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Lung India ; 39(3): 279-285, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810858


In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, dysregulated release of matrix metalloproteinases occurs during the inflammatory phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), resulting in epithelial and endothelial injury with excessive fibroproliferation. COVID-19 resembles idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in several aspects. The fibrotic response in IPF is driven primarily by an abnormally activated alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) which release cytokines to activate fibroblasts. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is postulated to be one of the early triggers in both diseases. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous autoimmune rare connective tissue characterised by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication and the leading cause of SSc-related death. Several corollaries have been discussed in this paper for new drug development based on the pathogenic events in these three disorders associated with pulmonary fibrosis. A careful consideration of the similarities and differences in the pathogenic events associated with the development of lung fibrosis in post-COVID patients, IPF patients and patients with SSc-ILD may pave the way for precision medicine. Several questions need to be answered through research, which include the potential role of antifibrotics in managing IPF, SSc-ILD and post-COVID fibrosis. Many trials that are underway will ultimately shed light on their potency and place in therapy.

Respirol Case Rep ; 9(8): e00780, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328615


Severe asthma can be associated with eosinophilic or allergic phenotypes or both. Eosinophilic inflammation is associated with exacerbations and disease severity due to biological activity of interleukin-5 (IL-5). Patients with severe asthma have reported reduced lung function and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and may require systemic corticosteroids for its management. Thus, treatment targeting IL-5 can help improve quality of life and reduce the use of systemic corticosteroids in severe asthma. Mepolizumab is approved for treating severe eosinophilic asthma as it helps reduce exacerbations, improve lung function and asthma control, and reduce the use of systemic glucocorticoids. This further helps in enhancing HRQoL of these patients. This case series includes four adult patients suffering from severe eosinophilic asthma who were treated with mepolizumab.