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Birth Defects Res ; 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013367


OBJECTIVES: We describe clinical characteristics, pregnancy, and infant outcomes in pregnant people with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by trimester of infection. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network and included people with infection in 2020, with known timing of infection and pregnancy outcome. Outcomes are described by trimester of infection. Pregnancy outcomes included live birth and pregnancy loss (<20 weeks and ≥20 weeks gestation). Infant outcomes included preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), small for gestational age, birth defects, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated for pregnancy and selected infant outcomes by trimester of infection, controlling for demographics. RESULTS: Of 35,200 people included in this analysis, 50.8% of pregnant people had infection in the third trimester, 30.8% in the second, and 18.3% in the first. Third trimester infection was associated with a higher frequency of preterm birth compared to first or second trimester infection combined (17.8% vs. 11.8%; aPR 1.44 95% CI: 1.35-1.54). Prevalence of birth defects was 553.4/10,000 live births, with no difference by trimester of infection. CONCLUSIONS: There were no signals for increased birth defects among infants in this population relative to national baseline estimates, regardless of timing of infection. However, the prevalence of preterm birth in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy in our analysis was higher relative to national baseline data (10.0-10.2%), particularly among people with third trimester infection. Consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy support recommended COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination.

Public Health Rep ; 137(4): 782-789, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807859


OBJECTIVES: Pregnant people infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are at increased risk for severe illness and death compared with nonpregnant people. However, population-based information comparing characteristics of people with and without laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is limited. We compared the characteristics of people with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in Massachusetts. METHODS: We compared maternal demographic characteristics, pre-pregnancy conditions, and pregnancy complications of people with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy with completed pregnancies resulting in a live birth in Massachusetts during March 1, 2020-March 31, 2021. We tested for significant differences in the distribution of characteristics of pregnant people by SARS-CoV-2 infection status overall and stratified by race and ethnicity. We used modified Poisson regression analyses to examine the association between race and ethnicity and SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. RESULTS: Of 69 960 completed pregnancies identified during the study period, 3119 (4.5%) had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among Hispanic (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 2.3; 95% CI, 2.1-2.6) and non-Hispanic Black (aRR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7-2.1) pregnant people compared with non-Hispanic White pregnant people. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the disproportionate impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black pregnant people in Massachusetts, which may widen existent inequities in maternal morbidity and mortality. Future research is needed to elucidate the structural factors leading to these inequities.

COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 873-876, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771002


The Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network conducts longitudinal surveillance of pregnant persons in the United States with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy. Of 6,551 infected pregnant persons in this analysis, 142 (2.2%) had positive RNA tests >90 days and up to 416 days after infection.

COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , United States
Matern Child Health J ; 26(2): 217-223, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669907


PURPOSE: The considerable volume of infections from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has made it challenging for health departments to collect complete data for national disease reporting. We sought to examine sensitivity of the COVID-19 case report form (CRF) pregnancy field by comparing CRF data to the gold standard of CRF data linked to birth and fetal death certificates. DESCRIPTION: CRFs for women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were linked to birth and fetal death certificates for pregnancies completed during January 1-December 31, 2020 in Illinois and Tennessee. Among linked records, pregnancy was considered confirmed for women with a SARS-CoV-2 specimen collection date on or prior to the delivery date. Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field was calculated by dividing the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with pregnancy indicated on the CRF by the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. ASSESSMENT: Among 4276 (Illinois) and 2070 (Tennessee) CRFs that linked with a birth or fetal death certificate, CRF pregnancy field sensitivity was 45.3% and 42.1%, respectively. In both states, sensitivity varied significantly by maternal race/ethnicity, insurance, trimester of prenatal care entry, month of specimen collection, and trimester of specimen collection. Sensitivity also varied by maternal education in Illinois but not in Tennessee. CONCLUSION: Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field varied by state and demographic factors. To more accurately assess outcomes for pregnant women, jurisdictions might consider utilizing additional data sources and linkages to obtain pregnancy status.

COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fetal Death , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology