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Perit Dial Int ; : 8968608221087794, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765326


The Covid-19 pandemic has been responsible for millions of deaths worldwide. Patients with comorbidities- such as those on peritoneal dialysis (PD)- present higher morbidity and mortality than the general population. We prospectively evaluated all Chilean patients on PD (48 centres) and followed those who had Covid-19 from the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in Chile (March 2020) to January 2021 (start of vaccination campaign). We described demographic history, comorbidities, factors related to infection, need for hospitalisation and death due to Covid-19. During the study period, 106 adults on PD were infected by SARS-CoV-2, with a mean age of 53.1 (±16.3) and of which 53.9% were female. From that group, 54.8% required hospitalisation and 24.5% (n = 26) died due to Covid-19. Most of the patients (63.4%) were infected at home and 22.8% during hospitalisation for other reasons. There was a significant association for Covid-19 mortality with: being ≥60 years old, diabetes, time on PD ≥5 years, need for hospitalisation and hospital-acquired infection. At 90 days of follow-up, all deaths associated to Covid-19 occurred before 40 days. We conclude that patients on PD without Covid-19 vaccination have a high mortality and need for hospitalisation associated to Covid-19. To avoid this negative outcome, it is necessary to intensify strategies to avoid contagion, especially in those ≥60 years old, with diabetes and/or ≥5 years spent on PD.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 116: 111260, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452344


Polymeric nanoparticulate systems allow the encapsulation of bio-active substances, giving them protection against external agents and increasing the drug's bioavailability. The use of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers usually guarantees the harmless character of the formulation, and a controlled drug release is also assured. A relatively easy procedure to obtain polymeric formulations of bioactive agents is ionotropic gelation, which allows the synthesis of chitosan (CS) - sodium tri-polyphosphate nanoparticles (NPs) loading encapsulated proteins. In this work, Bovine serum albumin (BSA) model protein and a recombinant porcine alpha interferon variant were used to obtain nanoparticulate formulations. The internalization of the encapsulated material by cells was studied using a BSA-fluorescein system; the fluorescent conjugate was observable inside the cells after 20 h of incubation. The therapeutic CS-alpha interferon formulation showed a maximum of protein released in vitro at around 90 h. This system was found to be safe in a cytotoxicity assay, while biological activity experiments in vitro showed antiviral protection of cells in the presence of encapsulated porcine alpha interferon. In vivo experiments in pigs revealed a significant and sustained antiviral response through overexpression of the antiviral markers OAS2 and PKR. This proves the preservation of porcine alpha interferon biological activity, and also that a lasting response was obtained. This procedure is an effective and safe method to formulate drugs in nanoparticulate systems, representing a significant contribution to the search for more effective drug delivery strategies.

Chitosan , Nanoparticles , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Availability , Cattle , Drug Carriers , Drug Delivery Systems , Interferon-alpha , Particle Size , Polymers , Swine