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1.
18th International CDIO Conference, CDIO 2022 ; : 647-658, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2169005

ABSTRACT

Current engineering job sectors do not only demand theoretical technical knowledge but also hands-on skills and critical thinking to ensure that engineering graduates are adaptive to the evolving and innovative world. Hence, several engineering modules at Canterbury Christ Church University have incorporated CDIO projects to integrate professional skills into the course. Following the UK government COVID-19 lockdown guidelines in 2020, traditional oncampus face-to-face learning was restricted at UK universities and colleges;therefore, students faced several challenges from academic and wellbeing perspectives. To overcome the challenges and enhance those professional skills through CDIO projects whilst following COVID-19 restrictions, blended learning was implemented via reconfiguring the delivery and implementation of the CDIO projects through an optimal arrangement of online and on-campus sessions. Online CDIO practical sessions were dedicated to students for transforming their ideas into feasible designs and solutions whereas students developed the hardware prototype during the face-to-face sessions. The learning framework was inclusive with additional support for disabled students with accessible learning materials and supportive technical and professional training. The above strategy also helped students to complete their online assessment to achieve the required professional attributes and manage online/blended groupbased tasks appropriately. Their outcome of the CDIO project was impressive and the quality of those projects is comparable to final-year projects. The performance of the students was also encouraging as the first-time overall pass rate is relatively high (86%) for a cohort of 75 students where average marks are around 59.6 and standard deviation is around 18.5. The high success rate was achieved in all areas of the cohort, for example the pass rate in BAME students was 93.75%, in female students it was 98.43%, and in disabled students it was 98.43%. A survey on students' experience shows that they benefited highly from the sessions related to the CDIO project. © CDIO 2022.All rights reserved.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10:1060043, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199544
3.
Microbiology Spectrum ; : e0361522, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193576

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented to contain SARS-CoV-2 have decreased invasive pneumococcal disease. Previous studies have proposed the decline is due to reduced pneumococcal transmission or suppression of respiratory viruses, but the mechanism remains unclear. We undertook a secondary analysis of data collected from a clinical trial to evaluate the impact of NPIs on pneumococcal carriage and density, drivers of transmission and disease, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Nasopharyngeal samples from children aged 24 months were assessed in three periods - one pre-COVID-19 period (n = 1,537) and two periods where NPIs were implemented with increasing stringency (NPI period 1 [NPI-1, n = 307], and NPI period 2 [NPI-2, n = 262]). Pneumococci were quantified using lytA quantitative PCR and serotyped by DNA microarray. Overall, capsular, and nonencapsulated pneumococcal carriage and density were assessed in each NPI period compared with the pre-COVID-19 period using unadjusted log-binomial and linear regression. Pneumococcal carriage was generally stable after the implementation of NPIs. In contrast, overall pneumococcal carriage density decreased by 0.44 log10 genome equivalents/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19 to 0.69) in NPI-1 and by 0.84 log10 genome equivalents/mL (95% CI: 0.55 to 1.13) in NPI-2 compared with the pre-COVID-19 period. Reductions in overall pneumococcal density were driven by reductions in capsular pneumococci, with no corresponding reduction in nonencapsulated density. As higher pneumococcal density is a risk factor for disease, the decline in density provides a plausible explanation for the reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease that have been observed in many countries in the absence of a substantive reduction in pneumococcal carriage. IMPORTANCE The pneumococcus is a major cause of mortality globally. Implementation of NPIs during the COVID-19 pandemic led to reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease in many countries. However, no studies have conducted a fully quantitative assessment on the impact of NPIs on pneumococcal carriage density, which could explain this reduction. We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 NPIs on pneumococcal carriage prevalence and density in 2,106 children aged 24 months in Vietnam and found pneumococcal carriage density decreased up to 91.5% after NPI introduction compared with the pre-COVID-19 period, which was mainly attributed to capsular pneumococci. Only a minor effect on carriage prevalence was observed. As respiratory viruses are known to increase pneumococcal carriage density, transmission, and disease, this work suggests that interventions targeting respiratory viruses may have the added benefit of reducing invasive pneumococcal disease and explain the reductions observed following NPI implementation.

4.
4th International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Pattern Recognition, CIPR 2022 ; 480 LNNS:183-192, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958946

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic coupled with lockdown has nearly brought the world to a standstill. It has left both short and long-term impacts on the mental health of the children. The goal of this paper is to predict the changes in various mental health parameters such as health, emotion, behavior, maturity, and education. Our target research group is the children of West Bengal, India belonging to the age group of 0–18. An exclusive set of a questionnaire prepared by a team of psychologists was delivered to parents of students in a few schools. The data received from the survey was then processed and cleaned. Using standard machine learning models like k-NN(k = 5), MLP and SVM we analyzed the survey data and performed a comparative prediction of the probabilistic changes of the aforementioned mental health attributes. SVM reported an accuracy of 82.75%, 72.41%, 65.51%, 58.62% and 72.41% in prediction of the mentioned attributes. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

5.
Microbiology Australia ; 42(4):151, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1768980
6.
International Conference on Industrial Instrumentation and Control,ICI2C 2021 ; 815:11-20, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1718605

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic adversely challenged the healthcare system in an unprecedented way. Access to neurorehabilitation programme for patients with stroke and other neurological disability was severely restricted including shutting down of most community-based and outpatient facilities. There is hardly any organised virtual programme of exploring any potential of stretching and exercising of muscles needed in a rehabilitation programme. There is an impetus to innovate service developments, while the risks and fear of contracting the coronavirus remain prevalent. We propose a framework for developing a novel tele-neurorehabilitation system that will guide the patients to perform therapeutic exercises, as proposed by the clinicians, remotely. The system will allow patients to directly interact with doctors through a secure audio–video online portal. Wearable motion tracking sensors will be integrated within a hardware-based home setting for gathering performance data live from patients while they are performing exercises. The paper describes the design components of the framework justifying the tools, hardware, and protocols required to implement a secure online portal for tele-neurorehabilitation. Specifications of the core architectural layers have been reported. Some preliminary work demonstrates how the framework specifies capturing and analysing of physiological data using wearable sensors, as well as displaying of gait parameters on a software dashboard. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

7.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 99(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1596717

ABSTRACT

Background: The recent pandemic by COVID-19 is a global threat to human health. The disease is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and the infection rate is increased more quickly than MERS and SARS as their rapid adaptation to varied climatic conditions through rapid mutations. It becomes more severe due to the lack of proper therapeutic drugs, insufficient diagnostic tool, scarcity of appropriate drug, life supporting medical facility and mostly lack of awareness. Therefore, preventive measure is one of the important strategies to control. In this context, herbal medicinal plants received a noticeable attention to treat COVID-19 in Indian subcontinent. Here, 44 Indian traditional plants have been discussed with their novel phytochemicals that prevent the novel corona virus. The basic of SARS-CoV-2, their common way of transmission including their effect on immune and nervous system have been discussed. We have analysed their mechanism of action against COVID-19 following in-silico analysis. Their probable mechanism and therapeutic approaches behind the activity of phytochemicals to stimulate immune response as well as inhibition of viral multiplication discussed rationally. Thus, mixtures of active secondary metabolites/phytochemicals are the only choice to prevent the disease in countries where vaccination will take long time due to overcrowded population density. © 2021 Indian Chemical Society

8.
Exploratory Animal and Medical Research ; 11(1):1-9, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1449760

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has killed millions across the globe. This paper hypothesizes anaerobic glycolysis and dehydrogenase enzymes as the focal points of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis that ensure virus survival and replication in humans and the reservoir host bat. Metabolic alterations in hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and higher reliance on anaerobic glycolysis for energy generation make males and aged people more vulnerable to the disease. The bat has a low level of vitamin D, greater metabolic dependence on anaerobic glycolysis, and low dehydrogenase activities which might predispose this mammal to persistent infection. Similarities of the bat metabolism with the metabolic changes brought by SARS-CoV-2 in humans suggest possible evolution of the coronavirus targeting the host metabolic processes for its replication and survival. Further research on host-pathogen interactions at the metabolism levels would unravel the pathogenesis of coronavirus and several other viruses. © 2021, Exploratory Animal and Medical Research. All Rights Reserved.

9.
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems ; 8(3):447-452, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1304936

ABSTRACT

An attempt to model the human hair industry in the post-COVID-19 pandemic situation using mathematical modelling has been the goal of this article. Here we introduce a novel mathematical modelling using a system of ordinary differential equations to model the human hair industry as well as the human hair waste management and related job opportunities. The growth of human hair in the months of nationwide total lockdown has been taken into account and graphs have been plotted to analyze the effect of Lockdown in this model. The alternative employment opportunities that can be created for collecting excessive hair in the post-pandemic period has been discussed. A probable useful mathematical model and mechanism to utilize the migrant labours who became jobless due to the pandemic situation and the corresponding inevitable lockdown situation resulting out of that crisis has been discussed in this paper. We discussed the stability analysis of the proposed model and obtained the criteria for an optimal profit of the said model. Graphs have also been plotted to analyze the impact of the control parameter on the optimal profit. © 2021

10.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 97(8):1287-1294, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1292451

ABSTRACT

Both, zinc and copper play important roles in human metabolic processes. In humans, zinc (Zn) is required directly for the chemical catalysis and/or maintaining the structure of nearly 10% of total body proteins. It plays a significant role not only in immune defence but also takes part in DNA and protein synthesis, growth and development throughout the life span as well as in tissue repair. On the other hand, copper (Cu) is crucial to strengthen the skin, epithelial tissue, connective tissue and blood vessels. Cu helps to increase the level of haemoglobin, melanin and myelin in our body. Both of these trace metals possess antioxidant like properties. However, it is necessary to balance the optimal concentration of Zn or Cu in blood serum to avoid the associated organ damage. Excess zinc intake increases the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is harmful to normal renal function and thus elevated the risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, the one and only reason for heart, kidney and liver failure including Wilson disease is the excess amount of copper. Both of these trace metals are responsible to deal with brain diseases. Thus, there are many "faces" of Zn and Cu in the maintenance of cellular network including immunomodulatory regulation and infection prevention. Zinc appears to inhibit the enzymatic processes of viral protease and polymerase, as well as different physical processes for instance virus attachment, inflammation, and viral uncoating. Ideally, the clinicians should monitor zinc status of the individuals and advice for the supplements when necessary, otherwise deficiency of these micronutrients could lead to the onset of severe secondary diseases.

11.
Current Drug Therapy ; 16(1):22-44, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1243917

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathological agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has its origin in Wuhan, China, and spread to other provinces of China and subsequently to other countries resulting in a pandemic worldwide. The virus is extremely contagious and causes pneumonia and respiratory failure. Since its emergence, researchers around the world are trying to develop vaccines and find suitable drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. Objective: To give an overview of the various therapeutic agents for COVID-19 such as vaccines and drugs that are in preclinical stage or under different stages of clinical trials. Results: As per World Health Organization (WHO), there are 137 vaccines under development to date, out of which few vaccines have successfully completed preclinical studies and reached clinical trials. According to the present scenario, only one coronavirus vaccine (sputnik-V) has been approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Till date, there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approved drugs to treat COVID-19 patients. However, depending on patient's condition, different drugs such as antiviral agents like Remdesivir, antimalarial drugs like Hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics like Azithromycin and corticosteroids like Dexamethasone are being applied and some of them have proved to be effective up to a certain extent. Conclusion: Although several vaccines for COVID-19 are under development and various drugs have been tried for its treatment, an ideal drug candidate or a vaccine is still lacking. Almost all the big pharmaceutical companies are associated with one or more research initiatives in order to develop vaccines and drugs. Many of them are going through clinical stages, expecting a positive outcome by the end of 2020.

12.
Radiology Artificial intelligence ; 3(2):e200098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208646

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To train a deep learning classification algorithm to predict chest radiograph severity scores and clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients aged 21-50 years who presented to the emergency department (ED) of a multicenter urban health system from March 10 to 26, 2020, with COVID-19 confirmation at real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction screening were identified. The initial chest radiographs, clinical variables, and outcomes, including admission, intubation, and survival, were collected within 30 days (n = 338;median age, 39 years;210 men). Two fellowship-trained cardiothoracic radiologists examined chest radiographs for opacities and assigned a clinically validated severity score. A deep learning algorithm was trained to predict outcomes on a holdout test set composed of patients with confirmed COVID-19 who presented between March 27 and 29, 2020 (n = 161;median age, 60 years;98 men) for both younger (age range, 21-50 years;n = 51) and older (age >50 years, n = 110) populations. Bootstrapping was used to compute CIs. Results: The model trained on the chest radiograph severity score produced the following areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.88) for the chest radiograph severity score, 0.76 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.84) for admission, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.75) for intubation, and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.69) for death. The model trained on clinical variables produced an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.73) for intubation and an AUC of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.68) for death. Combining chest radiography and clinical variables increased the AUC of intubation and death to 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.91), respectively. Conclusion: The combination of imaging and clinical information improves outcome predictions. Supplemental material is available for this article.© RSNA, 2020.

13.
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society ; 97(8):1287-1294, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-958794

ABSTRACT

Both, zinc and copper play important roles in human metabolic processes. In humans, zinc (Zn) is required directly for the chemical catalysis and/or maintaining the structure of nearly 10% of total body proteins. It plays a significant role not only in immune defence but also takes part in DNA and protein synthesis, growth and development throughout the life span as well as in tissue repair. On the other hand, copper (Cu) is crucial to strengthen the skin, epithelial tissue, connective tissue and blood vessels. Cu helps to increase the level of haemoglobin, melanin and myelin in our body. Both of these trace metals possess antioxidant like properties. However, it is necessary to balance the optimal concentration of Zn or Cu in blood serum to avoid the associated organ damage. Excess zinc intake increases the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is harmful to normal renal function and thus elevated the risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, the one and only reason for heart, kidney and liver failure including Wilson disease is the excess amount of copper. Both of these trace metals are responsible to deal with brain diseases. Thus, there are many “faces” of Zn and Cu in the maintenance of cellular network including immunomodulatory regulation and infection prevention. Zinc appears to inhibit the enzymatic processes of viral protease and polymerase, as well as different physical processes for instance virus attachment, inflammation, and viral uncoating. Ideally, the clinicians should monitor zinc status of the individuals and advice for the supplements when necessary, otherwise deficiency of these micronutrients could lead to the onset of severe secondary diseases. © 2020 Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.

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