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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309520

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of inflammation is hypothesized to play a crucial role for inducing the severe complications of Covid-19, with IL-1/IL-6 pathway being central in these events. Eight patients with severe Covid-19 pneumonia treated with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra are reported;seven patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in Greece and one non-ICU patient in the Netherlands. Patients scored positive for the hemophagocytosis score and they were diagnosed with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (sHLH). At the end-of-treatment with anakinra, ICU patients had less demands on vasopressors;they also had lower C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, troponin I, D-dimers, and ferritin - the hallmark marker of sHLH. All patients improved their respiratory function. Only two patients died. These data argue that the administration of anakinra may be a viable treatment in severe Covid-19 with sHLH, supporting for larger clinical studies to validate this concept.

2.
J Innate Immun ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS) and complex immune dysregulation (CID) often underlie acute respiratory distress (ARDS) in COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the effect of personalized immunotherapy on clinical improvement of critical COVID-19. METHODS: In this open-label prospective trial, 102 patients with ARDS by SARS-CoV-2 were screened for MALS (ferritin >4,420 ng/mL) and CID (ferritin ≤4,420 ng/mL and low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on CD14-monocytes). Patients with MALS or CID with increased aminotransferases received intravenous anakinra; those with CID and normal aminotransferases received tocilizumab. The primary outcome was ≥25% decrease in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and/or 50% increase in the respiratory ratio by day 8; 28-day mortality, change of SOFA score by day 28, serum biomarkers, and cytokine production by mononuclear cells were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The primary study endpoint was met in 58.3% of anakinra-treated patients and in 33.3% of tocilizumab-treated patients (p: 0.01). Most patients in both groups received dexamethasone as standard of care. No differences were found in secondary outcomes, mortality, and SOFA score changes. Ferritin decreased among anakinra-treated patients; interleukin-6, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and HLA-DR expression increased among tocilizumab-treated patients. Survivors by day 28 who received anakinra were distributed to lower severity levels of the WHO clinical progression scale. Greater incidence of secondary infections was found with tocilizumab treatment. CONCLUSION: Immune assessment resulted in favorable anakinra responses among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and features of MALS.

3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(1): 117-123.e1, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260325

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of inflammation is hypothesized to play a crucial role in the severe complications of COVID-19, with the IL-1/IL-6 pathway being central. Here, we report on the treatment of eight severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients-seven hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in Greece and one non-ICU patient in the Netherlands-with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. All patients scored positive for the hemophagocytosis score (HScore) and were diagnosed with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (sHLH) characterized by pancytopenia, hyper-coagulation, acute kidney injury, and hepatobiliary dysfunction. At the end of treatment, ICU patients had less need for vasopressors, significantly improved respiratory function, and lower HScore. Although three patients died, the mortality was lower than historical series of patients with sHLH in sepsis. These data suggest that administration of Anakinra may be beneficial for treating severe COVID-19 patients with sHLH as determined by the HScore, and they support the need for larger clinical studies to validate this concept.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Off-Label Use , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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