COVID-19 severity, and mortality (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021241468). RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies in 7440 COVID-19 patients with low disease severity or survivor status during follow up (50 â€‹% males, mean age 57 years) and 2331 with high severity or non-survivor status (60 â€‹% males, mean age 69 years) were identified. The INR was significantly prolonged in patients with severe disease or non-survivor status than in patients with mild disease or survivor status (standard mean difference, SMD, 0.60; 95 â€‹% confidence interval, CI 0.42 to 0.77; p â€‹< â€‹0.001). There was extreme between-study heterogeneity (I2 â€‹= â€‹90.2 â€‹%; p â€‹< â€‹0.001). Sensitivity analysis, performed by sequentially removing each study and re-assessing the pooled estimates, showed that the magnitude and direction of the effect size was not modified. The Begg's and Egger's t-tests did not show publication bias. In meta-regression, the SMD of the INR was significantly associated with C-reactive protein (p â€‹= â€‹0.048) and D-dimer (p â€‹= â€‹0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged INR values were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Both INR prolongation and D-dimer elevations can be useful in diagnosing COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and predicting clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , International Normalized Ratio , Thrombophilia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , International Normalized Ratio/methods , International Normalized Ratio/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/etiology
7.
J Nephrol ; 35(1): 59-68, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Combined markers of renal dysfunction and inflammation, e.g., cystatin C, might assist with risk stratification and clinical decisions in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression of serum cystatin C in COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, between January 2020 and February 2021, for studies reporting serum cystatin C concentrations, measures of clinical severity and survival outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021245295). RESULTS: Thirteen studies in 2510 COVID-19 patients, 1972 with low severity or survivor status and 538 with high severity or non-survivor status during follow up, were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that serum cystatin C concentrations were higher in patients with high disease severity or non-survivor status (standard mean deviation, SMD, 1.71, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.46, p < 0.001). Extreme between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 97.5%, p < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis, performed by sequentially removing each study and re-assessing the pooled estimates, showed that the magnitude and direction of the effect size was not substantially modified. The Begg's and Egger's t tests did not show publication bias. In meta-regression, the SMD of serum cystatin C was not associated with age, proportion of males, C-reactive protein, neutrophils, lymphocytes, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, creatinine, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, and proportion of patients with diabetes or hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of serum cystatin C were associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystatin C/blood , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 690790, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305634

ABSTRACT

Alterations in cardiac biomarkers have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in relation to disease severity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression of studies reporting B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) plasma concentrations in COVID-19. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, between January 2020 and 2021, for studies reporting BNP/NT-proBNP concentrations, measures of COVID-19 severity, and survival status (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021239190). Forty-four studies in 18,856 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis and meta-regression. In pooled results, BNP/NT-proBNP concentrations were significantly higher in patients with high severity or non-survivor status when compared to patients with low severity or survivor status during follow up (SMD = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.89-1.24, and p < 0.001). We observed extreme between-study heterogeneity (I 2 = 93.9%, p < 0.001). In sensitivity analysis, the magnitude and the direction of the effect size were not substantially modified after sequentially removing individual studies and re-assessing the pooled estimates, (effect size range, 0.99 - 1.10). No publication bias was observed with the Begg's (p = 0.26) and Egger's (p = 0.40) t-tests. In meta-regression analysis, the SMD was significantly and positively associated with D-dimer (t = 2.22, p = 0.03), myoglobin (t = 2.40, p = 0.04), LDH (t = 2.38, p = 0.02), and procalcitonin (t = 2.56, p = 0.01) concentrations. Therefore, higher BNP/NT-proBNP plasma concentrations were significantly associated with severe disease and mortality in COVID-19 patients.

9.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 304-314, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), a biomarker of myocardial injury, in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, for studies published between January 2020 and January 2021 that reported CK-MB, COVID-19 severity and mortality (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021239657). RESULTS: Fifty-five studies in 11,791 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that CK-MB concentrations were significantly higher in patients with high disease severity or non-survivor status than patients with low severity or survivor status (standardized mean difference, SMD, 0.81, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01, p<0.001). The rate of patients with CK-MB values above the normal range was also significantly higher in the former than the latter (60/350 vs 98/1,780; RR â€‹= â€‹2.84, 95%CI 1.89 to 4.27, p<0.001; I2 â€‹= â€‹19.9, p â€‹= â€‹0.254). Extreme between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 â€‹= â€‹93.4%, p<0.001). Sensitivity analysis, performed by sequentially removing each study and re-assessing the pooled estimates, showed that the magnitude and direction of the effect size was not modified (effect size range, 0.77 to 0.84). Begg's (p â€‹= â€‹0.50) and Egger's (p â€‹= â€‹0.86) t-tests did not show publication bias. In meta-regression analysis, the SMD was significantly and positively associated with the white blood count, aspartate aminotransferase, myoglobin, troponin, brain natriuretic peptide, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS: Higher CK-MB concentrations were significantly associated with severe disease and mortality in COVID-19 patients. This biomarker of myocardial injury might be useful for risk stratification in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 696085, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282389

ABSTRACT

Activation of the complement system has been observed in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression to investigate possible differences in the serum concentrations of two routinely measured complement components, C3 and C4, in COVID-19 patients with different severity and survival status. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, between January 2020 and February 2021, for studies reporting serum complement C3 and C4, measures of COVID-19 severity, and survival. Eligibility criteria were a) reporting continuous data on serum C3 and C4 concentrations in COVID-19 patients, -b) investigating COVID-19 patients with different disease severity and/or survival status, c) adult patients, d) English language, e) ≥10 patients, and f) full-text available. Using a random-effects model, standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate differences in serum C3 and C4 concentrations between COVID-19 patients with low vs. high severity or survivor vs. non-survivor status. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale whereas publication bias was assessed with the Begg's and Egger's tests. Certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Nineteen studies in 3,764 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Both C3 and C4 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with high disease severity or non-survivor status than patients with low severity or survivor status (C3 SMD=-0.40, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.21, p<0.001; C4 SMD=-0.29, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.09, p=0.005; moderate certainty of evidence). Extreme between-study heterogeneity was observed (C3, I2 = 82.1%; C4, I2 = 84.4%). Sensitivity analysis, performed by sequentially removing each study and re-assessing the pooled estimates, showed that the magnitude and direction of the effect size was not modified. There was no publication bias. In meta-regression, the SMD of C3 was significantly associated with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and pro-thrombin time, whereas the SMD of C4 was significantly associated with CRP, pro-thrombin time, D-dimer, and albumin. In conclusion, lower concentrations of C3 and C4, indicating complement activation, were significantly associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality. C3 and C4 might be useful to predict adverse clinical consequences in these patients. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO, Registration number: CRD42021239634.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Complement C3/metabolism , Complement C4/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Complement Activation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 12: 2042098621998876, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153915
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 668-674, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: An excessive inflammatory response in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high disease severity and mortality. Specific acute phase reactants might be useful for risk stratification. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies on serum amyloid A (SAA) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched, covering the period January 2020 to December 2020, for studies reporting SAA concentrations, COVID-19 severity, and survival status. RESULTS: Nineteen studies involving 5617 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that SAA concentrations were significantly higher in patients with severe disease and non-survivors (standard mean difference (SMD) 1.20, 95% confidence interval 0.91-1.49, P < 0.001). Extreme between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 92.4%, P < 0.001). In the sensitivity analysis, the effect size was not significantly affected when each study was removed in turn (range 1.10-1.29). The Begg test (P = 0.030), but not the Egger test (P = 0.385), revealed the presence of publication bias. Pooled SMD values were significantly and positively associated with sex (t = 2.20, P = 0.047) and aspartate aminotransferase (t = 3.44, P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: SAA concentrations were significantly and positively associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality. This acute phase reactant might assist with risk stratification and monitoring in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 638529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084786

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammation and malnutrition are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and mortality. Combined biomarkers of malnutrition and inflammation, such as serum prealbumin, might be particularly attractive for early risk stratification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting serum prealbumin in patients with COVID-19. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, between January and November 2020, for studies reporting data on serum prealbumin, COVID-19 severity, defined as severe illness, prolonged viral load, receiving mechanical ventilation or admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), and mortality. Nineteen studies in 4,616 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that serum prealbumin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with severe disease and non-survivors (standard mean difference, SMD, -0.92, 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.74, P < 0.001). Extreme heterogeneity was observed (I 2 = 77.9%; P < 0.001). In sensitivity analysis, the effect size was not significantly affected when each study was in turn removed (range between -0.86 and -0.95). The Begg's (P = 0.06) and Egger's t-tests (P = 0.26) did not show publication bias. Pooled SMD values were significantly and negatively associated with age (t = -2.18, P = 0.045) and C-reactive protein (t = -3.85, P = 0.002). In our meta-analysis, lower serum prealbumin concentrations were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. This combined marker of malnutrition and inflammation might assist with early risk stratification and management in this group.

14.
Drugs Context ; 102021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067976

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 was dominated by the COVID-19 pandemic, bringing with it unprecedented advancements in the fields of healthcare and therapeutic interventions as well as in vaccine and drug development. Nevertheless, several other advancements in various fields of medicine also deserve attention. Herein, the Senior Editors of Drugs in Context provide us with their expert opinion on the events of 2020 and what lies ahead in 2021.

15.
J Clin Med ; 10(2)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030573

ABSTRACT

The identification of biomarkers predicting disease severity and outcomes is the focus of intense research in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 infection). Ideally, such biomarkers should be easily derivable from routine tests. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the predictive role of the red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a routine hematological test, in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, from January 2020 to November 2020, for studies reporting data on the RDW and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, defined as severe illness or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and mortality. Eleven studies in 4901 COVID-19 patients were selected for the meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that the RDW values were significantly higher in patients with severe disease and non-survivors (standard mean difference, SMD = 0.56, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.81, p < 0.001). Heterogeneity between studies was extreme (I2 = 80.6%; p < 0.001). In sensitivity analysis, the effect size was not modified when each study was in turn removed (effect size range, between 0.47 and 0.63). The Begg's (p = 0.53) and Egger's tests (p = 0.52) showed no evidence of publication bias. No significant correlations were observed between SMD and age, gender, whole blood count, end point, study geographic area, or design. Our meta-analysis showed that higher RDW values are significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. This routine parameter might assist with early risk stratification in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

16.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid onset of a systemic pro-inflammatory state followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome is the leading cause of mortality in patients with COVID-19. We performed a retrospective observational study to explore the capacity of different complete blood cell count (CBC)-derived inflammation indexes to predict in-hospital mortality in this group. METHODS: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), mean platelet volume to platelet ratio (MPR), neutrophil to lymphocyte × platelet ratio (NLPR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), systemic inflammation response index (SIRI), systemic inflammation index (SII), and the aggregate index of systemic inflammation (AISI) were calculated on hospital admission in 119 patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: Non-survivors had significantly higher AISI, dNLR, NLPR, NLR, SII, and SIRI values when compared to survivors. Similarly, Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed significantly lower survival in patients with higher AISI, dNLR, MLR, NLPR, NLR, SII, and SIRI. However, after adjusting for confounders, only the SII remained significantly associated with survival (HR = 1.0001; 95% CI, 1.0000-1.0001, p = 0.029) in multivariate Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The SII on admission independently predicts in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients and may assist with early risk stratification in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Inflammation/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
17.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(1): e13427, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846927

ABSTRACT

Increased concentrations of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are common in COVID-19 patients. However, their capacity to predict mortality, particularly the AST/ALT ratio, commonly referred to as the De Ritis ratio, is unknown. We investigated the association between the De Ritis ratio on admission and in-hospital mortality in 105 consecutive patients with coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to three COVID-19 referral centres in Sardinia, Italy. The De Ritis ratio was significantly lower in survivors than nonsurvivors (median: 1.25; IQR: 0.91-1.64 vs 1.67; IQR: 1.38-1.97, P = .002) whilst there were no significant between-group differences in ALT and AST concentrations. In ROC curve analysis, the AUC value of the De Ritis ratio was 0.701 (95% CI 0.603-0.787, P = .0006) with sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 70%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a significant association between the De Ritis ratio and mortality (logrank test P = .014). By contrast, no associations were observed between the ALT and AST concentrations and mortality (logrank test P = .83 and P = .62, respectively). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the HR in patients with De Ritis ratios ≥1.63 (upper tertile of this parameter) remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, cardiovascular disease, intensity of care, diabetes, respiratory diseases, malignancies and kidney disease (HR: 2.46, 95% CI 1.05-5.73, P = .037). Therefore, the De Ritis ratio on admission was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Larger studies are required to confirm the capacity of this parameter to independently predict mortality in this group.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/blood , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 685-690, 2020 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721541

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the greatest pandemic in modern history. Laboratory test alterations have been described in COVID-19 patients, but differences with other pneumonias have been poorly investigated to date, especially in Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate differences and prognostic potential of routine blood tests in a series of Italian patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia. METHODOLOGY: Clinical data and routine laboratory tests of a consecutive series of 30 COVID-19 patients and 30 age and sex matched patients with non COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia have been retrospectively collected. Differences in laboratory tests between patients with COVID-19 and non COVID-19 pneumonias have been investigated, as well as differences between COVID-19 survivors and non survivors. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients had lower white blood cells, monocytes, neutrophils, and higher platelet counts. In addition, COVID-19 patients showed higher mean platelet volume, lower C reactive protein concentrations, and higher De Ritis ratio. Combined blood cell indexes of systemic inflammation were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients. In further analysis of the COVID-19 group, the neutrophil count, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR, systemic inflammation response index and De Ritis ratio, were significantly higher in non survivors than in survivors, while the number of platelets was significantly lower in non survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed several alterations in blood cell populations and indexes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in comparison with patients with non COVID-19 pneumonia. Some of these indexes showed promising prognostic abilities. Further studies are necessary to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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