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J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125439, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101360


Viruses are omnipresent and persistent in wastewater, which poses a risk to human health. In this review, we summarise the different qualitative and quantitative methods for virus analysis in wastewater and systematically discuss the spatial distribution and temporal patterns of various viruses (i.e., enteric viruses, Caliciviridae (Noroviruses (NoVs)), Picornaviridae (Enteroviruses (EVs)), Hepatitis A virus (HAV)), and Adenoviridae (Adenoviruses (AdVs))) in wastewater systems. Then we critically review recent SARS-CoV-2 studies to understand the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic through wastewater surveillance. SARS-CoV-2 genetic material has been detected in wastewater from France, the Netherlands, Australia, Italy, Japan, Spain, Turkey, India, Pakistan, China, and the USA. We then discuss the utility of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to estimate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of these viruses and generate human health risk assessment. Finally, we not only promote the prevention of viral infectious disease transmission through wastewater but also highlight the potential use of WBE as an early warning system for public health assessment.

COVID-19 , Viruses , Australia , China , France , Humans , India , Italy , Japan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Waste Water
Water Res ; 191: 116787, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989378


Public health is attracting increasing attention due to the current global pandemic, and wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has emerged as a powerful tool for monitoring of public health by analysis of a variety of biomarkers (e.g., chemicals and pathogens) in wastewater. Rapid development of WBE requires rapid and on-site analytical tools for monitoring of sewage biomarkers to provide immediate decision and intervention. Biosensors have been demonstrated to be highly sensitive and selective tools for the analysis of sewage biomarkers due to their fast response, ease-to-use, low cost and the potential for field-testing. This paper presents biosensors as effective tools for wastewater analysis of potential biomarkers and monitoring of public health via WBE. In particular, we discuss the use of sewage sensors for rapid detection of a range of targets, including rapid monitoring of community-wide illicit drug consumption and pathogens for early warning of infectious diseases outbreaks. Finally, we provide a perspective on the future use of the biosensor technology for WBE to enable rapid on-site monitoring of sewage, which will provide nearly real-time data for public health assessment and effective intervention.

Biosensing Techniques , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Public Health , Sewage , Waste Water/analysis
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112617, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808194


The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a significant public health challenge worldwide. A lack of effective methods for screening potential patients, rapidly diagnosing suspected cases, and accurately monitoring of the epidemic in real time to prevent the rapid spread of COVID-19 raises significant difficulties in mitigating the epidemic in many countries. As effective point-of-care diagnosis tools, simple, low-cost and rapid sensors have the potential to greatly accelerate the screening and diagnosis of suspected patients to improve their treatment and care. In particular, there is evidence that multiple pathogens have been detected in sewage, including SARS-CoV-2, providing significant opportunities for the development of advanced sensors for wastewater-based epidemiology that provide an early warning of the pandemic within the population. Sensors could be used to screen potential carriers, provide real-time monitoring and control of the epidemic, and even support targeted drug screening and delivery within the integration of emerging mobile health (mHealth) technology. In this communication, we discuss the feasibility of an integrated point-of-care biosensor system with mobile health for wastewater-based epidemiology (iBMW) for early warning of COVID-19, screening and diagnosis of potential infectors, and improving health care and public health. The iBMW will provide an effective approach to prevent, evaluate and intervene in a fast, affordable and reliable way, thus enabling real-time guidance for the government in providing effective intervention and evaluating the effectiveness of intervention.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19 , Equipment Design , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage/virology