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1.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 847809, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933623

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) employs angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor for cell entrance, and studies have suggested that upon viral binding, ACE2 catalytic activity could be inhibited; therefore, impacting the regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). To date, only few studies have evaluated the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the blood levels of the components of the RAAS. The objective of this study was to determine the blood levels of ACE, ACE2, angiotensin-II, angiotensin (1-7), and angiotensin (1-9) at hospital admission and discharge in a group of patients presenting with severe or critical evolution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We showed that ACE, ACE2, angiotensin (1-7), and angiotensin (1-9) were similar in patients with critical and severe COVID-19. However, at admission, angiotensin-II levels were significantly higher in patients presenting as critical, compared to patients presenting with severe COVID-19. We conclude that blood levels of angiotensin-II are increased in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 presenting the critical outcome of the disease. We propose that early measurement of Ang-II could be a useful biomarker for identifying patients at higher risk for extremely severe progression of the disease.

2.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911647

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for an atypical pneumonia that can progress to acute lung injury. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that control specific genes and pathways. This study evaluated the association between circulating miRNAs and lung injury associated with COVID-19. Methods: We evaluated lung injury by computed tomography at hospital admission and discharge and the serum expression of 754 miRNAs using the TaqMan OpenArray after hospital discharge in 27 patients with COVID-19. In addition, miR-150-3p was validated by qRT-PCR on serum samples collected at admission and after hospital discharge. Results: OpenArray analysis revealed that seven miRNAs were differentially expressed between groups of patients without radiological lung improvement compared to those with lung improvement at hospital discharge, with three miRNAs being upregulated (miR-548c-3p, miR-212-3p, and miR-548a-3p) and four downregulated (miR-191-5p, miR-151a-3p, miR-92a-3p, and miR-150-3p). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that five of these miRNAs had binding sites in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Validation of miR-150-3p by qRT-PCR confirmed the OpenArray results. Conclusions: The present study shows the potential association between the serum expression of seven miRNAs and lung injury in patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, increased expression of miR-150 was associated with pulmonary improvement at hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , MicroRNAs , COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Blood Adv ; 6(11): 3367-3377, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879216

ABSTRACT

Coagulation activation is a prominent feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) infection. Activation of the contact system and intrinsic pathway has increasingly been implicated in the prothrombotic state observed in both sterile and infectious inflammatory conditions. We therefore sought to assess activation of the contact system and intrinsic pathway in individuals with COVID-19 infection. Baseline plasma levels of protease:serpin complexes indicative of activation of the contact and intrinsic pathways were measured in samples from inpatients with COVID-19 and healthy individuals. Cleaved kininogen, a surrogate for bradykinin release, was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and extrinsic pathway activation was assessed by microvesicle tissue factor-mediated factor Xa (FXa; MVTF) generation. Samples were collected within 24 hours of COVID-19 diagnosis. Thirty patients with COVID-19 and 30 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Contact system and intrinsic pathway activation in COVID-19 was demonstrated by increased plasma levels of FXIIa:C1 esterase inhibitor (C1), kallikrein:C1, FXIa:C1, FXIa:α1-antitrypsin, and FIXa:antithrombin (AT). MVTF levels were also increased in patients with COVID-19. Because FIXa:AT levels were associated with both contact/intrinsic pathway complexes and MVTF, activation of FIX likely occurs through both contact/intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Among the protease:serpin complexes measured, FIXa:AT complexes were uniquely associated with clinical indices of disease severity, specifically total length of hospitalization, length of intensive care unit stay, and extent of lung computed tomography changes. We conclude that the contact/intrinsic pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of the prothrombotic state in COVID-19. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm whether FIXa:AT complexes are a clinically useful biomarker of adverse clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antithrombin III , Antithrombins , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 Testing , Factor Xa , Humans , Kallikreins/metabolism
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311432

ABSTRACT

Purpose: There is still scarce data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) and many questions. We aimed to describe the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Brazilian IEI patients and to identify factors influencing the outcome of infection. Methods: : We did a cross-sectional, multicenter study that included patients of any age affected by IEI and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The variables studied were sex, age, type of IEI, comorbidities (number and type), treatment in use for IEI, clinical manifestations and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: : 121 patients were included: 55.4% female, ages from six months to 74 yo (median age = 25.1 yo). Most patients had predominantly antibody deficiency (n=53). The infection presented mostly as asymptomatic (n=21) and mild (n=66), and one child had multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We could not observe sex related susceptibility and observed a weak correlation between age and severity of infection. The number of comorbidities was higher in severe cases, particularly bronchiectasis and cardiopathy. There were no severe cases in hereditary angioedema patients. Six patients aged 2 to 74 years died, three of them with antibody deficiency. Conclusion: The outcome was mild in most patients, but the Case Fatality Ratio was higher than in the general population. Patients with complement deficiencies had milder COVID-19. However, the type of IEI was not a determining factor for severity. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to be more related to older age, higher number of comorbidities and type of comorbidities (bronchiectasis and cardiopathy).

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308653

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes/macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor- 1α (HIF - 1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF- 1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1 ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318319

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease with hyperactivated contact and kallikrein-kinin systems leading to bradykinin (BK) release and edema. SARS-CoV-2 infection results in inflammatory exacerbation. C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency could aggravate clinical outcomes, with HAE patients at a greater risk of adverse outcomes of COVID-19, however, data are still limited. Our aim was to characterize the course and severity of COVID-19 in patients with HAE.MethodsLatin American HAE reference centers evaluated SARS-CoV-2 infection in this population. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of HAE with (HAE-C1-INH) or without C1-INH deficiency (HAE-nC1-INH) were included. HAE symptomatology and the course of COVID-19 were characterized with the application of a questionnaire. Results66 patients from 10 countries (HAE-C1-INH 80,3%;HAE-nC1-INH 19.6%) were reported with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comorbidities were absent in 69.7% of the patients and obesity present in 12.1%. Attacks occurred in 45.5% of patients with HAE during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Long term prophylaxis was reported in 52% (34/66) of HAE patients. Complete cure was observed in 61 patients (92.4%), pulmonary sequelae in 4 and death in one HAE-C1-INH patient. The cause of death was septic shock secondary to bacterial pulmonary coinfection. Disease progression was not impacted by sex, therapy or type of HAE (p = 0.803). ConclusionAttacks occurred in almost half of HAE patients suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection is a trigger. HAE did not represent a risk factor for a worse outcome of COVID-19, even in use of androgens.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316910

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) presents with progressive dyspnea, which results from acute lung inflammatory edema leading to hypoxia. As with other infectious diseases that affect the respiratory tract, asthma has been cited as a potential risk factor for severe COVID-19. However, conflicting results have been published over the last few months and the putative association between these two diseases is still unproven. Methods: . Here, we systematically reviewed all reports on COVID-19 published since its emergence in December 2019 to June 30, 2020, looking into the description of asthma as a premorbid condition, which could indicate its potential involvement in disease progression. Results: . We found 372 articles describing the underlying diseases of 161,271 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Asthma was reported as a premorbid condition in only 2,623 patients accounting for 1.6% of all patients. Conclusions: . As the global prevalence of asthma is 4.4%, we conclude that either asthma is not a premorbid condition that contributes to the development of COVID-19 or clinicians and researchers are not accurately describing the premorbidities in COVID-19 patients.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(7): 1479-1489, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281310

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is still scarce data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) and many unresolved questions. We aimed to describe the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Brazilian IEI patients and identify factors influencing the infection. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional, multicenter study that included patients of any age affected by IEI and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The variables studied were sex, age, type of IEI, comorbidities (number and type), treatment in use for IEI, clinical manifestations and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 121 patients were included: 55.4% female, ages from six months to 74 yo (median age = 25.1 yo). Most patients had predominantly antibody deficiency (n = 53). The infection was mostly asymptomatic (n = 21) and mild (n = 66), and one child had multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We could not observe sex-related susceptibility, and there was a weak correlation between age and severity of infection. The number of comorbidities was higher in severe cases, particularly bronchiectasis and cardiopathy. There were no severe cases in hereditary angioedema patients. Six patients aged 2 to 74 years died, three of them with antibody deficiency. CONCLUSION: The outcome was mild in most patients, but the Case Fatality Ratio was higher than in the general population. However, the type of IEI was not a determining factor for severity, except for complement deficiencies linked to milder COVID-19. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to be more related to older age, a higher number of comorbidities and type of comorbidities (bronchiectasis and cardiopathy).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Brazil , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Young Adult
11.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085035

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) can develop into a severe respiratory syndrome that results in up to 40% mortality. Acute lung inflammatory edema is a major pathological finding in autopsies explaining O2 diffusion failure and hypoxemia. Only dexamethasone has been shown to reduce mortality in severe cases, further supporting a role for inflammation in disease severity. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells employing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor, which is highly expressed in lung alveolar cells. ACE2 is one of the components of the cellular machinery that inactivates the potent inflammatory agent bradykinin, and SARS-CoV-2 infection could interfere with the catalytic activity of ACE2, leading to the accumulation of bradykinin. Methods: In this case control study, we tested two pharmacological inhibitors of the kinin-kallikrein system that are currently approved for the treatment of hereditary angioedema, icatibant, and inhibitor of C1 esterase/kallikrein, in a group of 30 patients with severe COVID-19. Results: Neither icatibant nor inhibitor of C1 esterase/kallikrein resulted in changes in time to clinical improvement. However, both compounds were safe and promoted the significant improvement of lung computed tomography scores and increased blood eosinophils, which are indicators of disease recovery. Conclusions: In this small cohort, we found evidence for safety and a beneficial role of pharmacological inhibition of the kinin-kallikrein system in two markers that indicate improved disease recovery.


Subject(s)
Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/therapeutic use , Kallikrein-Kinin System/drug effects , Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adult , Aged , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Drug Repositioning , Female , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 17(1): 14, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency is the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency in adults. Affected patients fail to mount an appropriate humoral response against community acquired infectious diseases and recent reports have provided data supporting the increased susceptibility of these patients to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. In this context, the infusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma could represent an effective therapeutic strategy. CASE PRESENTATION: 25-year old woman diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency in 2013, developed severe COVID-19 that rapidly progressed to pneumonia presenting with multiple bilateral lung opacities that were both central and peripheral and presented as ground-glass and consolidation types involving all lobes, bilaterally. As blood oxygen saturation decayed and lung abnormalities were not responsive to large spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids, patient was placed on mechanical ventilation and compassionate-use of approved COVID-19 convalescent donor plasma was introduced. The patient presented a rapid response to the approach and mechanical ventilation could be interrupted 24 h after first dose of COVID-19 convalescent donor plasma. As a whole, the patient received four doses of 200 mL convalescent plasma during a period of 6 days. There was rapid improvement of clinical status, with interruption of supplemental oxygen therapy after 6 days and reduction of lung abnormalities as evidence by sequential computed tomography scans. CONCLUSIONS: This is a single patient report that adds to other few reports on common variable immunodeficiency and agammaglobulinemia, suggesting that COVID-19 convalescent donor plasma could be a valuable therapeutic approach to treat patients affected by dysgammaglobulinemias and presenting severe COVID-19.

13.
Trials ; 22(1): 71, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, enters the cells through a mechanism dependent on its binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protein highly expressed in the lungs. The putative viral-induced inhibition of ACE2 could result in the defective degradation of bradykinin, a potent inflammatory substance. We hypothesize that increased bradykinin in the lungs is an important mechanism driving the development of pneumonia and respiratory failure in COVID-19. METHODS: This is a phase II, single-center, three-armed parallel-group, open-label, active control superiority randomized clinical trial. One hundred eighty eligible patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either the inhibitor of C1e/kallikrein 20 U/kg intravenously on day 1 and day 4 plus standard care; or icatibant 30 mg subcutaneously, three doses/day for 4 days plus standard care; or standard care alone, as recommended in the clinical trials published to date, which includes supplemental oxygen, non-invasive and invasive ventilation, antibiotic agents, anti-inflammatory agents, prophylactic antithrombotic therapy, vasopressor support, and renal replacement therapy. DISCUSSION: Accumulation of bradykinin in the lungs is a common side effect of ACE inhibitors leading to cough. In animal models, the inactivation of ACE2 leads to severe acute pneumonitis in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the inhibition of bradykinin almost completely restores the lung structure. We believe that inhibition of bradykinin in severe COVID-19 patients could reduce the lung inflammatory response, impacting positively on the severity of disease and mortality rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry Universal Trial Number (UTN) U1111-1250-1843. Registered on May/5/2020.


Subject(s)
Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bradykinin/administration & dosage , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Bradykinin/antagonists & inhibitors , Bradykinin/immunology , Bradykinin/metabolism , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Injections, Subcutaneous , Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors , Kallikreins/metabolism , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
14.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 17(1): 5, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) presents with progressive dyspnea, which results from acute lung inflammatory edema leading to hypoxia. As with other infectious diseases that affect the respiratory tract, asthma has been cited as a potential risk factor for severe COVID-19. However, conflicting results have been published over the last few months and the putative association between these two diseases is still unproven. METHODS: Here, we systematically reviewed all reports on COVID-19 published since its emergence in December 2019 to June 30, 2020, looking into the description of asthma as a premorbid condition, which could indicate its potential involvement in disease progression. RESULTS: We found 372 articles describing the underlying diseases of 161,271 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Asthma was reported as a premorbid condition in only 2623 patients accounting for 1.6% of all patients. CONCLUSIONS: As the global prevalence of asthma is 4.4%, we conclude that either asthma is not a premorbid condition that contributes to the development of COVID-19 or clinicians and researchers are not accurately describing the premorbidities in COVID-19 patients.

16.
Cell Metab ; 32(3): 437-446.e5, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670096

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes and macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF-1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/complications , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Female , Glycolysis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
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