Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 27
Filter
1.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269965

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern has prompted the need for near real-time genomic surveillance to inform public health interventions. In response to this need, the global scientific community, through unprecedented effort, has sequenced and shared over 10 million genomes through GISAID, as of May 2022. This extraordinarily high sampling rate provides a unique opportunity to track the evolution of the virus in near real-time. Here, we present outbreak.info, a platform that currently tracks over 40 million combinations of PANGO lineages and individual mutations, across over 7,000 locations, to provide insights for researchers, public health officials, and the general public. We describe the interpretable and opinionated visualizations in the variant and location focussed reports available in our web application, the pipelines that enable the scalable ingestion of heterogeneous sources of SARS-CoV-2 variant data, and the server infrastructure that enables widespread data dissemination via a high performance API that can be accessed using an R package. We present a case study that illustrates how outbreak.info can be used for genomic surveillance and as a hypothesis generation tool to understand the ongoing pandemic at varying geographic and temporal scales. With an emphasis on scalability, interactivity, interpretability, and reusability, outbreak.info provides a template to enable genomic surveillance at a global and localized scale.

2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269922

ABSTRACT

Regional connectivity and land-based travel have been identified as important drivers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, the generalizability of this finding is understudied outside of well-sampled, highly connected regions such as Europe. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of regional and intercontinental connectivity to the source-sink dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 for Jordan and the wider Middle East. By integrating genomic, epidemiological and travel data we show that the source of introductions into Jordan was dynamic across 2020, shifting from intercontinental seeding from Europe in the early pandemic to more regional seeding for the period travel restrictions were in place. We show that land-based travel, particularly freight transport, drove introduction risk during the period of travel restrictions. Consistently, high regional connectivity and land-based travel also disproportionately drove Jordans export risk to other Middle Eastern countries. Our findings emphasize regional connectedness and land-based travel as drivers of viral transmission in the Middle East. This demonstrates that strategies aiming to stop or slow the spread of viral introductions (including new variants) with travel restrictions need to prioritize risk from land-based travel alongside intercontinental air travel to be effective. HighlightsO_LIRegional connectivity drove SARS-CoV-2 introduction risk in Jordan during the period travel restrictions were in place in genomic and travel data. C_LIO_LILand-based travel rather than air travel disproportionately drove introduction risk during travel restrictions. C_LIO_LIHigh regional connectivity disproportionately drove Jordans export risk, with significant contribution from land-based travel. C_LIO_LIRegional transmission dynamics were underestimated in genomic data due to unrepresentative sampling. C_LI

3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21267606

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of concern of SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally causing large outbreaks and resurgences of COVID-19 cases1-3. The emergence of Delta in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions4,5. Here we analyse 52,992 Delta genomes from England in combination with 93,649 global genomes to reconstruct the emergence of Delta, and quantify its introduction to and regional dissemination across England, in the context of changing travel and social restrictions. Through analysis of human movement, contact tracing, and virus genomic data, we find that the focus of geographic expansion of Delta shifted from India to a more global pattern in early May 2021. In England, Delta lineages were introduced >1,000 times and spread nationally as non-pharmaceutical interventions were relaxed. We find that hotel quarantine for travellers from India reduced onward transmission from importations; however the transmission chains that later dominated the Delta wave in England had been already seeded before restrictions were introduced. In England, increasing inter-regional travel drove Deltas nationwide dissemination, with some cities receiving >2,000 observable lineage introductions from other regions. Subsequently, increased levels of local population mixing, not the number of importations, was associated with faster relative growth of Delta. Among US states, we find that regions that previously experienced large waves also had faster Delta growth rates, and a model including interactions between immunity and human behaviour could accurately predict the rise of Delta there. Deltas invasion dynamics depended on fine scale spatial heterogeneity in immunity and contact patterns and our findings will inform optimal spatial interventions to reduce transmission of current and future VOCs such as Omicron.

4.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-467646

ABSTRACT

Game animals are wildlife species often traded and consumed as exotic food, and are potential reservoirs for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We performed a meta-transcriptomic analysis of 1725 game animals, representing 16 species and five mammalian orders, sampled across China. From this we identified 71 mammalian viruses, with 45 described for the first time. Eighteen viruses were considered as potentially high risk to humans and domestic animals. Civets (Paguma larvata) carried the highest number of potentially high risk viruses. We identified the transmission of Bat coronavirus HKU8 from a bat to a civet, as well as cross-species jumps of coronaviruses from bats to hedgehogs and from birds to porcupines. We similarly identified avian Influenza A virus H9N2 in civets and Asian badgers, with the latter displaying respiratory symptoms, as well as cases of likely human-to-wildlife virus transmission. These data highlight the importance of game animals as potential drivers of disease emergence. HighlightsO_LI1725 game animals from five mammalian orders were surveyed for viruses C_LIO_LI71 mammalian viruses were discovered, 18 with a potential risk to humans C_LIO_LICivets harbored the highest number of potential high risk viruses C_LIO_LIA species jump of an alphacoronavirus from bats to a civet was identified C_LIO_LIH9N2 influenza virus was detected in a civet and an Asian badger C_LIO_LIHumans viruses were also identified in game animals C_LI

5.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21262775

ABSTRACT

Males and certain racial/ethnic minority groups have borne a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 mortality in the United States, and substantial scientific research has sought to quantify and characterize population-level disparities in COVID-19 mortality outcomes by sex and across categories of race/ethnicity. However, there has not yet been a national population-level study to quantify disparities in COVID-19 mortality outcomes across the intersection of these demographic dimensions. Here, we analyze a publicly available dataset from the National Center for Health Statistics comprising COVID-19 death counts stratified by race/ethnicity, sex, and age for the year 2020, calculating mortality rates for each race/ethnicity-sex-age stratum and age-adjusted mortality rates for each race/ethnicity-sex stratum, quantifying disparities in terms of mortality rate ratios and rate differences. Our results reveal persistently higher COVID-19 age-adjusted mortality rates for males compared to females within every racial/ethnic group, with notable variation in the magnitudes of the sex disparity by race/ethnicity. However, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native females have higher age-adjusted mortality rates than non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander males. Moreover, persistent racial/ethnic disparities are observed among both males and females, with higher COVID-19 age-adjusted mortality rates observed for non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Natives relative to non-Hispanic Whites.

6.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21256495

ABSTRACT

Males are at higher risk relative to females of severe outcomes following COVID-19 infection. Focusing on COVID-19-attributable mortality in the United States (U.S.), we quantify and contrast years of potential life lost (YPLL) attributable to COVID-19 by sex based on data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics as of 31 March 2021, specifically by contrasting male and female percentages of total YPLL with their respective percent population shares and calculating age-adjusted male-to-female YPLL rate ratios both nationally and for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Using YPLL before age 75 to anchor comparisons between males and females and a novel Monte Carlo simulation procedure to perform estimation and uncertainty quantification, our results reveal a near-universal pattern across states of higher COVID-19-attributable YPLL among males compared to females. Furthermore, the disproportionately high COVID-19 mortality burden among males is generally more pronounced when measuring mortality in terms of YPLL compared to age-irrespective death counts, reflecting dual phenomena of males dying from COVID-19 at higher rates and at systematically younger ages relative to females. The U.S. COVID-19 epidemic also offers lessons underscoring the importance of a public health environment that recognizes sex-specific needs as well as different patterns in risk factors, health behaviors, and responses to interventions between men and women. Public health strategies incorporating focused efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccinations among men are particularly urged.

7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21254315

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAs large-scale immunization programs against COVID-19 proceed around the world, safety signals will emerge that need rapid evaluation. We report population-based, age- and sex- specific background incidence rates of potential adverse events of special interest (AESI) in eight countries using thirteen databases. MethodsThis multi-national network cohort study included eight electronic medical record and five administrative claims databases from Australia, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States, mapped to a common data model. People observed for at least 365 days before 1 January 2017, 2018, or 2019 were included. We based study outcomes on lists published by regulators: acute myocardial infarction, anaphylaxis, appendicitis, Bells palsy, deep vein thrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic stroke, immune thrombocytopenia, myocarditis/pericarditis, narcolepsy, pulmonary embolism, and transverse myelitis. We calculated incidence rates stratified by age, sex, and database. We pooled rates across databases using random effects meta-analyses. We classified meta-analytic estimates into Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences categories: very common, common, uncommon, rare, or very rare. FindingsWe analysed 126,661,070 people. Rates varied greatly between databases and by age and sex. Some AESI (e.g., myocardial infarction, Guillain-Barre syndrome) increased with age, while others (e.g., anaphylaxis, appendicitis) were more common in young people. As a result, AESI were classified differently according to age. For example, myocardial infarction was very rare in children, rare in women aged 35-54 years, uncommon in men and women aged 55-84 years, and common in those aged [≥]85 years. InterpretationWe report robust baseline rates of prioritised AESI across 13 databases. Age, sex, and variation between databases should be considered if background AESI rates are compared to event rates observed with COVID-19 vaccines.

8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21253778

ABSTRACT

Alpha-1 blockers, often used to treat benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), have been hypothesized to prevent COVID-19 complications by minimising cytokine storms release. We conducted a prevalent-user active-comparator cohort study to assess association between alpha-1 blocker use and risks of three COVID-19 outcomes: diagnosis, hospitalization, and hospitalization requiring intensive services. Our study included 2.6 and 0.46 million users of alpha-1 blockers and of alternative BPH therapy during the period between November 2019 and January 2020, found in electronic health records from Spain (SIDIAP) and the United States (Department of Veterans Affairs, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, IQVIA OpenClaims, Optum DOD, Optum EHR). We estimated hazard ratios using state-of-the-art techniques to minimize potential confounding, including large-scale propensity score matching/stratification and negative control calibration. We found no differential risk for any of COVID-19 outcome, pointing to the need for further research on potential COVID-19 therapies.

9.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21252554

ABSTRACT

Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Manaus, Brazil, resurged in late 2020, despite high levels of previous infection there. Through genome sequencing of viruses sampled in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021, we identified the emergence and circulation of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, lineage P.1, that acquired 17 mutations, including a trio in the spike protein (K417T, E484K and N501Y) associated with increased binding to the human ACE2 receptor. Molecular clock analysis shows that P.1 emergence occurred around early November 2020 and was preceded by a period of faster molecular evolution. Using a two-category dynamical model that integrates genomic and mortality data, we estimate that P.1 may be 1.4-2.2 times more transmissible and 25-61% more likely to evade protective immunity elicited by previous infection with non-P.1 lineages. Enhanced global genomic surveillance of variants of concern, which may exhibit increased transmissibility and/or immune evasion, is critical to accelerate pandemic responsiveness. One-Sentence SummaryWe report the evolution and emergence of a SARS-CoV-2 lineage of concern associated with rapid transmission in Manaus.

10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21251235

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the early COVID-19 epidemic in the United States (U.S.) went largely undetected, due to a lack of adequate testing and mitigation efforts. The city of New Orleans, Louisiana experienced one of the earliest and fastest accelerating outbreaks, coinciding with the annual Mardi Gras festival, which went ahead without precautions. To gain insight into the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the U.S. and how large, crowded events may have accelerated early transmission, we sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Louisiana. We show that SARS-CoV-2 in Louisiana initially had limited sequence diversity compared to other U.S. states, and that one successful introduction of SARS-CoV-2 led to almost all of the early SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Louisiana. By analyzing mobility and genomic data, we show that SARS-CoV-2 was already present in New Orleans before Mardi Gras and that the festival dramatically accelerated transmission, eventually leading to secondary localized COVID-19 epidemics throughout the Southern U.S.. Our study provides an understanding of how superspreading during large-scale events played a key role during the early outbreak in the U.S. and can greatly accelerate COVID-19 epidemics on a local and regional scale.

11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21251159

ABSTRACT

As of January of 2021, the highly transmissible B.1.1.7 variant of SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in the United Kingdom (U.K.), has gained a strong foothold across the world. Because of the sudden and rapid rise of B.1.1.7, we investigated the prevalence and growth dynamics of this variant in the United States (U.S.), tracking it back to its early emergence and onward local transmission. We found that the RT-qPCR testing anomaly of S gene target failure (SGTF), first observed in the U.K., was a reliable proxy for B.1.1.7 detection. We sequenced 212 B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected from testing facilities in the U.S. from December 2020 to January 2021. We found that while the fraction of B.1.1.7 among SGTF samples varied by state, detection of the variant increased at a logistic rate similar to those observed elsewhere, with a doubling rate of a little over a week and an increased transmission rate of 35-45%. By performing time-aware Bayesian phylodynamic analyses, we revealed several independent introductions of B.1.1.7 into the U.S. as early as late November 2020, with onward community transmission enabling the variant to spread to at least 30 states as of January 2021. Our study shows that the U.S. is on a similar trajectory as other countries where B.1.1.7 rapidly became the dominant SARS-CoV-2 variant, requiring immediate and decisive action to minimize COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

12.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21249411

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in the United States has disproportionately impacted communities of color across the country. Focusing on COVID-19-attributable mortality, we expand upon a national comparative analysis of years of potential life lost (YPLL) attributable to COVID-19 by race/ethnicity (Bassett et al., 2020), estimating percentages of total YPLL for non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, non-Hispanic Asians, and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Natives, contrasting them with their respective percent population shares, as well as age-adjusted YPLL rate ratios - anchoring comparisons to non-Hispanic Whites - in each of 45 states and the District of Columbia using data from the National Center for Health Statistics as of December 30, 2020. Using a novel Monte Carlo simulation procedure to quantify estimation uncertainty, our results reveal substantial racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19-attributable YPLL across states, with a prevailing pattern of non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics experiencing disproportionately high and non-Hispanic Whites experiencing disproportionately low COVID-19-attributable YPLL. Furthermore, observed disparities are generally more pronounced when measuring mortality in terms of YPLL compared to death counts, reflecting the greater intensity of the disparities at younger ages. We also find substantial state-to-state variability in the magnitudes of the estimated racial/ethnic disparities, suggesting that they are driven in large part by social determinants of health whose degree of association with race/ethnicity varies by state.

13.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21249672

ABSTRACT

PurposeWe aimed to describe the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer with COVID-19 from March to June 2020. Secondly, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. MethodsWe conducted a cohort study using eight routinely-collected healthcare databases from Spain and the US, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: i) diagnosed with COVID-19, ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017-2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. ResultsWe included 118,155 patients with a cancer history in the COVID-19 diagnosed and 41,939 in the COVID-19 hospitalized cohorts. The most frequent cancer subtypes were prostate and breast cancer (range: 5-19% and 1-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematological malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkins lymphoma being among the 5 most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were more frequently aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 8% to 14% and from 18% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n=242,960) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. ConclusionPatients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 have advanced age, multiple comorbidities, and a high occurence of COVID-19-related events. Additionaly, hematological malignancies were frequent in these patients.This observational study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and future etiological studies.

14.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20229088

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who undergo dialysis, tracheostomy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). DesignA network cohort study. SettingSix databases from the United States containing routinely-collected patient data: HealthVerity, Premier, IQVIA Open Claims, Optum EHR, Optum SES, and VA-OMOP. PatientsPatients hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis or a positive test result for COVID-19. InterventionsDialysis, tracheostomy, and ECMO. Measurements and Main Results240,392 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were included (22,887 from HealthVerity, 139,971 from IQVIA Open Claims, 29,061 from Optum EHR, 4,336 from OPTUM SES, 36,019 from Premier, and 8,118 from VA-OMOP). Across the six databases, 9,703 (4.04% [95% CI: 3.96% to 4.11%]) patients received dialysis, 1,681 (0.70% [0.67% to 0.73%]) had a tracheostomy, and 398 (0.17% [95% CI: 0.15% to 0.18%]) patients underwent ECMO over the 30 days following hospitalization. Use of ECMO was generally concentrated among patients who were younger, male, and with fewer comorbidities except for obesity. Tracheostomy was used for a similar proportion of patients regardless of age, sex, or comorbidity. While dialysis was used for a similar proportion among younger and older patients, it was more frequent among male patients and among those with chronic kidney disease. ConclusionUse of dialysis among those hospitalized with COVID-19 is high at around 4%. Although less than one percent of patients undergo tracheostomy and ECMO, the absolute numbers of patients who have undergone these interventions is substantial and can be expected to continue grow given the continuing spread of the COVID-19.

15.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20236802

ABSTRACT

ObjectivePatients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid COVID-19, but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterised 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalisation with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. DesignMultinational network cohort study SettingElectronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) (NYC, United States [US]), Optum [US], Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (US), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalisation Linked Data (SIDIAP-H) (Spain), and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (US) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (HIRA) (South Korea). ParticipantsAll patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalised between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalised with influenza in 2017-2018 were included. Main outcome measures30-day complications during hospitalisation and death ResultsWe studied 133,589 patients diagnosed and 48,418 hospitalised with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. The majority of participants were female (60.5% to 65.9%) and aged [≥]50 years. The most prevalent autoimmune conditions were psoriasis (3.5 to 32.5%), rheumatoid arthritis (3.9 to 18.9%), and vasculitis (3.3 to 17.6%). Amongst hospitalised patients, Type 1 diabetes was the most common autoimmune condition (4.8% to 7.5%) in US databases, rheumatoid arthritis in HIRA (18.9%), and psoriasis in SIDIAP-H (26.4%). Compared to 70,660 hospitalised with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2% to 4.3% versus 6.3% to 24.6%). ConclusionsPatients with autoimmune diseases had high rates of respiratory complications and 30-day mortality following a hospitalization with COVID-19. Compared to influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality. Future studies should investigate predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with autoimmune diseases. What is already known about this topicO_LIPatients with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19 infection andcomplications. C_LIO_LIThere is a paucity of evidence characterising the outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients with prevalent autoimmune conditions. C_LI What this study addsO_LIMost people with autoimmune diseases who required hospitalisation for COVID-19 were women, aged 50 years or older, and had substantial previous comorbidities. C_LIO_LIPatients who were hospitalised with COVID-19 and had prevalent autoimmune diseases had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes as compared to those with prevalent autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with COVID-19. C_LIO_LIA variable proportion of 6% to 25% across data sources died within one month of hospitalisation with COVID-19 and prevalent autoimmune diseases. C_LIO_LIFor people with autoimmune diseases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was associated with worse outcomes and 30-day mortality compared to admission with influenza in the 2017-2018 season. C_LI

16.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20222083

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesTo characterize the demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, in-hospital treatments, and health outcomes among children/adolescents diagnosed or hospitalized with COVID-19. Secondly, to describe health outcomes amongst children/adolescents diagnosed with previous seasonal influenza. DesignInternational network cohort. SettingReal-world data from European primary care records (France/Germany/Spain), South Korean claims and US claims and hospital databases. ParticipantsDiagnosed and/or hospitalized children/adolescents with COVID-19 at age <18 between January and June 2020; diagnosed with influenza in 2017-2018. Main outcome measuresBaseline demographics and comorbidities, symptoms, 30-day in-hospital treatments and outcomes including hospitalization, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and death. ResultsA total of 55,270 children/adolescents diagnosed and 3,693 hospitalized with COVID-19 and 1,952,693 diagnosed with influenza were studied. Comorbidities including neurodevelopmental disorders, heart disease, and cancer were all more common among those hospitalized vs diagnosed with COVID-19. The most common COVID-19 symptom was fever. Dyspnea, bronchiolitis, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in COVID-19 than influenza. In-hospital treatments for COVID-19 included repurposed medications (<10%), and adjunctive therapies: systemic corticosteroids (6.8% to 37.6%), famotidine (9.0% to 28.1%), and antithrombotics such as aspirin (2.0% to 21.4%), heparin (2.2% to 18.1%), and enoxaparin (2.8% to 14.8%). Hospitalization was observed in 0.3% to 1.3% of the COVID-19 diagnosed cohort, with undetectable (N<5 per database) 30-day fatality. Thirty-day outcomes including pneumonia, ARDS, and MIS-C were more frequent in COVID-19 than influenza. ConclusionsDespite negligible fatality, complications including pneumonia, ARDS and MIS-C were more frequent in children/adolescents with COVID-19 than with influenza. Dyspnea, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms could help differential diagnosis. A wide range of medications were used for the inpatient management of pediatric COVID-19. What is already known on this topic?O_LIMost of the early COVID-19 studies were targeted at adult patients, and data concerning children and adolescents are limited. C_LIO_LIClinical manifestations of COVID-19 are generally milder in the pediatric population compared with adults. C_LIO_LIHospitalization for COVID-19 affects mostly infants, toddlers, and children with pre-existing comorbidities. C_LI What this study adds This study comprehensively characterizes a large international cohort of pediatric COVID-19 patients, and almost 2 million with previous seasonal influenza across 5 countries. Although uncommon, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) were more frequent in children and adolescents diagnosed with COVID-19 than in those with seasonal influenza. Dyspnea, bronchiolitis, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms were more frequent in COVID-19, and could help to differentiate pediatric COVID-19 from influenza. A plethora of medications were used during the management of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, with great heterogeneity in the use of antiviral therapies as well as of adjunctive therapies.

17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20211821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVESTo describe comorbidities, symptoms at presentation, medication use, and 30-day outcomes after a diagnosis of COVID-19 in pregnant women, in comparison to pregnant women with influenza. DESIGNMultinational network cohort SETTINGA total of 6 databases consisting of electronic medical records and claims data from France, Spain, and the United States. PARTICIPANTSPregnant women with [≥] 1 year in contributing databases, diagnosed and/or tested positive, or hospitalized with COVID-19. The influenza cohort was derived from the 2017-2018 influenza season. OUTCOMESBaseline patient characteristics, comorbidities and presenting symptoms; 30-day inpatient drug utilization, maternal complications and pregnancy-related outcomes following diagnosis/hospitalization. RESULTS8,598 women diagnosed (2,031 hospitalized) with COVID-19 were included. Hospitalized women had, compared to those diagnosed, a higher prevalence sof pre-existing comorbidities including renal impairment (2.2% diagnosed vs 5.1% hospitalized) and anemia (15.5% diagnosed vs 21.3% hospitalized). The ten most common inpatient treatments were systemic corticosteroids (29.6%), enoxaparin (24.0%), immunoglobulins (21.4%), famotidine (20.9%), azithromycin (18.1%), heparin (15.8%), ceftriaxone (7.9%), aspirin (7.0%), hydroxychloroquine (5.4%) and amoxicillin (3.5%). Compared to 27,510 women with influenza, dyspnea and anosmia were more prevalent in those with COVID-19. Women with COVID-19 had higher frequency of cesarean-section (4.4% vs 3.1%), preterm delivery (0.9% vs 0.5%), and poorer maternal outcomes: pneumonia (12.0% vs 2.7%), ARDS (4.0% vs 0.3%) and sepsis (2.1% vs 0.7%). COVID-19 fatality was negligible (N<5 in each database respectively). CONCLUSIONSComorbidities that were more prevalent with COVID-19 hospitalization (compared to COVID-19 diagnosed) in pregnancy included renal impairment and anemia. Multiple medications were used to treat pregnant women hospitalized with COVID-19, some with little evidence of benefit. Anosmia and dyspnea were indicative symptoms of COVID-19 in pregnancy compared to influenza, and may aid differential diagnosis. Despite low fatality, pregnancy and maternal outcomes were worse in COVID-19 than influenza. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS TOPICO_LICompared to non-pregnant women of reproductive age, pregnant women are less likely to experience typical COVID-19 symptoms, such as fever and myalgia. C_LIO_LIObesity, high maternal age, and comorbid hypertension and diabetes are risk factors for severe COVID-19 among pregnant women. C_LIO_LIDespite relatively high rates of pneumonia and need for oxygen supplementation, fatality rates in pregnant women with COVID-19 are generally low (<1%). C_LI WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSO_LIAlthough not often recorded, dyspnea and anosmia were more often seen in pregnant women with COVID-19 than in women with seasonal influenza, in 6 databases from 3 countries (US, France, Spain). C_LIO_LIRenal impairment and anemia were more common among hospitalized than diagnosed women with COVID-19 during pregnancy. C_LIO_LIDespite limited data on benefit-risk in pregnancy, a large number of medications were used for inpatient management of COVID-19 in pregnant women: approximately 1 in 3 received corticosteroids (some may have been given for a pregnancy-related indication rather than for COVID-19 treatment), 1 in 4 enoxaparin, and 1 in 5 immunoglobulin, famotidine and azithromycin. C_LIO_LICompared to influenza, there was a higher frequency of pregnancy-related complications (cesarean section and preterm deliveries), as well as poorer maternal outcomes (pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, acute kidney injury, and cardiovascular and thromboembolic events) seen in pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19. C_LI

18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20195545

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesA plethora of medicines have been repurposed or used as adjunctive therapies for COVID-19. We characterized the utilization of medicines as prescribed in routine practice amongst patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in South Korea, China, Spain, and the USA. DesignInternational network cohort SettingHospital electronic health records from Columbia University Irving Medical Centre (NYC, USA), Stanford (CA, USA), Tufts (MA, USA), Premier (USA), Optum EHR (USA), department of veterans affairs (USA), NFHCRD (Honghu, China) and HM Hospitals (Spain); and nationwide claims from HIRA (South Korea) Participantspatients hospitalized for COVID-19 from January to June 2020 Main outcome measuresPrescription/dispensation of any medicine on or 30 days after hospital admission date AnalysesNumber and percentage of users overall and over time Results71,921 people were included: 304 from China, 2,089 from Spain, 7,599 from South Korea, and 61,929 from the USA. A total of 3,455 medicines were identified. Common repurposed medicines included hydroxychloroquine (<2% in NFHCRD to 85.4% in HM), azithromycin (4.9% in NFHCRD to 56.5% in HM), lopinavir/ritonavir (<3% in all US but 34.9% in HIRA and 56.5% in HM), and umifenovir (0% in all except 78.3% in NFHCRD). Adjunctive medicines were used with great variability, with the ten most used treatments being (in descending order): bemiparin, enoxaparin, heparin, ceftriaxone, aspirin, vitamin D, famotidine, vitamin C, dexamethasone, and metformin. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin increased rapidly in use in March-April but declined steeply in May-June. ConclusionsMultiple medicines were used in the first months of COVID-19 pandemic, with substantial geographic and temporal variation. Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, and umifenovir (in China only) were the most prescribed repurposed medicines. Antithrombotics, antibiotics, H2 receptor antagonists and corticosteroids were often used as adjunctive treatments. Research is needed on the comparative risk and benefit of these treatments in the management of COVID-19. O_TEXTBOXWhat is already known in this topicO_LIDrug repurposing is a common approach in the clinical management of novel diseases and conditions for which there are no available pharmacotherapies C_LIO_LIHydroxychloroquine was widely used in the management of COVID-19 patients during the early phases of the pandemic C_LIO_LIRecent NIH (and other) guidelines recommend the use of concomitant therapies including immune-based, antithrombotic, antibiotic and other treatments C_LI What this study addsO_LIThis study demonstrates great variability and extensive drug repurposing and utilization in the management of COVID-19 patients. C_LIO_LIA wide range of adjunctive treatments has been used, including antithrombotics, antibiotics, H2 receptor antagonists, and systemic corticosteroids. C_LIO_LIEmerging clinical data on the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin impacted their rise and rapid decline in use internationally C_LIO_LIConversely, the use of corticosteroids grew only in more recent months, with little use in the early stages of the pandemic (January to April) C_LI C_TEXTBOX

19.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20141978

ABSTRACT

In emerging epidemics, early estimates of key epidemiological characteristics of the disease are critical for guiding public policy. In particular, identifying high risk population subgroups aids policymakers and health officials in combatting the epidemic. This has been challenging during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, because governmental agencies typically release aggregate COVID-19 data as marginal summary statistics of patient demographics. These data may identify disparities in COVID-19 outcomes between broad population subgroups, but do not provide comparisons between more granular population subgroups defined by combinations of multiple demographics. We introduce a method that overcomes the limitations of aggregated summary statistics and yields estimates of COVID-19 infection and case fatality rates -- key quantities for guiding public policy related to the control and prevention of COVID-19 -- for population subgroups across combinations of demographic characteristics. Our approach uses pseudo-likelihood based logistic regression to combine aggregate COVID-19 case and fatality data with population-level demographic survey data to estimate infection and case fatality rates for population subgroups across combinations of demographic characteristics. We illustrate our method on California COVID-19 data to estimate test-based infection and case fatality rates for population subgroups defined by gender, age, and race and ethnicity. Our analysis indicates that in California, males have higher test-based infection rates and test-based case fatality rates across age and race/ethnicity groups, with the gender gap widening with increasing age. Although elderly infected with COVID-19 are at an elevated risk of mortality, the test-based infection rates do not increase monotonically with age. LatinX and African Americans have higher test-based infection rates than other race/ethnicity groups. The subgroups with the highest 5 test-based case fatality rates are African American male, Multi-race male, Asian male, African American female, and American Indian or Alaska Native male, indicating that African Americans are an especially vulnerable California subpopulation.

20.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-165464

ABSTRACT

Spatiotemporal bias in genome sequence sampling can severely confound phylogeographic inference based on discrete trait ancestral reconstruction. This has impeded our ability to accurately track the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the availability of unprecedented numbers of SARS-CoV-2 genomes on a global scale, evolutionary reconstructions are hindered by the slow accumulation of sequence divergence over its relatively short transmission history. When confronted with these issues, incorporating additional contextual data may critically inform phylodynamic reconstructions. Here, we present a new approach to integrate individual travel history data in Bayesian phylogeographic inference and apply it to the early spread of SARS-CoV-2, while also including global air transportation data. We demonstrate that including travel history data for each SARS-CoV-2 genome yields more realistic reconstructions of virus spread, particularly when travelers from undersampled locations are included to mitigate sampling bias. We further explore methods to ameliorate the impact of sampling bias by augmenting the phylogeographic analysis with lineages from undersampled locations in the analyses. Our reconstructions reinforce specific transmission hypotheses suggested by the inclusion of travel history data, but also suggest alternative routes of virus migration that are plausible within the epidemiological context but are not apparent with current sampling efforts. Although further research is needed to fully examine the performance of our travel-aware phylogeographic analyses with unsampled diversity and to further improve them, they represent multiple new avenues for directly addressing the colossal issue of sample bias in phylogeographic inference.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL