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1.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(1): e33-e41, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many individuals take long-term immunosuppressive medications. We evaluated whether these individuals have worse outcomes when hospitalised with COVID-19 compared with non-immunosuppressed individuals. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), the largest longitudinal electronic health record repository of patients in hospital with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in the USA, between Jan 1, 2020, and June 11, 2021, within 42 health systems. We compared adults with immunosuppressive medications used before admission to adults without long-term immunosuppression. We considered immunosuppression overall, as well as by 15 classes of medication and three broad indications for immunosuppressive medicines. We used Fine and Gray's proportional subdistribution hazards models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation, with the competing risk of death. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs for in-hospital death. Models were adjusted using doubly robust propensity score methodology. FINDINGS: Among 231 830 potentially eligible adults in the N3C repository who were admitted to hospital with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 during the study period, 222 575 met the inclusion criteria (mean age 59 years [SD 19]; 111 269 [50%] male). The most common comorbidities were diabetes (23%), pulmonary disease (17%), and renal disease (13%). 16 494 (7%) patients had long-term immunosuppression with medications for diverse conditions, including rheumatological disease (33%), solid organ transplant (26%), or cancer (22%). In the propensity score matched cohort (including 12 841 immunosuppressed patients and 29 386 non-immunosuppressed patients), immunosuppression was associated with a reduced risk of invasive ventilation (HR 0·89, 95% CI 0·83-0·96) and there was no overall association between long-term immunosuppression and the risk of in-hospital death. None of the 15 medication classes examined were associated with an increased risk of invasive mechanical ventilation. Although there was no statistically significant association between most drugs and in-hospital death, increases were found with rituximab for rheumatological disease (1·72, 1·10-2·69) and for cancer (2·57, 1·86-3·56). Results were generally consistent across subgroup analyses that considered race and ethnicity or sex, as well as across sensitivity analyses that varied exposure, covariate, and outcome definitions. INTERPRETATION: Among this cohort, with the exception of rituximab, there was no increased risk of mechanical ventilation or in-hospital death for the rheumatological, antineoplastic, or antimetabolite therapies examined. FUNDING: None.

2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(2): 153-162, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598451

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons with immune dysfunction have a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, these patients were largely excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials, creating a large evidence gap. Objective: To identify the incidence rate and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for COVID-19 breakthrough infection after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among persons with or without immune dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), a partnership that developed a secure, centralized electronic medical record-based repository of COVID-19 clinical data from academic medical centers across the US. Persons who received at least 1 dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine between December 10, 2020, and September 16, 2021, were included in the sample. Main Outcomes and Measures: Vaccination, COVID-19 diagnosis, immune dysfunction diagnoses (ie, HIV infection, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, solid organ transplant, and bone marrow transplantation), other comorbid conditions, and demographic data were accessed through the N3C Data Enclave. Breakthrough infection was defined as a COVID-19 infection that was contracted on or after the 14th day of vaccination, and the risk after full or partial vaccination was assessed for patients with or without immune dysfunction using Poisson regression with robust SEs. Poisson regression models were controlled for a study period (before or after [pre- or post-Delta variant] June 20, 2021), full vaccination status, COVID-19 infection before vaccination, demographic characteristics, geographic location, and comorbidity burden. Results: A total of 664 722 patients in the N3C sample were included. These patients had a median (IQR) age of 51 (34-66) years and were predominantly women (n = 378 307 [56.9%]). Overall, the incidence rate for COVID-19 breakthrough infection was 5.0 per 1000 person-months among fully vaccinated persons but was higher after the Delta variant became the dominant SARS-CoV-2 strain (incidence rate before vs after June 20, 2021, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.2-2.2] vs 7.3 [95% CI, 7.3-7.4] per 1000 person-months). Compared with partial vaccination, full vaccination was associated with a 28% reduced risk for breakthrough infection (adjusted IRR [AIRR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.68-0.76). People with a breakthrough infection after full vaccination were more likely to be older and women. People with HIV infection (AIRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18-1.49), rheumatoid arthritis (AIRR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.32), and solid organ transplant (AIRR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.96-2.38) had a higher rate of breakthrough infection. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that full vaccination was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 breakthrough infection, regardless of the immune status of patients. Despite full vaccination, persons with immune dysfunction had substantially higher risk for COVID-19 breakthrough infection than those without such a condition. For persons with immune dysfunction, continued use of nonpharmaceutical interventions (eg, mask wearing) and alternative vaccine strategies (eg, additional doses or immunogenicity testing) are recommended even after full vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Distribution
3.
Transplant Direct ; 7(11): e775, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467456

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The National COVID Cohort Collaborative was developed to facilitate analysis of patient-level data for those tested for COVID-19 across the United States. METHODS: In this study, we identified a cohort of SOT recipients testing positive or negative for COVID-19 (COVID+ and COVID-, respectively) between January 1, 2020, and November 20, 2020. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine predictors of a positive result among those tested. Outcomes following COVID-19 diagnosis were also explored. RESULTS: Of 18 121 SOT patients tested, 1925 were positive (10.6%). COVID+ SOT patients were more likely to have a kidney transplant and be non-White race. Comorbidities were common in all SOT patients but significantly more common in those who were COVID+. Of COVID+ SOT, 42.9% required hospital admission. COVID+ status was the strongest predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI), rejection, and graft failure in the 90 d after testing. A total of 40.9% of COVID+ SOT experienced a major adverse renal or cardiac event, 16.3% experienced a major adverse cardiac event, 35.3% experienced AKI, and 1.5% experienced graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest US cohort of COVID+ SOT recipients to date, we identified patient factors associated with the diagnosis of COVID-19 and outcomes following infection, including a high incidence of major adverse renal or cardiac event and AKI.

4.
Am J Transplant ; 22(1): 245-259, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462722

ABSTRACT

While older males are at the highest risk for poor coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, it is not known if this applies to the immunosuppressed recipient of a solid organ transplant (SOT), nor how the type of allograft transplanted may impact outcomes. In a cohort study of adult (>18 years) patients testing positive for COVID-19 (January 1, 2020-June 21, 2021) from 56 sites across the United States identified using the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) Enclave, we used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to assess time to MARCE after COVID-19 diagnosis in those with and without SOT. We examined the exposure of age-stratified recipient sex overall and separately in kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplant recipients. 3996 (36.4%) SOT and 91 646 (4.8%) non-SOT patients developed MARCE. Risk of post-COVID outcomes differed by transplant allograft type with heart and kidney recipients at highest risk. Males with SOT were at increased risk of MARCE, but to a lesser degree than the non-SOT cohort (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98 for SOT and HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.60-0.62 for non-SOT [females vs. males]). This represents the largest COVID-19 SOT cohort to date and the first-time sex-age-stratified and allograft-specific COVID-19 outcomes have been explored in those with SOT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney , Male , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , United States
5.
Kidney360 ; 2(7): 1132-1140, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Living organ donation declined substantially in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic due to concerns about donor and transplant candidate safety. COVID-19 vaccines might increase confidence in the safety of living organ donation during the pandemic. We assessed informational preferences and perspectives about COVID-19 vaccines among US living organ donors and prospective donors. METHODS: We conducted a national survey study of organ donors and prospective donors on social media platforms between 12/28/2020-2/23/2021. Survey items included multiple choice, visual analog scale, and open-ended responses. We examined associations between information preferences, history of COVID-19 infection, influenza vaccination history and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance using multivariable logistic regression and performed a thematic analysis of open-ended responses. RESULTS: Among 342 respondents from 47 US states and the District of Columbia, 35% were between 51-70 years old, 90% were non-Hispanic white, 87% were women; 82% were living donors (94% kidney) and 18% in evaluation to donate (75% kidney).The majority planned to or had received COVID-19 vaccination (76%), whereas 11% did not plan to be receive a vaccine, and 12% were unsure. Adjusting for demographics and donor characteristics, respondents who receive yearly influenza vaccinations had higher COVID-19 vaccine acceptance than those who do not (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 5.06, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.68-9.53). Compared to respondents who prioritized medical information sources (e.g., personal physicians and transplant providers), those who prioritized news and social media had lower COVID-19 vaccine acceptance (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.73). Low perceived personal benefit from vaccination and uncertainty about long-term safety were common themes among those declining COVID-19 vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Donor informational source preferences were strongly associated with the likelihood of accepting a COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccine guidance for organ donors who are unsure about COVID-19 vaccines could incorporate messaging about safety and benefits of vaccination for healthy people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Living Donors , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
Clin Transplant ; 35(11): e14437, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322733

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created unprecedented challenges for solid organ transplant programs. While transplant activity has largely recovered, appropriate management of deceased donor candidates who are asymptomatic but have positive nucleic acid testing (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2 is unclear, as this result may reflect active infection or prolonged viral shedding. Furthermore, candidates who are unvaccinated or partially vaccinated continue to receive donor offers. In the absence of robust outcomes data, transplant professionals at US adult kidney transplant centers were surveyed (February 13, 2021 to April 29, 2021) to determine community practice (N: 92 centers, capturing 41% of centers and 57% of transplants performed). The majority (97%) of responding centers declined organs for asymptomatic NAT+ patients without documented prior infection. However, 32% of centers proceed with kidney transplant in NAT+ patients who were at least 30 days from initial diagnosis with negative chest imaging. Less than 7% of programs reported inactivating patients who were unvaccinated or partially vaccinated. In conclusion, despite national recommendations to wait for negative testing, many centers are proceeding with kidney transplant in patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 NAT results due to presumed viral shedding. Furthermore, few centers are requiring COVID-19 vaccination prior to transplantation at this time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Am J Transplant ; 21(10): 3215-3216, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281969

Subject(s)
Graft Rejection
8.
Clin Transplant ; 35(5): e14280, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150116

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses unprecedented challenges to the transplant community, including organ procurement organizations (OPOs), transplant centers, regulatory agencies, and recipient candidates. Access to timely, accurate information on the status of deceased donor viral infection is essential in determining organ acceptance. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network expeditiously added fields to collect these data; however, use of the data collection fields was not uniform nationally. Standardized, field-defined data capture and reporting are vital to ensure optimal organ utilization during this pandemic, and to prepare the community for subsequent challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Humans , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors
10.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(5): 777-785, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003349

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required transplant nephrologists, surgeons, and care teams to make decisions about the full spectrum of transplant program operations and clinical practices in the absence of experience or data. Initially, across the country, there was a reduction in kidney transplant procedures and a striking pause in the conduct of living donation and living-donor transplant surgeries. Aspects of candidate evaluation and follow-up rapidly converted to telehealth. Months into the pandemic, much has been learned from experiences worldwide, yet many questions remain. In this Perspective, we reflect on some of the practice decisions made by the transplant community in the initial response to the pandemic and consider lessons learned, including those related to the risks, benefits, and logistical considerations of proceeding with versus delaying deceased-donor transplantation, living donation, and living-donor transplantation during the pandemic. We review the evolution of therapeutic strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and their use in transplant recipients, current consensus related to immunosuppression management in infected transplant recipients, and emerging information on vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. We share our thoughts on research priorities, discuss the areas in which we are still practicing with uncertainty, and look ahead to the next phase of the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Pathways , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/trends , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Time-to-Treatment , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Transplant Recipients
11.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(11): 1894-1905, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898809

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The scope of the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) practices is not well defined. METHODS: We surveyed US transplant programs to assess practices, strategies, and barriers to living LDKT during the COVID-19 pandemic. After institutional review board approval, the survey was distributed from 9 May 2020 to 30 May 2020 by e-mail and postings to professional society list-servs. Responses were stratified based on state COVID-19 cumulative incidence levels. RESULTS: Staff at 118 unique centers responded, representing 61% of US living donor recovery programs and 75% of LKDT volume in the prepandemic year. Overall, 66% reported that LDKT surgery was on hold (81% in "high" vs. 49% in "low" COVID-19 cumulative incidence states). A total of 36% reported that evaluation of new donor candidates had paused, 27% reported that evaluations were very much decreased (>0% to <25% typical), and 23% reported that evaluations were moderately decreased (25% to <50% typical). Barriers to LDKT surgery included program concerns for donor (85%) and recipient (75%) safety, patient concerns (56%), elective case restrictions (47%), and hospital administrative restrictions (48%). Programs with higher local COVID-19 cumulative incidence reported more barriers related to staff and resource diversion. Most centers continuing donor evaluations used remote strategies (video, 82%; telephone, 43%). As LDKT resumes, all programs will screen for COVID-19, although timeframe and modalities will vary. Recommendations for presurgical self-quarantine are also variable. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had broad impacts on LDKT practice. Ongoing research and consensus building are needed to reduce barriers, to guide optimal practices, and to support safe restoration of LDKT across centers.

12.
Clin Transplant ; 34(11): e14059, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697168

ABSTRACT

An unprecedented global pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has quickly overwhelmed the health care systems worldwide. While there is an absence of consensus among the community in how to manage solid organ transplant recipients and donors, a platform provided by the American Society of Transplantation online community "Outstanding Questions in Transplantation," hosted a collaborative multicenter, multinational discussions to share knowledge in a rapidly evolving global situation. Here, we present a summary of the discussion in addition to the latest published literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Global Health , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , International Cooperation , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/immunology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Societies, Medical
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