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J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667210


We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 vaccine in young people with Down syndrome (DS), and to compare their humoral immune response with those of the healthy controls (HC). Individuals with DS and HC received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Longitudinal blood samples were collected on the day of vaccination, twenty-one days after the first dose, seven days after the second dose, and six months after the first dose. Both the local and systemic adverse events reported by participants were mild. Pain at the injection site was the most reported local adverse event, while fever was the systemic adverse event. Humoral responses showed a significant increase of anti-S and anti-S trimeric antibody (Ab) levels after both doses of vaccine in both groups. In comparison with HC, Ab levels in individuals with DS were similar at T21, but significantly lower, both in terms anti-S and anti-S trimeric, at T28 (respectively p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0001). At T180 both groups showed a significant reduction of anti-S trimeric Ab levels compared to T28 (p = 0.0004 and p < 0.0001 for DS and HC, respectively). Individuals with DS exhibit a good humoral response to the BNT162b2 vaccine; however, similarly to in HC, the immune response wanes over time.

Front Immunol ; 12: 727850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477821


Mass SARS-Cov-2 vaccination campaign represents the only strategy to defeat the global pandemic we are facing. Immunocompromised patients represent a vulnerable population at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and thus should be prioritized in the vaccination programs and in the study of the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, most data on efficacy and safety of the available vaccines derive from trials conducted on healthy individuals; hence, studies on immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccines in such populations are deeply needed. Here, we perform an observational longitudinal study analyzing the humoral and cellular response following the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI) compared to healthy controls (HC). We show that both IEI and HC groups experienced a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs 1 week after the second scheduled dose as well as an overall statistically significant expansion of the Ag-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells in both HC and IEI. Five IEI patients did not develop any specific CD4+CD40L+ T cellular response, with one of these patients unable to also mount any humoral response. These data raise immunologic concerns about using Ab response as a sole metric of protective immunity following vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that evaluation of vaccine-induced immunity in this subpopulation should also include quantification of Ag-specific T cells.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(8): 1833-1842, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282025


BACKGROUND: Although SARS-CoV-2 immunizations have started in most countries, children are not currently included in the vaccination programs; thus, it remains crucial to define their anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in order to minimize the risk for other epidemic waves. This study sought to provide a description of the virology ad anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children with distinct symptomatology. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, we recruited 15 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic (AS) and 51 symptomatic (SY) children, stratified according to WHO clinical classification. We measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load using ddPCR and qPCR in longitudinally collected nasopharyngeal swab samples. To define anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, we measured neutralization activity and total IgG load (DiaSorin). We also evaluated antigen-specific B and CD8+T cells, using a labeled S1+S2 protein and ICAM expression, respectively. Plasma protein profiling was performed with Olink. RESULTS: Virological profiling showed that AS patients had lower viral load at diagnosis (p = .004) and faster virus clearance (p = .0002) compared with SY patients. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response did not appear to be associated with the presence of symptoms. AS and SY patients showed similar titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, levels of neutralizing activity, and frequency of Ag-specific B and CD8+ T cells, whereas pro-inflammatory plasma protein profile was found to be associated with symptomatology. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response with any regard to symptomatology, suggesting the ability of both SY and AS patients to contribute toward herd immunity. The virological profiling of AS patients suggested that they have lower virus load associated with faster virus clearance.

COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests