Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911323

ABSTRACT

Since the early stage of the current pandemic, digital contact tracing (DCT) through mobile phone apps, called "Immuni", has been introduced to complement manual contact tracing in Italy. Until 31 December 2021, Immuni identified 44,880 COVID-19 cases, which corresponds to less than 1% of total COVID-19 cases reported in Italy in the same period (5,886,411). Overall, Immuni generated 143,956 notifications. Although the initial download of the Immuni app represented an early interest in the new tool, Immuni has had little adoption across the Italian population, and the recent increase in its download is likely to be related to the mandatory Green Pass certification for conducting most daily activities that can be obtained via the application. Therefore, Immuni failed as a support tool for the contact tracing system. Other European experiences seem to show similar limitations in the use of DTC, leaving open questions about its effectiveness, although in theory, contact tracing could allow useful means of "proximity tracking".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Privacy
4.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(12):7529, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894287

ABSTRACT

Since the early stage of the current pandemic, digital contact tracing (DCT) through mobile phone apps, called 'Immuni';, has been introduced to complement manual contact tracing in Italy. Until 31 December 2021, Immuni identified 44,880 COVID-19 cases, which corresponds to less than 1% of total COVID-19 cases reported in Italy in the same period (5,886,411). Overall, Immuni generated 143,956 notifications. Although the initial download of the Immuni app represented an early interest in the new tool, Immuni has had little adoption across the Italian population, and the recent increase in its download is likely to be related to the mandatory Green Pass certification for conducting most daily activities that can be obtained via the application. Therefore, Immuni failed as a support tool for the contact tracing system. Other European experiences seem to show similar limitations in the use of DTC, leaving open questions about its effectiveness, although in theory, contact tracing could allow useful means of 'proximity tracking';.

5.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e056753, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Develop and validate a WHO Standards-based online questionnaire to measure the quality of maternal and newborn care (QMNC) around the time of childbirth from the health workers' perspective. DESIGN: Mixed-methods study. SETTING: Six countries of the WHO European Region. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The questionnaire is based on lessons learnt in previous studies, and was developed in three sequential phases: (1) WHO Quality Measures were prioritised and content, construct and face validity were assessed through a Delphi involving a multidisciplinary board of experts from 11 countries of the WHO European Region; (2) translation/back translation of the English version was conducted following The Professional Society for Health Economics and Outcomes Research guidelines; (3) internal consistency, intrarater reliability and acceptability were assessed among 600 health workers in six countries. RESULTS: The questionnaire included 40 items based on WHO Standards Quality Measures, equally divided into four domains: provision of care, experience of care, availability of human and physical resources, organisational changes due to COVID-19; and its organised in six sections. It was translated/back translated in 12 languages: Bosnian, Croatian, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovenian, Spanish and Swedish. The Cronbach's alpha values were ≥0.70 for each questionnaire section where questions were hypothesised to be interrelated, indicating good internal consistence. Cohen K or Gwet's AC1 values were ≥0.60, suggesting good intrarater reliability, except for one question. Acceptability was good with only 1.70% of health workers requesting minimal changes in question wording. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the questionnaire has good content, construct, face validity, internal consistency, intrarater reliability and acceptability in six countries of the WHO European Region. Future studies may further explore the questionnaire's use in other countries, and how to translate evidence generated by this tool into policies to improve the QMNC. TRAIL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04847336.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Psychometrics , Quality of Health Care , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , World Health Organization
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e052115, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752874

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence showed that, even in high-income countries, children and adolescents may not receive high quality of care (QOC). We describe the development and initial validation, in Italy, of two WHO standards-based questionnaires to conduct an assessment of QOC for children and young adolescents at inpatient level, based on the provider and user perspectives. DESIGN: Multiphase, mixed-methods study. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The two questionnaires were developed in four phases equally conducted for each tool. Phase 1 which included the prioritisation of the WHO Quality Measures according to predefined criteria and the development of the draft questionnaires. In phase 2 content face validation of the draft questionnaires was assessed among both experts and end-users. In phase 3 the optimised questionnaires were field tested to assess acceptability, perceived utility and comprehensiveness (N=163 end-users). In phase 4 intrarater reliability and internal consistency were evaluated (N=170 and N=301 end-users, respectively). RESULTS: The final questionnaires included 150 WHO Quality Measures. Observed face validity was excellent (kappa value of 1). The field test resulted in response rates of 98% and 76% for service users and health providers, respectively. Among respondents, 96.9% service users and 90.4% providers rated the questionnaires as useful, and 86.9% and 93.9%, respectively rated them as comprehensive. Intrarater reliability was good, with Cohen's kappa values exceeding 0.70. Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.83 to 0.95, indicating excellent internal consistency. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest these tools developed have good content and face validity, high acceptability and perceived utility, and good intrarater reliability and internal consistency, and therefore could be used in health facilities in Italy and similar contexts. Priority areas for future research include how tools measuring paediatric QOC can be more effectively used to help health professionals provide the best possible care.


Subject(s)
Child Care , Quality of Health Care , Adolescent , Child , Hospitals , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , World Health Organization
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314945

ABSTRACT

Background: Multi-country studies assessing the quality of maternal and newborn care (QMNC) during the COVID-19 pandemic, as defined by WHO Standards, are lacking.Methods Women who gave birth in 12 countries of the WHO European Region from March 1, 2020 to March 15, 2021 answered an online questionnaire, including 40 WHO Standard-based quality measures.Findings: 21,027 women were included in the analysis. Among those who experienced labour (N=18,063), 49·9% (37·2%-60·7%) perceived a reduction in QMNC due to the COVID-19 pandemic, 41·8% (26·1%- 63·5%) experienced difficulties in accessing antenatal care, 62% (12·6%-99·0%) were not allowed a companion of choice, 31·1% (16·5%-56·9%) received inadequate breastfeeding support, 34·4% (5·2%-64·8%) reported health workers not always using protective personal equipment, and 31·8% (17·8%-53·1%) rated the number of health workers as “insufficient”. Episiotomy was performed in 20·1% (6·1%-66·0%) of spontaneous vaginal births and fundal pressure applied in 41·2% (11·5% -100%) of instrumental vaginal births. In addition, 23·9% women felt they were not treated with dignity (12·8%-59·8%), 12·5% (7·0%-23·4%) suffered abuse, and 2·4% (0·1%-26·2%) made informal payments. Findings were significantly worst among women with elective caesarean (CS) and emergency CS during labour (N=2,964). Multivariate analyses confirmed significant differences among countries, with Croatia, Romania, Serbia showing significant lower QMNC Indexes;younger women and those with operative births also had significant lower QMNC Indexes.Interpretation: Findings reveal large inequities in the QMNC across countries of the WHO European Region. Actions to reduce these inequities and promote high-quality, evidence-based, patient-centred respectful care for all mothers and newborns are urgently needed. Trial Registration: Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04847336. Funding: The study was financially supported by the Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy.Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the coordinating centre: the IRCCS Burlo Garofolo Trieste (IRB-BURLO 05/2020 15.07.2020). The study protocol was also reviewed and approved by the ethical committees of three other countries to comply with local regulations: Portugal (Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, CE20159);Norway (Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics, 2020/213047) and Germany (Bielefeld University ethics committee, 2020-176).

8.
Children (Basel) ; 9(2)2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686623

ABSTRACT

Data on the effective burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the pediatric population are limited. We aimed at assessing the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in children at three subsequent time-points. The study was conducted between January 2021 and July 2021 among children referring to the Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health "Burlo Garofolo" in Trieste, a referral regional hospital in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors independently associated with seroconversion. A total of 594 children were included. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 trimeric Spike protein IgG antibodies were found in 32 (15.4%) children tested in April-May and in 20 (11.8%) in June-July 2021, compared with 24 (11.1%) of those tested in January-February 2021 (p = 0.37, Armitage exact test for trend over time p = 0.76). A subgroup analysis and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed considering sociodemographic, clinical, and historical variables. Three categories of children showed statistically significant increased odds of positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies: children previously positive to a nasopharyngeal swab (AdjOR 15.41, 95%CI 3.44-69.04, p < 0.001), cohabitant with a person with an history of a previous positive nasopharyngeal swab (AdjOR 9.95, 95%CI 5.35-18.52, p < 0.001), and children with a foreign citizenship (AdjOR 2.4, 95%CI 1.05-5.70, p = 0.002). The study suggests that seroprevalence studies may be of limited help in estimating the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic in children. Further studies are needed to identify other markers of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, such as CD4+ T cells or memory B-cells.

9.
Women and birth : journal of the Australian College of Midwives ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652397

ABSTRACT

Background and Problem Existing healthcare systems have been put under immense pressure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disruptions in essential maternal and newborn services have come from even high-income countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Aim To describe the quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth, as reported by the women themselves, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, using the WHO ‘Standards for improving quality of maternal and newborn care in health facilities’. Methods Using an anonymous, online questionnaire, women ≥18 years were invited to participate if they had given birth in Sweden from March 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021. The quality of maternal and newborn care was measured using 40 questions across four domains: provision of care, experience of care, availability of human/physical resources, and organisational changes due to COVID-19. Findings Of the 5003 women included, n = 4528 experienced labour. Of these, 46.7% perceived a poorer quality of maternal and newborn care due to the COVID-19. Fundal pressure was applied in 22.2% of instrumental vaginal births, 36.8% received inadequate breastfeeding support and 6.9% reported some form of abuse. Findings were worse in women undergoing prelabour Caesarean section (CS) (n = 475). Multivariate analysis showed significant associations of the quality of maternal and newborn care to year of birth (P < 0.001), parity (P < 0.001), no pharmacological pain relief (P < 0.001), prelabour CS (P < 0.001), emergency CS (P < 0.001) and overall satisfaction (P < 0.001). Conclusion Considerable gaps over many key quality measures and deviations from women-centred care were noted. Findings were worse in women with prelabour CS. Actions to promote high-quality, evidence-based and respectful care during childbirth for all mothers are urgently needed.

10.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 157(2): 405-417, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Investigate the quality of maternal and newborn care (QMNC) during childbirth in the first year of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, from the mothers' perspective, as key service users. METHODS: Women who gave birth in an Italian facility from March 1, 2020 to February 29, 2021 answered an online questionnaire including 40 WHO Standard-based Quality Measures. Descriptive and multivariate quantile regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: In total, 4824 women were included, reporting heterogeneity of practices across regions: among 3981 women who underwent labour 78.4% (63.0%-92.0%) were not allowed a companion of choice, 44.6% (28.9%-53.3%) had difficulties in attending routine antenatal visits, 36.3% (24.9%-61.1%) reported inadequate breastfeeding support, 39.2% (23.3%-62.2%) felt not involved in medical choices, 33.0% (23.9%-49.3%) experienced unclear communication from staff, 24.8% (15.9%-39.4%) were not always treated with dignity and 12.7% (10.1%-29.3%) reported abuses. Findings in the group of women who did not experience labour were substantially similar. Multivariate analyses confirmed a significant lower QMNC index for regions in southern Italy compared to North and Central regions. CONCLUSION: Mothers reported substantial inequities in the QMNC across Italian regions. Future studies should monitor QMNC over time. Meanwhile, actions to ensure high QMNC for all mothers and newborns across Italy are urgently required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parturition , Pregnancy , Quality of Health Care
11.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 13: 100268, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multi-country studies assessing the quality of maternal and newborn care (QMNC) during the COVID-19 pandemic, as defined by WHO Standards, are lacking. METHODS: Women who gave birth in 12 countries of the WHO European Region from March 1, 2020 - March 15, 2021 answered an online questionnaire, including 40 WHO Standard-based Quality Measures. FINDINGS: 21,027 mothers were included in the analysis. Among those who experienced labour (N=18,063), 41·8% (26·1%- 63·5%) experienced difficulties in accessing antenatal care, 62% (12·6%-99·0%) were not allowed a companion of choice, 31·1% (16·5%-56·9%) received inadequate breastfeeding support, 34·4% (5·2%-64·8%) reported that health workers were not always using protective personal equipment, and 31·8% (17·8%-53·1%) rated the health workers' number as "insufficient". Episiotomy was performed in 20·1% (6·1%-66·0%) of spontaneous vaginal births and fundal pressure applied in 41·2% (11·5% -100%) of instrumental vaginal births. In addition, 23·9% women felt they were not treated with dignity (12·8%-59·8%), 12·5% (7·0%-23·4%) suffered abuse, and 2·4% (0·1%-26·2%) made informal payments. Most findings were significantly worse among women with prelabour caesarean birth (N=2,964). Multivariate analyses confirmed significant differences among countries, with Croatia, Romania, Serbia showing significant lower QMNC Indexes and Luxemburg showing a significantly higher QMNC Index than the total sample. Younger women and those with operative births also reported significantly lower QMNC Indexes. INTERPRETATION: Mothers reports revealed large inequities in QMNC across countries of the WHO European Region. Quality improvement initiatives to reduce these inequities and promote evidence-based, patient-centred respectful care for all mothers and newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond are urgently needed. FUNDING: The study was financially supported by the Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04847336.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 737089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472398

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent studies reported, during the COVID-19 pandemic, increased mental distress among the general population and among women around the childbirth period. COVID-19 pandemic may undermine the vulnerable well-being of parents in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). Objective: Our study aimed to explore whether parental stress, depression, and participation in care in an Italian NICU changed significantly over three periods: pre-pandemic (T0), low (T1), and high COVID-19 incidence (T2). Methods: Enrolled parents were assessed with the Parental Stressor Scale in the NICU (PSS:NICU), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Index of Parental Participation (IPP). Stress was the study primary outcome. A sample of 108 parents, 34 for each time period, was estimated to be adequate to detect a difference in PSS:NICU stress occurrence level score (SOL) of 1.25 points between time periods. To estimate score differences among the three study periods a non-parametric analysis was performed. Correlation among scores was assessed with Spearman rank coefficient. Results: Overall, 152 parents were included in the study (62 in T0, 56 in T1, and 34 in T2). No significant differences in the median PSS:NICU, EPDS, and IPP scores were observed over the three periods, except for a slight increase in the PSS:NICU parental role sub-score in T2 (T0 3.3 [2.3-4.1] vs. T2 3.9 [3.1-4.3]; p = 0.038). In particular, the question regarding the separation from the infant resulted the most stressful aspect during T2 (T0 4.0 [4.0-5.0] vs. T2 5.0 [4.0-5.0], p = 0.008). The correlation between participation and stress scores (r = 0.19-022), and between participation and depression scores (r = 0.27) were weak, while among depression and stress, a moderate positive correlation was found (r = 0.45-0.48). Conclusions: This study suggests that parental stress and depression may be contained during the COVID-19 pandemic, while participation may be ensured.

14.
Euro Surveill ; 26(14)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175519

ABSTRACT

BackgroundVery few studies describe factors associated with COVID-19 diagnosis in children.AimWe here describe characteristics and risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis in children tested in 20 paediatric centres across Italy.MethodsWe included cases aged 0-18 years tested between 23 February and 24 May 2020. Our primary analysis focused on children tested because of symptoms/signs suggestive of COVID-19.ResultsAmong 2,494 children tested, 2,148 (86.1%) had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. Clinical presentation of confirmed COVID-19 cases included besides fever (82.4%) and respiratory signs or symptoms (60.4%) also gastrointestinal (18.2%), neurological (18.9%), cutaneous (3.8%) and other unspecific influenza-like presentations (17.8%). In multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity were: exposure history (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 39.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 17.52-90.55; p < 0.0001), cardiac disease (AOR: 3.10; 95% CI: 1.19-5.02; p < 0.0001), fever (AOR: 3.05%; 95% CI: 1.67-5.58; p = 0.0003) and anosmia/ageusia (AOR: 4.08; 95% CI: 1.69-9.84; p = 0.002). Among 190 (7.6%) children positive for SARS-CoV-2, only four (2.1%) required respiratory support and two (1.1%) were admitted to intensive care; all recovered.ConclusionRecommendations for SARS-CoV-2 testing in children should consider the evidence of broader clinical features. Exposure history, fever and anosmia/ageusia are strong risk factors in children for positive SARS-CoV-2 testing, while other symptoms did not help discriminate positive from negative individuals. This study confirms that COVID-19 was a mild disease in the general paediatric population in Italy. Further studies are needed to understand risk, clinical spectrum and outcomes of COVID-19 in children with pre-existing conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors
17.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(8): 1315-1323, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505959

ABSTRACT

Detailed data on clinical presentations and outcomes of children with COVID-19 in Europe are still lacking. In this descriptive study, we report on 130 children with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosed by 28 centers (mostly hospitals), in 10 regions in Italy, during the first months of the pandemic. Among these, 67 (51.5%) had a relative with COVID-19 while 34 (26.2%) had comorbidities, with the most frequent being respiratory, cardiac, or neuromuscular chronic diseases. Overall, 98 (75.4%) had an asymptomatic or mild disease, 11 (8.5%) had moderate disease, 11 (8.5%) had a severe disease, and 9 (6.9%) had a critical presentation with infants below 6 months having significantly increased risk of critical disease severity (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 29.1). Seventy-five (57.7%) children were hospitalized, 15 (11.5%) needed some respiratory support, and nine (6.9%) were treated in an intensive care unit. All recovered.Conclusion:This descriptive case series of children with COVID-19, mostly encompassing of cases enrolled at hospital level, suggest that COVID-19 may have a non-negligible rate of severe presentations in selected pediatric populations with a relatively high rates of comorbidities. More studies are needed to further understand the presentation and outcomes of children with COVID-19 in children with special needs. What is Known: • There is limited evidence on the clinical presentation and outcomes of children with COVID-19 in Europe, and almost no evidence on characteristics and risk factors of severe cases. What is New: • Among a case series of 130 children, mostly diagnosed at hospital level, and with a relatively high rate (26.2%) of comorbidities, about three-quarter had an asymptomatic or mild disease. • However, 57.7% were hospitalized, 11.5% needed some respiratory support, and 6.9% were treated in an intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Respiratory Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Respir Med ; 170: 106036, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the imaging features of routine admission chest X-ray in patients referred for novel Coronavirus 2019 infection. METHODS: All patients referred to the emergency departments, RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Two radiologists (8 and 15 years of experience) reviewed all the X-ray images and evaluated the following findings: interstitial opacities, alveolar opacities (AO), AO associated with consolidation, consolidation and/or pleural effusion. We stratified patients in groups according to the time interval between symptoms onset (cut-off 5 days) and X-ray imaging and according to age (cut-off 60 years old). Computed tomography was performed in case of a discrepancy between clinical symptoms, laboratory and X-ray findings, and/or suspicion of complications. RESULTS: A total of 468 patients were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Lung lesions primarily manifested as interstitial opacities (71.7%) and AO opacities (60.5%), more frequently bilateral (64.5%) and with a peripheral predominance (62.5%). Patients admitted to the emergency radiology department after 5 days from symptoms onset, more frequently had interstitial and AO opacities, in comparison to those admitted within 5 days, and lung lesions were more frequently bilateral and peripheral. Older patients more frequently presented interstitial and AO opacities in comparison to younger ones. Sixty-eight patients underwent CT that principally showed the presence of ground-glass opacities and consolidations. CONCLUSIONS: The most common X-ray pattern is multifocal and peripheral, associated with interstitial and alveolar opacities. Chest X-ray, compared to CT, can be considered a reliable diagnostic tool, especially in the Emergency setting.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia, Viral , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
19.
Eur J Radiol ; 129: 109092, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378195

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and the imaging features of routine admission chest X-ray in patients suspected for novel Coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated clinical and X-ray features in all patients referred to the emergency department for suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 1st and March 13th. A single radiologist with more than 15 years of experience in chest-imaging evaluated the presence and extent of alveolar opacities, reticulations, and/or pleural effusion. The percentage of lung involvement (range <25 % to 75-100 %) was also calculated. We stratified patients in groups according to the time interval between symptoms onset and X-ray imaging (≤ 5 and > 5 days) and according to age (≤ 50 and > 50 years old). RESULTS: A total of 518 patients were enrolled. Overall 314 patients had negative and 204 had positive RT-PCR results. Lung lesions in patients with SARS-Cov2 pneumonia primarily manifested as alveolar and interstitial opacities and were mainly bilateral (60.8 %). Lung abnormalities were more frequent and more severe by symptom duration and by increasing age. The sensitivity and specificity of chest X-ray at admission in the overall cohort were 57 % (95 % CI = 47-67) and 89 % (83-94), respectively. Sensitivity was higher for patients with symptom onset > 5 days compared to ≤ 5 days (76 % [62-87] vs 37 % [24-52]) and in patients > 50 years old compared to ≤ 50 years (59 % [48-69] vs 47 % [23-72]), at the expense of a slightly lower specificity (68 % [45-86] and 82 % [73-89], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Overall chest X-ray sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was 57 %. Sensitivity was higher when symptoms had started more than 5 days before, at the expense of lesser specificity, while slightly higher in older patients in comparison to younger ones.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , Dyspnea/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Fever/diagnostic imaging , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission/standards , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/virology , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , Pulmonary Alveoli/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time-to-Treatment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , X-Rays , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL