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1.
Neurosurgery ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and outcomes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. METHODS: We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted patients with COVID-19 with concomitant acute LVO across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a mechanical thrombectomy between January 2018 and December 2020. RESULTS: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO; 194 patients had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs 71.2; P < .001) and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs 54, 14.2%; P = .001). Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs 252, 67.2%; P < .001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as modified Ranklin Scale 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs 132, 66.7%; P = .004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7; P < .001) and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5; P = .002). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. Patients with COVID-19 with LVO were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates.

2.
J Neurol Sci ; 432: 120060, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted stroke care services at multiple levels. There was a decline in acute stroke admissions. Fewer interventions have been performed. Increased "door-to-needle times and "door-to-groin puncture" during this pandemic. These factors combined have led to declining in the favoured outcomes of stroke patients' globally. Yet this pandemic permits an opportunity for higher preparedness for future pandemics. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: This paper aims to shed light on the main lessons learned in the field of stroke care during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Here we are presenting proposals and initiatives for better preparedness in future similar emergencies. These proposals are based primarily on literature review of COVID-19 publications, as well as the first-hand experience gained during the first wave at the regional level. In addition to the consensus and collective ride of stroke experts in the Middle East North Africa Stroke and Interventional Neurotherapies Organization (MENA+-SINO) and interaction and collaboration with international stroke specialists from the Stroke World Organization (WSO), European Stroke Organization (ESO) and stroke and COVID-19 papers authors. CONCLUSION: Stroke care is very complex, particularly in the initial hours after onset of symptoms. A successful outcome requires very close collaboration between clinical personnel from multiple specialties. Preparedness for future pandemics requires the improvement of care plans that allow for rapid assessment of stroke patients and ensuring that regular 'mock exercises' familiarize quintessential services that care for the stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Africa, Northern , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
3.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103259, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to comprehensively evaluate olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding onset, course, associated symptoms, prognosis and relation to patients' demographics, treatment received and other symptoms. PATIENTS& METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted on patients proven to be infected with COVID-19 and with olfactory/gustatory dysfunction symptoms. Detailed history was taken from each patient about the onset of this dysfunction, associated symptoms. Then follow-up survey was done after 6 months to evaluate the prognosis. RESULTS: 1031 patients were included in the study, aged 18 to 69 years old, with 31.8% were male. Olfactory/gustatory dysfunctions occurred after other COVID-19 symptoms in 43.5% of cases, occurred suddenly in 80.4% and gradually in 19.6%. These dysfunctions were anosmia & ageusia in 50.2%, hyposmia & hypogeusia in 23.3%, anosmia alone in 17.7%, phantosmia in 18%, Parosmia in 28.4%. In terms of recovery 6-month follow up, 680 patients (66%) recovered completely, 22.1% recovered partially while 11.9% did not recover. Most improvement occurred in the first two weeks. Headache, malaise, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea were the commonest COVID-19 symptoms associated. CONCLUSION: Most recovery of olfactory/gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 infection occurs at the first two weeks and is unrelated to patient demographics, treatment or olfactory training. Parosmia is an independent predictor for complete recovery, while phantosmia is significantly associated with lower probability of complete recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254581, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research has revealed that asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic infections are important contributors to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in populations. In Egypt, the true prevalence of infections is veiled due to the low number of screening tests. The aim of this study was to determine the SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity rate as well the seroprevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before the ultimate development of a second wave of the epidemic in Cairo, Egypt. METHODS: Our study was carried out between May 5 and the end of October 2020. It included all patients requiring admission to Ain Shams University hospitals. An interview questionnaire was used to collect demographic and clinical data. Laboratory tests for all participants included RT-PCR and total antibody assay for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 4,313 subjects were enrolled in our study, with females representing 56% of the sample. Adults and middle-aged individuals represented around 60% of the study sample. The positivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 PCR was 3.84% (95% CI 3.29-4.48), and the SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence was 29.82% (95% CI: 28.16-31.51). Males showed a higher risk for getting the COVID-19 infection, while middle-age group had significantly higher antibody seroprevalence rates. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection imposes a high burden on the community as detected by high seroprevalence rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Egypt , Female , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1243, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smoking negatively impacts COVID-19 severity and adverse outcomes. Evidence on whether smoking is associated with SARS-Co-V2 infection and having a positive test is scarce, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, where most of the world's billion smokers live. The inconsistency in relevant findings calls for study designs and analyses to account for possible confounders including background characteristics and pre-existing co-morbidities, to disentangle the specific effect of smoking. In healthcare workers (HCWs) the frequency of exposure to COVID-19 cases adds another layer of risk that was not factored in previous studies. We examined the association of HCWs' tobacco/nicotine use (never, former, and current use) with having a positive SARS-Co-V2 test result and symptoms suggestive of infection, accounting for demographics, exposures, and co-morbidities. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 4040 healthcare workers with baseline and follow-up screening took place during April-June 2020 in 12 healthcare facilities in Cairo, Egypt. Data on demographics, tobacco/nicotine use (manufactured or roll-your-own cigarettes, waterpipe tobacco, and electronic devices), co-morbidities, symptoms, exposures, and SARS-Co-V2 investigations were analyzed. Multinomial and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 270/4040 (6.7, 95%CI: 5.9-7.5) had positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, 479 (11.9%) were current and 79 (2.0%) were former tobacco/nicotine users. The proportion of positive tests was 7.0% (243/3482, 95%CI: 6.1-7.8) among never, 5.1% (4/79, 95%CI: 0.1-10.0) among former, and 4.8% (23/479, 95%CI: 2.9-6.7) among current users. HCWs' SARS-CoV-2 test results did not vary significantly by single/multiple or daily/non-daily tobacco/nicotine use. Compared to never users, former users were more likely to self-report a pre-existing medical condition (ORadjusted1.87, 95%CI: 1.05-3.33, p = 0.033), and to experience symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 (ORadjusted1.76, 95%CI: 1.07-2.90, p = 0.027). After adjustment, former (ORadjusted0.45, 95%CI: 0.11-1.89, p = 0.273) and current (ORadjusted0.65, 95%CI: 0.38-1.09, p = 0.101) tobacco/nicotine use was not associated with HCWs' SARS-CoV-2 positive test results. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on this association from low- and middle-income countries with high tobacco/nicotine use prevalence. In this HCW cohort, having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test was not associated with tobacco/nicotine use after accounting for demographics, exposures, and co-morbidities. Additional population-based studies could use such preliminary evidence to investigate this controversial association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nicotine , Cohort Studies , Egypt , Health Personnel , Humans , Nicotine/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco
6.
Neurology ; 96(23): e2824-e2838, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases. RESULTS: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, p < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, p < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, p = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, p < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy
7.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 11(2): 55-60, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19) has an increased propensity for systemic hypercoagulability and thromboembolism. An association with cerebrovascular diseases, especially cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), has been reported among these patients. The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors for CVT as well as its presentation and outcome in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter and multinational observational study. Ten centers in 4 countries (Pakistan, Egypt, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates) participated in this study. The study included patients (aged >18 years) with symptomatic CVT and recent COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Twenty patients (70% men) were included. Their mean age was 42.4 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.3:1. Headache (85%) and seizures (65%) were the common presenting symptoms, with a mean admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13. CVT was the presenting feature in 13 cases (65%), while 7 patients (35%) developed CVT while being treated for COVID-19 infection. Respiratory symptoms were absent in 45% of the patients. The most common imaging finding was infarction (65%), followed by hemorrhage (20%). The superior sagittal sinus (65%) was the most common site of thrombosis. Acute inflammatory markers were raised, including elevated serum D-dimer (87.5%), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (69%), and C-reactive protein (47%) levels. Homocysteine was elevated in half of the tested cases. The mortality rate was 20% (4 patients). A good functional outcome was seen in the surviving patients, with a mean modified Rankin Scale score at discharge of 1.3. Nine patients (45%) had a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1 at discharge. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related CVT is more common among males at older ages when compared to previously reported non-COVID-19-related CVT cases. CVT should be suspected in COVID-19 patients presenting with headache or seizures. Mortality is high, but functional neurological outcome is good among survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/virology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/virology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Egypt , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore , United Arab Emirates , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
8.
Front Neurol ; 12: 635856, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172971

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: There is little information on the acute cerebrovascular complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) among COVID-19 patients and evaluate their clinical and radiological characteristics in comparison with non-COVID-19 CVD. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, COVID-19 patients whom presented with CVD in Assiut and Aswan University Hospitals were compared with non-COVID-19, CVD patients, admitted to Qena University Hospital, prior to the pandemic. The following data were collected: clinical history and presentation, risk factors, comorbidities, brain imaging (MRI or CT), chest CT, and some laboratory investigations. Results: Fifty-five (12.5%) of the 439 patients with COVID-19 had acute CVD. Of them, 42 (9.6%) had ischemic stroke while 13 patients (2.9%) had hemorrhagic CVD. In the 250 cases of the non-COVID-19 group, 180 had ischemic stroke and 70 had hemorrhagic stroke. A large proportion of patients with COVID-19 who presented with ischemic stroke had large vessel occlusion (LVO), which was significantly higher than in non-COVID-19 patients with CVD (40 vs. 7.2%, P < 0.001). Comorbidities were recorded in 44 (80%) cases. In COVID-19 ischemic stroke patients, risk factors [hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD)] and comorbidities (hepatic and renal) were significantly higher than those in non-COVID-19 patients. In addition, 23.5% had hemorrhagic CVD, and six patients with LVO developed hemorrhagic transformation. Conclusion: Acute CVD among patients with COVID-19 was common in our study. LVO was the commonest. Hypertension, IHD, and anemia are the most common risk factors and could contribute to the worsening of clinical presentation. Comorbidities were common among patients with CVD, although a large number had elevated liver enzymes and creatinine that were partially due to COVID-19 infection itself. The current results begin to characterize the spectrum of CVD associated with COVID-19 in patients in Upper Egypt. Registration ID: The ID number of this study is IRB no: 17300470.

9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105806, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the healthcare systems across the world but its impact on acute stroke care is just being elucidated. We hypothesized a major global impact of COVID-19 not only on stroke volumes but also on various aspects of thrombectomy systems. AIMS: We conducted a convenience electronic survey with a 21-item questionnaire aimed to identify the changes in stroke admission volumes and thrombectomy treatment practices seen during a specified time period of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey was designed using Qualtrics software and sent to stroke and neuro-interventional physicians around the world who are part of the Global Executive Committee (GEC) of Mission Thrombectomy 2020, a global coalition under the aegis of Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology, between April 5th and May 15th, 2020. RESULTS: There were 113 responses to the survey across 25 countries with a response rate of 31% among the GEC members. Globally there was a median 33% decrease in stroke admissions and a 25% decrease in mechanical thrombectomy (MT) procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic period until May 15th, 2020 compared to pre-pandemic months. The intubation policy for MT procedures during the pandemic was highly variable across participating centers: 44% preferred intubating all patients, including 25% of centers that changed their policy to preferred-intubation (PI) from preferred non-intubation (PNI). On the other hand, 56% centers preferred not intubating patients undergoing MT, which included 27% centers that changed their policy from PI to PNI. There was no significant difference in rate of COVID-19 infection between PI versus PNI centers (p=0.60) or if intubation policy was changed in either direction (p=1.00). Low-volume (<10 stroke/month) compared with high-volume stroke centers (>20 strokes/month) were less likely to have neurointerventional suite specific written personal protective equipment protocols (74% vs 88%) and if present, these centers were more likely to report them to be inadequate (58% vs 92%). CONCLUSION: Our data provides a comprehensive snapshot of the impact on acute stroke care observed worldwide during the pandemic. Overall, respondents reported decreased stroke admissions as well as decreased cases of MT with no clear preponderance in intubation policy during MT. DATA ACCESS STATEMENT: The corresponding author will consider requests for sharing survey data. The study was exempt from institutional review board approval as it did not involve patient level data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health/trends , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys , Hospitals, High-Volume/trends , Hospitals, Low-Volume/trends , Humans , Infection Control/trends , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors
10.
Int J Stroke ; 16(5): 573-584, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide. AIMS: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior). METHODS: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers. RESULTS: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, High-Volume/trends , Hospitals, Low-Volume/trends , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors
11.
Neurology ; 96(23): e2824-e2838, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases. RESULTS: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, p < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, p < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, p = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, p < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy
12.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 6(4): 542-552, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation. FINDINGS: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile. INTERPRETATION: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Aneurysm , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Aneurysm/epidemiology , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105733, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection has been known to predispose patients to both arterial and venous thromboembolic events such as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke. A few reports from the literature suggest that Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVSTs) may be a direct complication of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical and radiological presentation of COVID-19 positive patients diagnosed with CVST. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 reviewed from March 1, 2020 to November 8, 2020. We evaluated their clinical presentations, risk factors, clinical management, and outcome. We reviewed all published cases of CVST in patients with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to November 13, 2020. RESULTS: There were 8 patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 during the study period at 7 out of 31 participating centers. Patients in our case series were mostly female (7/8, 87.5%). Most patients presented with non-specific symptoms such as headache (50%), fever (50%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (75%). Several patients presented with focal neurologic deficits (2/8, 25%) or decreased consciousness (2/8, 25%). D-dimer and inflammatory biomarkers were significantly elevated relative to reference ranges in patients with available laboratory data. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses were the most common sites for acute CVST formation (6/8, 75%). Median time to onset of focal neurologic deficit from initial COVID-19 diagnosis was 3 days (interquartile range 0.75-3 days). Median time from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to CVST radiologic diagnosis was 11 days (interquartile range 6-16.75 days). Mortality was low in this cohort (1/8 or 12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider the risk of acute CVST in patients positive for COVID-19, especially if neurological symptoms develop.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Cranial Sinuses/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a small but clinically significant risk of stroke, the cause of which is frequently cryptogenic. In a large multinational cohort of consecutive COVID-19 patients with stroke, we evaluated clinical predictors of cryptogenic stroke, short-term functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality among patients according to stroke etiology. METHODS: We explored clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of consecutively evaluated patients 18 years of age or older with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 31 hospitals in 4 countries (3/1/20-6/16/20). RESULTS: Of the 14.483 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19, 156 (1.1%) were diagnosed with AIS. Sixty-one (39.4%) were female, 84 (67.2%) white, and 88 (61.5%) were between 60 and 79 years of age. The most frequently reported etiology of AIS was cryptogenic (55/129, 42.6%), which was associated with significantly higher white blood cell count, c-reactive protein, and D-dimer levels than non-cryptogenic AIS patients (p

Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Registries , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke , United States/epidemiology
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 534-542, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroconversion incidence and risk factors 21 days after baseline screening among healthcare workers (HCWs) in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 4040 HCWs took place at 12 university healthcare facilities in Cairo, Egypt; April-June 2020. Follow-up exposure and clinical data were collected through online survey. SARS-CoV-2 testing was done using rapid IgM and IgG serological tests and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for those with positive serology. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of seroconversion. RESULTS: 3870/4040 (95.8%) HCWs tested negative for IgM, IgG and PCR at baseline; 2282 (59.0%) returned for 21-day follow-up. Seroconversion incidence (positive IgM and/or IgG) was 100/2282 (4.4%, 95% CI:3.6-5.3), majority asymptomatic (64.0%); daily hazard of 0.21% (95% CI:0.17-0.25)/48 746 person-days of follow-up. Seroconversion was: 4.0% (64/1596; 95% CI:3.1-5.1) among asymptomatic; 5.3% (36/686; 95% CI:3.7-7.2) among symptomatic HCWs. Seroconversion was independently associated with older age; lower education; contact with a confirmed case >15 min; chronic kidney disease; pregnancy; change/loss of smell; and negatively associated with workplace contact. CONCLUSIONS: Most seroconversions were asymptomatic, emphasizing need for regular universal testing. Seropositivity was three-fold that observed at baseline. Cumulative infections increased nationally by a similar rate, suggesting HCW infections reflect community not nosocomial transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Serologic Tests , Young Adult
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(1): 50-61, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The scale of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs), particularly in resource-limited settings, remains unclear. To address this concern, universal (non-symptom-based) screening of HCWs was piloted to determine the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated epidemiological and clinical risk factors at a large public health care facility in Egypt. METHODS: Baseline voluntary screening of 4040 HCWs took place between 22 April and 14 May 2020 at 12 hospitals and medical centres in Cairo. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected using an online survey. All participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid IgM and IgG serological tests. RESULTS: Of the 4040 HCWs screened, 170 [4.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-4.9] tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by either of the three tests (i.e. infected); 125/170 (73.5%) tested PCR-positive. Most infected HCWs were nurses (97/170, 57.5%). Median age of infected HCWs was 31.5 [interquartile range (IQR): 27.0-41.3] years. Of infected HCWs, 78 (45.9%) reported contact with a suspected case and 47 (27.6%) reported face-to-face contact within 2 m with a confirmed case. The proportion of infection among symptomatic HCWs (n = 54/616) was 8.8% (95% CI: 6.7-11.3); 6/54 (11.1%) had fever ≥38°C and 7/54 (13.0%) reported severe symptoms. Most infected HCWs were asymptomatic (116/170, 68.2%). The proportion of infection among asymptomatic HCWs (n = 116/3424) was 3.4% (95% CI: 2.8-4.0). CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of asymptomatic infections among HCWs reinforces the need for expanding universal regular testing. The infection rate among symptomatic HCWs in this study is comparable with the national rate detected through symptom-based testing. This suggests that infections among HCWs may reflect community rather than nosocomial transmission during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Egypt.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/psychology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Fever/virology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tertiary Healthcare/organization & administration
17.
Int J Stroke ; 16(4): 437-447, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with a significant risk of thrombotic events in critically ill patients. AIM: To summarize the findings of a multinational observational cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort of consecutive adults evaluated in the emergency department and/or admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across 31 hospitals in four countries (1 February 2020-16 June 2020). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of cerebrovascular events, inclusive of acute ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhages (ICH), and cortical vein and/or sinus thrombosis (CVST). RESULTS: Of the 14,483 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, 172 were diagnosed with an acute cerebrovascular event (1.13% of cohort; 1130/100,000 patients, 95%CI 970-1320/100,000), 68/171 (40.5%) were female and 96/172 (55.8%) were between the ages 60 and 79 years. Of these, 156 had acute ischemic stroke (1.08%; 1080/100,000 95%CI 920-1260/100,000), 28 ICH (0.19%; 190/100,000 95%CI 130-280/100,000), and 3 with CVST (0.02%; 20/100,000, 95%CI 4-60/100,000). The in-hospital mortality rate for SARS-CoV-2-associated stroke was 38.1% and for ICH 58.3%. After adjusting for clustering by site and age, baseline stroke severity, and all predictors of in-hospital mortality found in univariate regression (p < 0.1: male sex, tobacco use, arrival by emergency medical services, lower platelet and lymphocyte counts, and intracranial occlusion), cryptogenic stroke mechanism (aOR 5.01, 95%CI 1.63-15.44, p < 0.01), older age (aOR 1.78, 95%CI 1.07-2.94, p = 0.03), and lower lymphocyte count on admission (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.34-0.98, p = 0.04) were the only independent predictors of mortality among patients with stroke and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with a small but significant risk of clinically relevant cerebrovascular events, particularly ischemic stroke. The mortality rate is high for COVID-19-associated cerebrovascular complications; therefore, aggressive monitoring and early intervention should be pursued to mitigate poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Thrombosis/etiology , Tobacco Use , Young Adult
18.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 358, 2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic is associated with an increased incidence of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) secondary to large vessel occlusion (LVO). The treatment of these patients poses unique and significant challenges to health care providers requiring changes in existing protocols. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old COVID-19 positive patient developed sudden onset left hemiparesis secondary to an acute right middle cerebral artery occlusion (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score = 11). Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) was performed under a new protocol specifically designed to maximize protective measures for the team involved in the care of the patient. Mechanical Thrombectomy was performed successfully under general anesthesia resulting in TICI 3 recanalization. With regards to time metrics, time from door to reperfusion was 60 mins. The 24-h NIHSS score decreased to 2. Patient was discharged after 19 days after improvement of her pulmonary status with modified Rankin Scale = 1. CONCLUSION: Patients infected by COVID-19 can develop LVO that is multifactorial in etiology. Mechanical thrombectomy in a COVID-19 confirmed patient presenting with AIS due to LVO is feasible with current mechanical thrombectomy devices. A change in stroke workflow and protocols is now necessary in order to deliver the appropriate life-saving therapy for COVID-19 positive patients while protecting medical providers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombectomy/methods , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/surgery , COVID-19 , Cerebral Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Intubation, Intratracheal , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reperfusion , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/surgery , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
19.
Front Neurol ; 11: 928, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771519

ABSTRACT

In the unprecedented current era of the COVID-19 pandemic, challenges have arisen in the management and interventional care of patients with acute stroke and large vessel occlusion, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ruptured vascular malformations. There are several challenges facing endovascular therapy for stroke, including shortages of medical staff who may be deployed for COVID-19 coverage or who may have contracted the infection and are thus quarantined, patients avoiding early medical care, a lack of personal protective equipment, delays in door-to-puncture time, anesthesia challenges, and a lack of high-intensity intensive care unit and stroke ward beds. As a leading regional neurovascular organization, the Middle East North Africa Stroke and Interventional Neurotherapies Organization (MENA-SINO) has established a task force composed of medical staff and physicians from different disciplines to establish guiding recommendations for the implementation of acute care pathways for various neurovascular emergencies during the current COVID-19 pandemic. This consensus recommendation was achieved through a series of meetings to finalize the recommendation.

20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105181, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663887

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has led to a change in the way we manage acute medical illnesses. This pandemic had a negative impact on stroke care worldwide. The World Stroke Organization (WSO) has raised concerns due to the lack of available care and compromised acute stroke services globally. The numbers of thrombolysis and thrombectomy therapies are declining. As well as, the rates and door-to treatment times for thrombolysis and thrombectomy therapies are increasing. The stroke units are being reallocated to serve COVID-19 patients, and stroke teams are being redeployed to COVID-19 centers. Covid 19 confirmed cases and deaths are rising day by day. This pandemic clearly threatened and threatening all stroke care achievements regionally. Managing stroke patients during this pandemic is even more challenging at our region. The Middle East and North Africa Stroke and Interventional Neurotherapies Organization (MENA-SINO) is the main stroke organization regionally. MENA-SINO urges the need to developing new strategies and recommendations for stroke care during this pandemic. This will require multiple channels of interventions and create a protective code stroke with fast triaging path. Developing and expanding the tele-stroke programs are urgently required. There is an urgent need for enhancing collaboration and cooperation between stroke expertise regionally and internationally. Integrating such measures will inevitably lead to an improvement and upgrading of the services to a satisfactory level.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/standards , Thrombolytic Therapy/standards , Africa, Northern/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Psychological Distance , Quarantine , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Telemedicine/standards , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Triage/standards
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