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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323171

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of the study was to document cardiovascular clinical findings, cardiac imaging and laboratory markers in children presenting with the novel multisystemic inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19. Methods: A real-time internet based survey was sent via the member mailing database for Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiologists (AEPC) working groups for Cardiac Imaging and Cardiovascular Intensive Care member. Inclusion criteria was children 0-18 years admitted to hospital between March 1 and June 6, 2020 with diagnosis of an inflammatory syndrome and acute cardiovascular complications. Findings: A total of 286 children from 55 centres from 17 European countries were included. The median age was 8·4 years (IQR 3·8-12·4 years) and 67% were males. Most common cardiovascular complications were shock (40%), cardiac arrhythmias (35%), pericardial effusion (28%) and coronary artery dilatation (24%). Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction was present in 52% of patients and 93% had raised cardiac troponin (cTnT). The biochemical markers of inflammation were raised in majority of patients on admission: elevated CRP (99%), ferritin (79%), procalcitonin (96%), NT-proBNP (93%), IL-6 level (88%) and D-dimers (90%). There was a statistically significant correlation between degree of elevation in cardiac and biochemical parameters and need of intensive care support (p <0·05). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 33·6% while IgM antibody was positive in 15·7% and IgG 43·6% cases. Only 1 death was reported· Interpretation: Cardiac involvement is common in children with multi-inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 pandemic. A majority of children have significantly raised levels of NT pro-BNP, ferritin, D-dimers and cardiac troponin in addition to high CRP and procalcitonin levels. Compared to adults, mortality in children with PIMS-TS is extremely rare despite multi-system involvement, very elevated inflammatory markers and need of intensive care support.Funding Statement: There was no external funding source for this studyDeclaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Local institutional approval was obtained, where required, by participating centres as collaborative anonymised data, according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.

2.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 140, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and a severe inflammatory syndrome in children. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data about myocardial injury in children are limited to small cohorts. The aim of this multicenter, international registry is to describe clinical and cardiac characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 using CMR so as to better understand the real extent of myocardial damage in this vulnerable cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hundred-eleven patients meeting the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), having clinical cardiac involvement and having received CMR imaging scan were included from 17 centers. Median age at disease onset was 10.0 years (IQR 7.0-13.8). The majority of children had COVID-19 serology positive (98%) with 27% of children still having both, positive serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CMR was performed at a median of 28 days (19-47) after onset of symptoms. Twenty out of 111 (18%) patients had CMR criteria for acute myocarditis (as defined by the Lake Louise Criteria) with 18/20 showing subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR myocarditis was significantly associated with New York Heart Association class IV (p = 0.005, OR 6.56 (95%-CI 1.87-23.00)) and the need for mechanical support (p = 0.039, OR 4.98 (95%-CI 1.18-21.02)). At discharge, 11/111 (10%) patients still had left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: No CMR evidence of myocardial damage was found in most of our MIS-C cohort. Nevertheless, acute myocarditis is a possible manifestation of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 with CMR evidence of myocardial necrosis in 18% of our cohort. CMR may be an important diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients at risk for cardiac sequelae and more prone to myocardial damage. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT04455347, registered on 01/07/2020, retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(1): 9-13, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081605

ABSTRACT

: The worldwide response to the current COVID-19 pandemic has been focused on how to prevent the disease and to protect the high-risk patient from a potentially lethal infection. Several consensus and guidelines articles have been published dealing with the cardiac patient with systemic hypertension, heart transplant or heart failure. Very little is known about the patients, both in the pediatric as well as in the adult age, with congenital heart disease. The peculiar physiology of the heart with a native, repaired or palliated congenital heart defect deserves a specialized care. Hereby we describe the early recommendations issued by the Italian Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease and how the network of the congenital cardiac institutions in Italy reacted to the threat of potential wide spread of the infection among this fragile kind of patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiology/organization & administration , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Adult , Child , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Italy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Societies, Medical
4.
Circulation ; 143(1): 21-32, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to document cardiovascular clinical findings, cardiac imaging, and laboratory markers in children presenting with the novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: This real-time internet-based survey has been endorsed by the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiologists Working Groups for Cardiac Imaging and Cardiovascular Intensive Care. Children 0 to 18 years of age admitted to a hospital between February 1 and June 6, 2020, with a diagnosis of an inflammatory syndrome and acute cardiovascular complications were included. RESULTS: A total of 286 children from 55 centers in 17 European countries were included. The median age was 8.4 years (interquartile range, 3.8-12.4 years) and 67% were boys. The most common cardiovascular complications were shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, and coronary artery dilatation. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction was present in over half of the patients, and a vast majority of children had raised cardiac troponin when checked. The biochemical markers of inflammation were raised in most patients on admission: elevated C-reactive protein, serum ferritin, procalcitonin, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, interleukin-6 level, and D-dimers. There was a statistically significant correlation between degree of elevation in cardiac and biochemical parameters and the need for intensive care support (P<0.05). Polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was positive in 33.6%, whereas immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies were positive in 15.7% cases and immunoglobulin G in 43.6% cases, respectively, when checked. One child in the study cohort died. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement is common in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with the Covid-19 pandemic. The majority of children have significantly raised levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, ferritin, D-dimers, and cardiac troponin in addition to high C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels. In comparison with adults with COVID-19, mortality in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 is uncommon despite multisystem involvement, very elevated inflammatory markers, and the need for intensive care support.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Pericardial Effusion , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/blood , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Pericardial Effusion/blood , Pericardial Effusion/epidemiology , Pericardial Effusion/etiology , Pericardial Effusion/therapy , Shock/blood , Shock/epidemiology , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
5.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(9): 654-659, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-681583

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: By the end of February 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic infection had spread in Northern Italy, with thousands of patients infected. In Lombardy, the most affected area, the majority of public and private hospitals were dedicated to caring for COVID-19 patients and were organized following the 'Hub-and-Spoke' model for other medical specialties, like cardiac surgery and interventional procedures for congenital cardiac disease (CHD). Here, we report how the congenital cardiac care system was modified in Lombardy and the first results of this organization. METHODS: We describe a modified 'Hub-and-Spoke' model - that involves 59 birthplaces and three specialized Congenital Cardiac Centers -- and how the hub center organized his activity. We also reported the data of the consecutive cases hospitalized during this period. RESULTS: From 9 March to 15 April, we performed: a total of 21 cardiac surgeries, 4 diagnostic catheterizations, 3 CT scans, and 2 CMR. In three cases with prenatal diagnosis, the birth was scheduled. The spoke centers referred to our center six congenital cardiac cases. The postop ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation support was required in two cases; one case died. None of these patients nor their parents or accompanying person was found to be COVID-19-positive; 2 pediatric intensivists were found to be COVID-19-positive, and needed hospitalization without mechanical ventilation; 13 nurses had positive COVID swabs (4 with symptoms), and were managed and isolated at home. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary data suggest that the model adopted met the immediate needs with a good outcome without increased mortality, nor COVID-19 exposure for the patients who underwent procedures.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiology Service, Hospital , Coronavirus Infections , Heart Defects, Congenital , Infection Control , Pandemics , Perinatal Care , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Cardiology Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Cardiology Service, Hospital/trends , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Models, Organizational , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perinatal Care/methods , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Postoperative Care/methods , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
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