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1.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pre-pandemic research suggests assistance networks for older adults grow over time and are larger for those living with dementia. We examined how assistance networks of older adults changed in response to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and whether these changes differed for those with and without dementia. METHODS: We used three rounds of the National Health and Aging Trends Study. We estimated multinomial logistic regression models to test whether changes in assistance networks during COVID-19 (2019-2020) - defined as expansion, contraction, and adaptation - differed from changes prior to COVID-19 (2018-2019). We also estimated OLS regression models to test differences in numbers of helpers assisting with one (specialist) vs. multiple (generalist) domains before and during COVID-19. For both sets of outcomes, we investigated whether pandemic-related changes differed for those with and without dementia. RESULTS: Over all activity domains, a greater proportion of assistance networks adapted during COVID-19 compared to the pre-COVID-19 period (RRR = 1.19, p < .05). Contractions in networks occurred for those without dementia. Transportation assistance contracted for those with and without dementia, and mobility/self-care assistance contracted for those with dementia. The average number of generalist helpers decreased during COVID-19 (ß = -0.09, p < .001). DISCUSSION: Early in the pandemic, assistance networks of older adults adapted by substituting helpers, by contracting to reduce exposures with more intimate tasks for recipients with dementia, and by reducing transportation assistance. Future research should explore the impact of such changes on the well-being of older adults their assistance networks.

2.
Transl Behav Med ; 12(2): 284-290, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626747

ABSTRACT

Understanding how individual beliefs and societal values influence support for measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission is vital to developing and implementing effective prevention policies. Using both Just World Theory and Cultural Dimensions Theory, the present study considered how individual-level justice beliefs and country-level social values predict support for vaccination and quarantine policy mandates to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Data from an international survey of adults from 46 countries (N = 6424) were used to evaluate how individual-level beliefs about justice for self and others, as well as national values-that is, power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, and indulgence-influence support for vaccination and quarantine behavioral mandates. Multilevel modeling revealed that support for vaccination and quarantine mandates were positively associated with individual-level beliefs about justice for self, and negatively associated with country-level uncertainty avoidance. Significant cross-level interactions revealed that beliefs about justice for self were associated more strongly with support for mandatory vaccination in countries high in individualism, whereas beliefs about justice for others were more strongly associated with support for vaccination and quarantine mandates in countries high in long-term orientation. Beliefs about justice and cultural values can independently and also interactively influence support for evidence-based practices to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, such as vaccination and quarantine. Understanding these multilevel influences may inform efforts to develop and implement effective prevention policies in varied national contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Vaccination
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