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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820428

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries with a global mobilization started to produce and authorize vaccines, prioritizing healthcare professionals (HCPs) to reduce transmission. The aim of this study was to assess post-vaccination infections' occurrence among HCPs and their correlation with symptom onset. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Campania Region from December 2020 to April 2021. Data were retrieved from the Regional Health Information System of the Campania Region (Sinfonia). The study cohort included subjects that had all received at least one vaccine dose. Risk ratios (RRs) adjusted for age and sex (95% confidence intervals) were performed to assess differences in the prevalence between HCPs who tested positive or negative for COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between symptoms and vaccination status. Findings revealed that HCPs had a lower risk of contracting COVID-19 after receiving at least one vaccine dose, and this risk decreased with age. Furthermore, not having full vaccination coverage may predict a severe/critical evolution of the disease. This study provides a snapshot of the initial state of the Italian vaccination campaign on HCPs. A surveillance approach using Big Data matched to clinical conditions could offer a real analysis in the categorization of subjects most at risk.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809654

ABSTRACT

The pandemic driven by the SARS-CoV-2 infection has compelled health services globally to direct all available human and economic resources toward fighting the novel coronavirus [...].

3.
Vaccines ; 10(4):511, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762560

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries with a global mobilization started to produce and authorize vaccines, prioritizing healthcare professionals (HCPs) to reduce transmission. The aim of this study was to assess post-vaccination infections' occurrence among HCPs and their correlation with symptom onset. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Campania Region from December 2020 to April 2021. Data were retrieved from the Regional Health Information System of the Campania Region (Sinfonia). The study cohort included subjects that had all received at least one vaccine dose. Risk ratios (RRs) adjusted for age and sex (95% confidence intervals) were performed to assess differences in the prevalence between HCPs who tested positive or negative for COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between symptoms and vaccination status. Findings revealed that HCPs had a lower risk of contracting COVID-19 after receiving at least one vaccine dose, and this risk decreased with age. Furthermore, not having full vaccination coverage may predict a severe/critical evolution of the disease. This study provides a snapshot of the initial state of the Italian vaccination campaign on HCPs. A surveillance approach using Big Data matched to clinical conditions could offer a real analysis in the categorization of subjects most at risk.

4.
Medici Oggi ; 2022.
Article in Italian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1743710
7.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among the several therapeutic options assessed for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), tocilizumab (TCZ), an antagonist of the interleukine-6 receptor, has emerged as a promising therapeutic choice, especially for the severe form of the disease. Proper synthesis of the available randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is needed to inform clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic review with a meta-analysis of RCTs investigating the efficacy of TCZ in COVID-19 patients was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register were searched up until 30 April 2021. RESULTS: The database search yielded 2885 records; 11 studies were considered eligible for full-text review, and nine met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 3358 patients composed the TCZ arm, and 3131 the comparator group. The main outcome was all-cause mortality at 28-30 days. Subgroup analyses according to trials' and patients' features were performed. A trial sequential analysis (TSA) was also carried out to minimize type I and type II errors. According to the fixed-effect model approach, TCZ was associated with a better survival odds ratio (OR) (0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.94; I2: 24% (low heterogeneity)). The result was consistent in the subgroup of severe disease (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74-0.93; I2: 53% (moderate heterogeneity)). However, the TSA illustrated that the required information size was not met unless the study that was the major source of heterogeneity was omitted. CONCLUSIONS: TCZ may represent an important weapon against severe COVID-19. Further studies are needed to consolidate this finding.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480770

ABSTRACT

Even several months after the start of a massive vaccination campaign against COVID-19, mortality and hospital admission are still high in many countries. Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are the ideal complement to vaccination in infected subjects who are at high risk for progression to severe disease. Based on data of the Italian Ministry of Health, in the period April-August 2021, monoclonal antibodies were prescribed to 6322 patients. In the same period, 70,022 patients over 70 years old became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Even considering that all monoclonal antibodies were prescribed to this category of patients, we calculated that only 9% of these subjects received the treatment. Moreover, using efficacy data provided by clinal trials, we estimated the potential benefit in terms of reduction of hospital admissions and deaths. Considering utilisation of monoclonal antibodies in half infected patients over 70 years, we estimated that hospital admissions and deaths might have been reduced by 7666 and 3507, respectively. Finally, we calculated the economic benefit of monoclonal use. In the same scenario (50% use of monoclonal antibodies to patients over 70), we estimated potential savings of USD 117,410,105. In conclusion, monoclonal antibodies were used in a small proportion of patients over 70 in Italy. A more extensive use might have resulted in a marked decrease in hospital admissions, deaths and in conspicuous saving for the health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Vaccination
9.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458049

ABSTRACT

Infections caused by metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas are increasingly reported worldwide and are usually associated with high mortality rates (>30%). Neither standard therapy nor consensus for the management of these infections exist. Aztreonam, an old ß-lactam antibiotic, is not hydrolyzed by MBLs. However, since many MBL-producing strains co-produce enzymes that could hydrolyze aztreonam (e.g., AmpC, ESBL), a robust ß-lactamase inhibitor such as avibactam could be given as a partner drug. We performed a systematic review including 35 in vitro and 18 in vivo studies on the combination aztreonam + avibactam for infections sustained by MBL-producing Gram-negatives. In vitro data on 2209 Gram-negatives were available, showing the high antimicrobial activity of aztreonam (MIC ≤ 4 mg/L when combined with avibactam) in 80% of MBL-producing Enterobacterales, 85% of Stenotrophomonas and 6% of MBL-producing Pseudomonas. Clinical data were available for 94 patients: 83% of them had bloodstream infections. Clinical resolution within 30 days was reported in 80% of infected patients. Analyzing only patients with bloodstream infections (64 patients), death occurred in 19% of patients treated with aztreonam + ceftazidime/avibactam. The combination aztreonam + avibactam appears to be a promising option against MBL-producing bacteria (especially Enterobacterales, much less for Pseudomonas) while waiting for new antimicrobials.

10.
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr ; 9(3): 322-324, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389913
12.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 1837-1885, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333141

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Italian Society of Anti-Infective Therapy (SITA) and the Italian Society of Pulmonology (SIP) constituted an expert panel for developing evidence-based guidance for the clinical management of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside intensive care units. METHODS: Ten systematic literature searches were performed to answer ten different key questions. The retrieved evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology (GRADE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The literature searches mostly assessed the available evidence on the management of COVID-19 patients in terms of antiviral, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment. Most evidence was deemed as of low certainty, and in some cases, recommendations could not be developed according to the GRADE system (best practice recommendations were provided in similar situations). The use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies may be considered for outpatients at risk of disease progression. For inpatients, favorable recommendations were provided for anticoagulant prophylaxis and systemic steroids administration, although with low certainty of evidence. Favorable recommendations, with very low/low certainty of evidence, were also provided for, in specific situations, remdesivir, alone or in combination with baricitinib, and tocilizumab. The presence of many best practice recommendations testified to the need for further investigations by means of randomized controlled trials, whenever possible, with some possible future research directions stemming from the results of the ten systematic reviews.

14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(4): 511-519, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports suggest that asymptomatic individuals (those with no symptoms at all throughout infection) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are infectious, but the extent of transmission based on symptom status requires further study. PURPOSE: This living review aims to critically appraise available data about secondary attack rates from people with asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. DATA SOURCES: Medline, EMBASE, China Academic Journals full-text database (CNKI), and pre-print servers were searched from 30 December 2019 to 3 July 2020 using relevant MESH terms. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that report on contact tracing of index cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection in either English or Chinese were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. We calculated the secondary attack rate as the number of contacts with SARS-CoV-2, divided by the number of contacts tested. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 927 studies identified, 80 were included. Summary secondary attack rate estimates were 1% (95% CI 0%-2%) with a prediction interval of 0%-10% for asymptomatic index cases in ten studies, 7% (95% CI 3%-11%) with a prediction interval of 1%-40% for pre-symptomatic cases in 11 studies and 6% (95% CI 5%-8%) with a prediction interval of 5%-38% for symptomatic index cases in 40 studies. The highest secondary attack rates were found in contacts who lived in the same household as the index case. Other activities associated with transmission were group activities such as sharing meals or playing board games with the index case, regardless of the disease status of the index case. LIMITATIONS: We excluded some studies because the index case or number of contacts were unclear. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic patients can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to others, but our findings indicate that such individuals are responsible for fewer secondary infections than people with symptoms. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020188168.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence
15.
Medici Oggi ; 2021.
Article in Italian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1158658
16.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(1): e13-e22, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral load kinetics and duration of viral shedding are important determinants for disease transmission. We aimed to characterise viral load dynamics, duration of viral RNA shedding, and viable virus shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in various body fluids, and to compare SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) viral dynamics. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, Europe PubMed Central, medRxiv, and bioRxiv, and the grey literature, for research articles published between Jan 1, 2003, and June 6, 2020. We included case series (with five or more participants), cohort studies, and randomised controlled trials that reported SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV infection, and reported viral load kinetics, duration of viral shedding, or viable virus. Two authors independently extracted data from published studies, or contacted authors to request data, and assessed study quality and risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist tools. We calculated the mean duration of viral shedding and 95% CIs for every study included and applied the random-effects model to estimate a pooled effect size. We used a weighted meta-regression with an unrestricted maximum likelihood model to assess the effect of potential moderators on the pooled effect size. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020181914. FINDINGS: 79 studies (5340 individuals) on SARS-CoV-2, eight studies (1858 individuals) on SARS-CoV, and 11 studies (799 individuals) on MERS-CoV were included. Mean duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding was 17·0 days (95% CI 15·5-18·6; 43 studies, 3229 individuals) in upper respiratory tract, 14·6 days (9·3-20·0; seven studies, 260 individuals) in lower respiratory tract, 17·2 days (14·4-20·1; 13 studies, 586 individuals) in stool, and 16·6 days (3·6-29·7; two studies, 108 individuals) in serum samples. Maximum shedding duration was 83 days in the upper respiratory tract, 59 days in the lower respiratory tract, 126 days in stools, and 60 days in serum. Pooled mean SARS-CoV-2 shedding duration was positively associated with age (slope 0·304 [95% CI 0·115-0·493]; p=0·0016). No study detected live virus beyond day 9 of illness, despite persistently high viral loads, which were inferred from cycle threshold values. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract appeared to peak in the first week of illness, whereas that of SARS-CoV peaked at days 10-14 and that of MERS-CoV peaked at days 7-10. INTERPRETATION: Although SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in respiratory and stool samples can be prolonged, duration of viable virus is relatively short-lived. SARS-CoV-2 titres in the upper respiratory tract peak in the first week of illness. Early case finding and isolation, and public education on the spectrum of illness and period of infectiousness are key to the effective containment of SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
17.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(1): 31-36, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064360

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hydroxycloroquine (HCQ) has been extensively studied for treatment and prevention of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) from the start of the pandemic. Conflicting evidence about its usefulness has begun to accrue. METHODS: In the face of controversial results about clinical efficacy of HCQ, we performed a rapid systematic review to assess its safety in the framework of COVID-19 randomized clinical trials. RESULTS: Five studies investigating 2291 subjects were included. The use of HCQ was associated with higher risk of adverse event compared with placebo or standard of care: odds ratio 4.57, 95% confidence interval 2.14-9.45. CONCLUSION: Safety profile of HCQ appears to be unsatisfactory when used to treat or prevent COVID-19, especially in the light of unproved clinical benefit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Odds Ratio , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
18.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

20.
Medici Oggi ; 2020.
Article in Italian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-828337
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