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J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(3): 100589, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867304


Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a massive threat to public health worldwide. Siddha system of medicine is one of the traditional medicines of South India. The recommended formulations in Siddha Sasthric Medicines- Fixed Regimen (SSM-FiRe) are Amukkura tablets, Kaba Sura Kudineer (KSK) for asymptomatic COVID-19 positive (RT-PCR) patients, and Athimathuram tablets, Adathodai Manappagu syrup, Thippili Rasayanam, Brahmananda Bairavam tablet, and Notchi Kudineer for mild symptomatic patients. The core objective of the trial was to document the efficacy of SSM-FiRe in the prevention of asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 disease progression to the next level of severity, reduce the severity of symptoms and revert to RT-PCR Negative. Methods: An exploratory, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, non-randomized trial was designed as per GCP guidelines to assess the efficacy of SSM-FiRe. Sixty RT-PCR positive participants who were asymptomatic or with mild COVID-19 symptoms were recruited for the study at the Siddha COVID Care Centre, Vyasarpadi, Chennai from June to August 2020. Nasal and oropharyngeal swab tests were performed on the 0, 7th, and 14th days. All participants were treated with SSM - FiRe regimen. All the participants were also assessed based on Siddha Yakkkaiyin Ilakkanam, which included Clinical symptoms and vitals. Laboratory investigations such as Haemogram, Liver Function Test, Renal Function Test, HbA1C, Electrolytes, Inflammatory markers, Cardiac profile, Immunoglobulins, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests were performed. Results: 83% of COVID-19 patients turned RT-PCR negative on the 7th day and in most of the cases, symptoms were reduced within the first 5 days of admission. The RT-PCR cycle threshold (ct) value increased significantly (<0.001) after treatment and all the participants were RT-PCR negative, except one, who was positive even after 14 days. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies developed significantly (p-value - 0.006). LFT, RFT, CBC, Total proteins, and electrolytes continued to be in the normal range after treatment, indicating the safety of the intervention. Conclusion: Asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 disease can be well managed by SSM - FiRe treatment, Further studies could be taken up to strengthen the findings.

Trials ; 22(1): 623, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413238


INTRODUCTION: Despite several ongoing efforts in biomedicine and traditional medicine, there are no drugs or vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as of May 2020; Kabasura Kudineer (KSK), a polyherbal formulation from India's Siddha system of medicine, has been traditionally used for clinical presentations similar to that of COVID-19. We explored the efficacy of KSK in reducing viral load and preventing the disease progression in asymptomatic, COVID-19 cases. METHODS: A prospective, single-center, open-labeled, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in a COVID Care Centre in Chennai, India. We recruited reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 of 18 to 55 years of age, without clinical symptoms and co-morbidities. They were randomized (1:1 ratio) to KSK (60 mL twice daily for 7 days) or standard of care (7 days supplementation of vitamin C 60,000 IU morning daily and zinc 100 mg evening daily) groups. The primary outcomes were reduction in the SARS-CoV-2 load [as measured by cyclic threshold (CT) value of RT-PCR], prevention of progression of asymptomatic to symptomatic state, and changes in the immunity markers including interleukins (IL-6, IL-10, IL-2), interferon gamma (IFNγ), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF α). Siddha clinical assessment and the occurrence of adverse effects were documented as secondary outcomes. Paired t-test was used in statistical analysis. RESULTS: Viral load in terms of the CT value (RdRp: 95% CI = 1.89 to 5.74) declined significantly on the seventh day in the KSK group and that of the control group, more pronounced in the study group. None progressed to the symptomatic state. There was no significant difference in the biochemical parameters. We did not observe any changes in the Siddha-based clinical examination and adverse events in both groups. CONCLUSION: KSK significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral load among asymptomatic COVID-19 cases and did not record any adverse effect, indicating the use of KSK in the strategy against COVID-19. Larger, multi-centric trials can strengthen the current findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry of India CTRI2020/05/025215 . Registered on 16 May 2020.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ascorbic Acid , Dietary Supplements , Humans , India , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Zinc
Trials ; 21(1): 892, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895025


OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of this study are to determine efficacy of Siddha medicine, Kabasura kudineer in reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral load and reducing the onset of symptoms in asymptomatic COVID-19 when compared to Vitamin C and Zinc (CZ) supplementation. In addition, the trial will examine the changes in the immunological markers of the Siddha medicine against control. The secondary objectives of the trial are to evaluate the safety of the Siddha medicine and to document clinical profile of asymptomatic COVID-19 as per principles of Siddha system of Medicine. TRIAL DESIGN: A single centre, open-label, parallel group (1:1 allocation ratio), exploratory randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Cases admitted at non-hospital settings designated as COVID Care Centre and managed by the State Government Stanley Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India will be recruited. Eligible participants will be those tested positive for COVID-19 by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain reaction (RT-PCR) aged 18 to 55 years without any symptoms and co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and bronchial asthma. Those pregnant or lactating, with severe respiratory disease, already participating in COVID trials and with severe illness like malignancy will be excluded. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Adopting traditional methods, decoction of Kabasura kudineer will be prepared by boiling 5g of KSK powder in 240 ml water and reduced to one-fourth (60ml) and filtered. The KSK group will receive a dose of 60ml decoction, orally in the morning and evening after food for 14 days. The control group will receive Vitamin C (60000 IU) and Zinc tablets (100mg) orally in the morning and evening respectively for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcomes are the reduction in the SARS-CoV-2 load [as measured by cyclic threshold (CT) value of RT-PCR] from the baseline to that of seventh day of the treatment, prevention of progression of asymptomatic to symptomatic state (clinical symptoms like fever, cough and breathlessness) and changes in the immunity markers [Interleukins (IL) 6, IL10, IL2, Interferon gamma (IFNγ) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) alpha]. Clinical assessment of COVID-19 as per standard Siddha system of medicine principles and the occurrence of adverse effects will be documented as secondary outcomes. RANDOMISATION: The assignment to the study or control group will be allocated in equal numbers through randomization using random number generation in Microsoft Excel by a statistician who is not involved in the trial. The allocation scheme will be made by an independent statistician using a sealed envelope. The participants will be allocated immediately after the eligibility assessment and informed consent procedures. BLINDING (MASKING): This study is unblinded. The investigators will be blinded to data analysis, which will be carried out by a statistician who is not involved in the trial. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Sample size could not be calculated, as there is no prior trial on KSK. This trial will be a pilot trial. Hence, we intend to recruit 60 participants in total using a 1:1 allocation ratio, with 30 participants randomised into each arm. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 2.0 dated 16th May 2020. Recruitment is completed. The trial started recruitment on the 25th May 2020. We anticipate study including data analysis will finish on November 2020. We also stated that protocol was submitted before the end of data collection TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered with clinical trial registry of India (CTRI) with CTRI/2020/05/025215 on 16 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).

Ascorbic Acid , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Zinc , Adult , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Infections/therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , India , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load/methods , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/adverse effects