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1.
Ethics Med Public Health ; 182021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260785

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Research in genetics and infectious diseases (ID) presents novel configurations of ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSIs) related to the intersection of genetics with public health regulations and the control of transmissible diseases. Such research includes work both in pathogen genetics and on the ways that human genetics affect responses to ID. This paper identifies and systematizes the unique issues at this intersection, based on an interdisciplinary expert review. BASIC PROCEDURES: This paper presents results of a formal issue-spotting exercise among twenty experts in public health, law and genomics, biobanking, genetic epidemiology, ID medicine and public health, philosophy, ethics and ID, ethics and genomics, and law and ID. The focus of the exercise was on the collection, storage, and sharing of genetic information relating to ID. MAIN FINDINGS: The issue-spotting exercise highlighted the following ELSIs: risks in reporting to government authorities, return of individual research results, and resource allocation - each taking on specific configurations based on the balance between public health and individual privacy/protection. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: The public health implications of interactions between genomics and ID frame considerations for equity and justice. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, these issues are especially pressing.

2.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 36(12): 973-981, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990509

ABSTRACT

With increasing effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy, people with HIV (PWH) are living longer and the prevalence of older PWH continues to increase. Accordingly, PWH are experiencing an increased burden of age-related comorbidities. With this shifting demographics, clinicians and researchers face additional challenges in how to identify, address, and manage the complex intersections of HIV- and aging-related conditions. Established in 2009, the International Workshop on HIV and Aging brings together clinicians and researchers in cross-disciplinary fields along with community advocates and PWH to address the multidisciplinary nature of HIV and aging. This article summarizes plenary talks from the 10th Annual International Workshop on HIV and Aging, which took place in New York City on October 10 and 11, 2019. Presentation topics included the following: the burdens of HIV-associated comorbidities, aging phenotypes, community engagement, and loneliness; these issues are especially important for older PWH, considering the current COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss broad questions and potential directions for future research necessary to better understand the interaction between HIV and aging.


Subject(s)
Aging , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Phenotype , Prevalence , Public Health
3.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 21(5): 130-139, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933809

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection among People Living With HIV (PLWH) is not well-described. OBJECTIVE: To study COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based swab testing among participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: A telephone survey was collected April-June 30, 2020. Symptom and testing prevalence were explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 3411 participants, including 2078 (61%) PLWH and 1333 HIV-seronegative (SN) participants from across the US. Thirteen percent (n = 441) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection (13.4% of PLWH vs 12.2% of SN). Among those tested, positivity was higher in PLWH than SN (11.2% vs 6.1%, p = 0.08). Reasons for not being tested included testing not being available (30% of participants) and not knowing where to get tested (16% of participants). Most symptoms reported since January 2020 were similar in PLWH and SN, including headache (23% vs. 24%), myalgias (19% vs 18%), shortness of breath (14% vs 13%), chills (12% vs 10%), fever (6% vs 6%) and loss of taste or smell (6% vs 7%). Among PLWH who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 DNA, the most common symptoms were headache (71%), myalgia (68%), cough (68%) and chills (65%). In multivariable analysis among those tested, the odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity were higher among PLWH than SN (aOR = 2.22 95%CI = 01.01-4.85, p = 0.046) and among those living with others versus living alone (aOR = 2.95 95%CI = 1.18-7.40). CONCLUSION: Prevalence and type of COVID-19 symptoms were similar in PLWH and SN. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be elevated among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chills/epidemiology , Chills/virology , Coinfection , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
4.
Ageing Res Rev ; 65: 101205, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893601

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, moved across the globe at an unprecedented speed, and is having a profound and yet still unfolding health and socioeconomic impacts. SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes a disease that has been termed the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Clinical experience thus far indicates that COVID-19 is highly heterogeneous, ranging from being asymptomatic and mild to severe and causing death. Host factors including age, sex, and comorbid conditions are key determinants of disease severity and progression. Aging itself is a prominent risk factor for severe disease and death from COVID-19. We hypothesize that age-related decline and dysregulation of immune function, i.e., immunosenescence and inflammaging play a major role in contributing to heightened vulnerability to severe COVID-19 outcomes in older adults. Much remains to be learned about the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We need to begin partitioning all immunological outcome data by age to better understand disease heterogeneity and aging. Such knowledge is critical not only for understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis but also for COVID-19 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Aged , Aging , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2
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