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Front Microbiol ; 13: 888195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911066


Background: During the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of Zika were reported from Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra, India in 2021. The Dengue and Chikungunya negative samples were retrospectively screened to determine the presence of the Zika virus from different geographical regions of India. Methods: During May to October 2021, the clinical samples of 1475 patients, across 13 states and a union territory of India were screened and re-tested for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika by CDC Trioplex Real time RT-PCR. The Zika rRTPCR positive samples were further screened with anti-Zika IgM and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Next generation sequencing was used for further molecular characterization. Results: The positivity was observed for Zika (67), Dengue (121), and Chikungunya (10) amongst screened cases. The co-infections of Dengue/Chikungunya, Dengue/Zika, and Dengue/Chikungunya/Zika were also observed. All Zika cases were symptomatic with fever (84%) and rash (78%) as major presenting symptoms. Of them, four patients had respiratory distress, one presented with seizures, and one with suspected microcephaly at birth. The Asian Lineage of Zika and all four serotypes of Dengue were found in circulation. Conclusion: Our study indicates the spread of the Zika virus to several states of India and an urgent need to strengthen its surveillance.

Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753690


SARS-CoV-2/influenza virus co-infection studies have focused on hospitalized patients who usually had grave sequelae. Here, we report SARS-CoV-2/influenza virus co-infection cases from both community and hospital settings reported through integrated ILI/SARI (Influenza Like Illness/Severe Acute Respiratory Infection) sentinel surveillance established by the Indian Council of Medical Research. We describe the disease progression and outcomes in these cases. Out of 13,467 samples tested from 4 July 2021-31 January 2022, only 5 (0.04%) were of SARS-CoV-2/influenza virus co-infection from 3 different sites in distinct geographic regions. Of these, three patients with extremes of age required hospital admission, but none required ICU admission or mechanical ventilation. No mortality was reported. The other two co-infection cases from community settings were managed at home. This is the first report on SARS-CoV-2/Influenza virus co-infection from community as well as hospital settings in India and shows that influenza viruses are circulating in the community even during COVID-19. The results emphasize the need for continuous surveillance for multiple respiratory pathogens for effective public health management of ILI/SARI cases in line with the WHO (World Health Organization) recommendations.

COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance