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1.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(6): e5365, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739127

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a potential antiviral medication that has been recently licensed for Covid-19 treatment. In this work, a gadolinium-based magnetic ionic liquid was prepared and used as an extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of favipiravir in human plasma. The high enriching ability of DLLME allowed the determination of favipiravir in real samples using HPLC/UV with sufficient sensitivity. The effects of several variables on extraction efficiency were investigated, including type of extractant, amount of extractant, type of disperser and disperser volume. The maximum enrichment was attained using 50 mg of the Gd-magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) and 150 µl of tetrahydrofuran. The Gd-based MIL could form a supramolecular assembly in the presence of tetrahydrofuran, which enhanced the extraction efficiency of favipiravir. The developed method was validated according to US Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The coefficient of determination was 0.9999, for a linear concentration range of 25 to 1.0 × 105  ng/ml. The percentage recovery (accuracy) varied from 99.83 to 104.2%, with RSD values (precision) ranging from 4.07 to 11.84%. The total extraction time was about 12 min and the HPLC analysis time was 5 min. The method was simple, selective and sensitive for the determination of favipiravir in real human plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ionic Liquids , Liquid Phase Microextraction , Amides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Furans , Gadolinium , Humans , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Magnetic Phenomena , Pyrazines
2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 270: 120802, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593067

ABSTRACT

Ascorbic acid has recently been extensively used due to its role in the management of COVID-19 infections by stimulating the immune system and triggering phagocytosis of the corona virus. The currently used spectrofluorometric methods for determination of ascorbic acid require using derivatizing agents or fluorescent probes and suffer from a number of limitations, including slow reaction rates, low yield, limited sensitivity, long reaction times and high temperatures. In this work, we present a highly sensitive spectrofluorometric method for determination of ascorbic acid by switching-on the fluorescence of salicylate in presence of iron (III) due to a reduction of the cation to iron (II). The addition of ascorbic acid resulted in a corresponding enhancement in the fluorescence intensity of iron (III)-salicylate complex at emission wavelength = 411 nm. The method was found linear in the range of 1-8 µg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.035 µg/mL and 0.106 µg/mL, respectively. The developed method was applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in the commercially available dosage form; Ruta C60® tablets. The obtained results were compared with those obtained by a reported liquid chromatographic method at 95% confidence interval, no statistically significant differences were found between the developed and the reported methods. Yet, the developed spectrofluorometric method was found markedly greener than the reference method, based on the analytical Eco-scale and the green analytical procedure index. This work presents a simple, rapid and sensitive method that can possibly be applied for determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals, biological fluids and food samples.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Tablets
3.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1189: 123087, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587335

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a promising antiviral agent that has been recently approved for treatment of COVID-19 infection. In this study, a menthol-assisted homogenous liquid-liquid microextraction method has been developed for favipiravir determination in human plasma using HPLC/UV. The different factors that could affect the extraction efficiency were studied, including extractant type, extractant volume, menthol amount and vortex time. The optimum extraction efficiency was achieved using 300 µL of tetrahydrofuran, 30 mg of menthol and vortexing for 1 min before centrifuging the sample for 5 min at 3467g. Addition of menthol does not only induce phase separation, but also helps to form reverse micelles to facilitate extraction. The highly polar favipiravir molecules would be incorporated into the hydrophilic core of the formed reverse micelle to be extracted by the non-polar organic extractant. The method was validated according to the FDA bioanalytical method guidelines. The developed method was found linear in the concentration range of 0.1 to 100 µg/mL with a coefficient of determination of 0.9992. The method accuracy and precision were studied by calculating the recovery (%) and the relative standard deviation (%), respectively. The recovery (%) was in the range of 97.1-103.9%, while the RSD (%) values ranged between 2.03 and 8.15 %. The developed method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of Flupirava® 200 mg versus Avigan® 200 mg, after a single oral dose of favipiravir administered to healthy adult volunteers. The proposed method was simple, cheap, more eco-friendly and sufficiently sensitive for biomedical application.


Subject(s)
Amides/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/drug therapy , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Pyrazines/isolation & purification , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/blood , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Humans , Liquid Phase Microextraction/instrumentation , Menthol/chemistry , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Virusdisease ; 32(2): 279-285, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216275

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic could be the most threatening outbreak in the twenty-first century. According to the latest records of world health organization, more than 130 millions have been infected by COVID-19, with more than 2.9 million reported deaths. Yet, there is no magic cure for treatment of COVID-19. The concept of drug repurposing has been introduced as a fast, life-saving approach for drug discovery. Drug repurposing infers investigating already approved drugs for new indications, using the available information about pathophysiology of diseases and pharmacodynamics of drugs. In a recent work, more than 3000 FDA approved drugs were tested using virtual screening as potential antiviral agents for COVID-19. In this work, the top ranked five hits from the previous docking results together with drugs of similar chemical feature and/or mechanistic destinations were further tested using AutoDock Vina. The results showed that anti-HCV combinations could be potential therapeutic regimens for COVID-19 infections. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13337-021-00691-6.

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