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2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(3): 286-297, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575887

ABSTRACT

Importance: Myocardial injury is a common feature of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the cardiac inflammatory processes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are not completely understood. Objective: To investigate the inflammatory cardiac phenotype associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with viral myocarditis, immune-mediated myocarditis, and noninflammatory cardiomyopathy by integrating histologic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiling. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series was a cooperative study between the Ludwig Maximilian University Hospital Munich and the Cardiopathology Referral Center at the University of Tübingen in Germany. A cohort of 19 patients with suspected myocarditis was examined; of those, 5 patients were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and May 2020. Cardiac tissue specimens from those 5 patients were compared with specimens from 5 patients with immune-mediated myocarditis, 4 patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 viral myocarditis, and 5 patients with noninflammatory cardiomyopathy, collected from January to August 2019. Exposures: Endomyocardial biopsy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The inflammatory cardiac phenotypes were measured by immunohistologic analysis, RNA exome capture sequencing, and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of endomyocardial biopsy specimens. Results: Among 19 participants, the median age was 58 years (range, 37-76 years), and 15 individuals (79%) were male. Data on race and ethnicity were not collected. The abundance of CD163+ macrophages was generally higher in the cardiac tissue of patients with myocarditis, whereas lymphocyte counts were lower in the tissue of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection vs patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 virus-associated and immune-mediated myocarditis. Among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection, components of the complement cascade, including C1q subunits (transcriptomic analysis: 2.5-fold to 3.6-fold increase; proteomic analysis: 2.0-fold to 3.4-fold increase) and serine/cysteine proteinase inhibitor clade G member 1 (transcriptomic analysis: 1.7-fold increase; proteomic analysis: 2.6-fold increase), belonged to the most commonly upregulated transcripts and differentially abundant proteins. In cardiac macrophages, the abundance of C1q was highest in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Assessment of important signaling cascades identified an upregulation of the serine/threonine mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Conclusions and Relevance: This case series found that the cardiac immune signature varied in inflammatory conditions with different etiologic characteristics. Future studies are needed to examine the role of these immune pathways in myocardial inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6761, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526072

ABSTRACT

Viral proteins make extensive use of short peptide interaction motifs to hijack cellular host factors. However, most current large-scale methods do not identify this important class of protein-protein interactions. Uncovering peptide mediated interactions provides both a molecular understanding of viral interactions with their host and the foundation for developing novel antiviral reagents. Here we describe a viral peptide discovery approach covering 23 coronavirus strains that provides high resolution information on direct virus-host interactions. We identify 269 peptide-based interactions for 18 coronaviruses including a specific interaction between the human G3BP1/2 proteins and an ΦxFG peptide motif in the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. This interaction supports viral replication and through its ΦxFG motif N rewires the G3BP1/2 interactome to disrupt stress granules. A peptide-based inhibitor disrupting the G3BP1/2-N interaction dampened SARS-CoV-2 infection showing that our results can be directly translated into novel specific antiviral reagents.


Subject(s)
Integration Host Factors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
4.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e14167, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299730

ABSTRACT

A deeper understanding of COVID-19 on human molecular pathophysiology is urgently needed as a foundation for the discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Here we applied mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to measure serum proteomes of COVID-19 patients and symptomatic, but PCR-negative controls, in a time-resolved manner. In 262 controls and 458 longitudinal samples of 31 patients, hospitalized for COVID-19, a remarkable 26% of proteins changed significantly. Bioinformatics analyses revealed co-regulated groups and shared biological functions. Proteins of the innate immune system such as CRP, SAA1, CD14, LBP, and LGALS3BP decreased early in the time course. Regulators of coagulation (APOH, FN1, HRG, KNG1, PLG) and lipid homeostasis (APOA1, APOC1, APOC2, APOC3, PON1) increased over the course of the disease. A global correlation map provides a system-wide functional association between proteins, biological processes, and clinical chemistry parameters. Importantly, five SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays against antibodies revealed excellent correlations with an extensive range of immunoglobulin regions, which were quantified by MS-based proteomics. The high-resolution profile of all immunoglobulin regions showed individual-specific differences and commonalities of potential pathophysiological relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteome , Antibodies, Viral , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Humans , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
5.
Nature ; 594(7862): 246-252, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180252

ABSTRACT

The emergence and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the urgent need for an in-depth understanding of molecular functions of viral proteins and their interactions with the host proteome. Several individual omics studies have extended our knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology1-10. Integration of such datasets to obtain a holistic view of virus-host interactions and to define the pathogenic properties of SARS-CoV-2 is limited by the heterogeneity of the experimental systems. Here we report a concurrent multi-omics study of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Using state-of-the-art proteomics, we profiled the interactomes of both viruses, as well as their influence on the transcriptome, proteome, ubiquitinome and phosphoproteome of a lung-derived human cell line. Projecting these data onto the global network of cellular interactions revealed crosstalk between the perturbations taking place upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV at different levels and enabled identification of distinct and common molecular mechanisms of these closely related coronaviruses. The TGF-ß pathway, known for its involvement in tissue fibrosis, was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 and autophagy was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF3. The extensive dataset (available at https://covinet.innatelab.org ) highlights many hotspots that could be targeted by existing drugs and may be used to guide rational design of virus- and host-directed therapies, which we exemplify by identifying inhibitors of kinases and matrix metalloproteases with potent antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Datasets as Topic , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteome/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
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