Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833783, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847235

ABSTRACT

Background: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) face more challenges. However, it is unclear if PLWH is more susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than HIV-negative individuals. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated risk factors among PLWH. Methods: From 1 to 30 May 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 857 PLWH and 1,048 HIV-negative individuals from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. Our data analysis compared the rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH and HIV-negative participants, and the proportions of symptomatic patients and asymptomatic infectors between the two groups. We also assessed the risk factors associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Results: Overall, 14/857 (1.6%) PLWH and 68/1,048 (6.5%) HIV-negative participants were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Among the SARS-CoV-2-infected PLWH participants, 6/14 (42.8%) were symptomatic patients, 4/14 (28.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive asymptomatic infectors, and 4/14 (28.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. Among the infected HIV-negative participants, 5/68 (7.4%) patients were symptomatic and 63/68 (92.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. The rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among the PLWH than in the HIV-negative group (1.96% vs. 5.74%, p = 0.001) and the rate of morbidity among the symptomatic patients was similar between the two groups (p = 0.107). However, there were more serology-positive asymptomatic infectors among the infected HIV-negative participants than among the infected PLWH (0.54% vs. 5.46%, p = 0.001). Furthermore, being 50 years or older (aOR = 4.50, 95% CI: 1.34-15.13, p = 0.015) and having opportunistic infections (aOR = 9.59, 95% CI: 1.54-59.92, p = 0.016) were associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Conclusions: PLWH has more varied forms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection than the HIV-negative population and should, therefore, undertake routine screening to avoid late diagnosis. Also, older age (≥50 years) and having opportunistic infections increase the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324259

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 3,000,000 people infected and nearly 200,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1 st Dec 2019 to 23 rd Apr 2020 based on four databases using English and Chinese languages. We reviewed and analyzed the relevant clinic outcomes of COVID-19. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission rate compared to SARS and MERS and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number (R 0 ) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39), the incubation period was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever (38.1-39.0℃), cough and fatigue, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 ℃, dyspnea, and anorexia were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged over 60 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were the most common signs of infection while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region. Conclusions: We provided a bird’s-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease’s future research, control and prevention.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323798

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 has become a pandemic worldwide. 216 countries and regions reported their occurrence of COVID-19 cases by 19 th Sep 2020. Meanwhile, the COVID-19 had infected more than 30 million people and caused almost one million deaths until 19 th Sep 2020. Method: We scoped data related to reported epidemic durations, incidences, fatalities, and epidemic risk factors of the studied countries. Disease Development Speed (DDS), Population-Level Incidence (PLI), and Case-Fatality Rate (CFR) were calculated to assess the COVID-19 pandemic globally. The Spearman rank correlation was applied to further explore the relationship among DDS, PLI, CFR, and their influencing factors. Result: 216 countries and regions had reported their COVID-19 cases by 19 th Sep 2020. Globally, the medians of epidemic duration, DDS, PLI, and CFR were 167 days (IQR: 158-175 days;Range: 110-221 days),4.6 (IQR: 3.1-6.0;Range: 1.8-10.1), 17.0 (IQR: 5.3-56.0;Range: 0.36-1758.3), and 2.2% (IQR: 1.3%-3.5%) respectively. DDS, PLI, and CFR were found enjoying positive correlations with the urban population proportion, UHC (Universal Health Coverage) service coverage, the population with basic handwashing facilities at home, the number of reported deaths, and the number of doctors and nurses. Conclusion: Nationwide development of the COVID-19, its incidence and fatality suggested regional similarity in the world. National population structure, human resources of medical staff, structure of national health expenditure, and the sanitation facility were revealed as vital risk factors for the COVID-19 in epidemiology.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321369

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic seriously threatens general public health services globally. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV care continuum in Jiangsu province, China. Methods Data for analysis was retrieved from the web-based Comprehensive Response Information Management System (CRIMS) for HIV/AIDS in China. We used time series model of seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and Exponential smoothing to predict the amount of HIV care services during the COVID-19 measures, and Chi-square were performed to assess subgroup differences. Results Overall, the testing rated decreased 49.0% (919,938) decrease in the first three months during the COVID-19 measures, as compared with the estimated number. Although an estimated of 1555 confirmatory tests were expected in the first three months during the COVID-19 measures, only 48.7% (757) confirmed HIV/AIDS cases were actually recorded. In the actual data during the first period of COVID-19, 980 clients received confirmatory tests, only 71.4% (700) were reportedly linked to care. Only 49.5% (235) out of the expected 475 estimated number of clients received CD4 cell count test services. Meanwhile 91.23% (208) had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) which compared to 227 the estimated number of initiated ART. Compared with the same period during 2016 to 2019, PLWHIV who were less than 30, migrants were more likely to be influenced by the COVID-19 policies. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the HIV healthcare systems in Jiangsu, China. Further measures that can encounter the impact of the pandemic are needed, in order to maintain HIV care continuum.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e26480, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The need for strategies to encourage user-initiated reporting of results after HIV self-testing (HIVST) persists. Smartphone-based electronic readers (SERs) have been shown capable of reading diagnostics results accurately in point-of-care diagnostics and could bridge the current gaps between HIVST and linkage to care. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess the willingness of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Jiangsu province to use an SER for HIVST through a web-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: From February to April 2020, we conducted a convenience web-based survey among Chinese MSM by using a pretested structured questionnaire. Survey items were adapted from previous HIVST feasibility studies and modified as required. Prior to answering reader-related questions, participants watched a video showcasing a prototype SER. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, chi-squared test, and multivariable logistic regression. P values less than .05 were deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 692 participants, 369 (53.3%) were aged 26-40 years, 456 (65.9%) had ever self-tested for HIV, and 493 (71.2%) were willing to use an SER for HIVST. Approximately 98% (483/493) of the willing participants, 85.3% (459/538) of ever self-tested and never self-tested, and 40% (46/115) of unwilling participants reported that SERs would increase their HIVST frequency. Engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with regular partners compared to consistently using condoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.04, 95% CI 1.19-7.74) increased the odds of willingness to use an SER for HIVST. Participants who had ever considered HIVST at home with a partner right before sex compared to those who had not (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.13-7.90) were also more willing to use an SER for HIVST. Playing receptive roles during anal intercourse compared to playing insertive roles (AOR 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.14) was associated with decreased odds of being willing to use an SER for HIVST. The majority of the participants (447/608, 73.5%) preferred to purchase readers from local Centers of Disease Control and Prevention offices and 51.2% (311/608) of the participants were willing to pay less than US $4.70 for a reader device. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the Chinese MSM, especially those with high sexual risk behaviors, were willing to use an SER for HIVST. Many MSM were also willing to self-test more frequently for HIV with an SER. Further research is needed to ascertain the diagnostic and real-time data-capturing capacity of prototype SERs during HIVST.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronics , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Internet , Male , Smartphone
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1029, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, whether the immune response for SARS-CoV-2 infection among people living with HIV(PLWH) is different from HIV-naïve individuals is still not clear. METHODS: In this cohort study, COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan between January 15 and April 1, 2020, were enrolled. Patients were categorized into PLWH and HIV-naïve group. All patients were followed up regularly (every 15 days) until November 30, 2020, and the immune response towards SARS-CoV-2 was observed. RESULTS: Totally, 18 PLWH and 185 HIV-naïve individuals with COVID-19 were enrolled. The positive conversion rates of IgG were 56% in PLWH and 88% in HIV-naïve patients respectively, and the peak was on the 45th day after COVID-19 onset. However, the positive rate of IgG dropped to 12% in PLWH and 33% among HIV-naïve individuals by the end of the study. The positive conversion rate of IgG among asymptomatic carriers is significantly lower than that among patients with moderate disease (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.85). PLWH had a lower IgG seroconversion rate (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.39) and shorter IgG duration (AHR = 3.99, 95% CI 1.43-11.13) compared to HIV-naïve individuals. Patients with higher lymphocyte counts at onset had a lower positive conversion rate (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.10-0.87) and shorter duration for IgG (AHR = 4.01, 95% CI 1.78-9.02). CONCLUSIONS: The positive conversion rate of IgG for SARS-CoV-2 was relatively lower and quickly lost in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 768, 2021 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic seriously threatens general public health services globally. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the HIV care continuum in Jiangsu province, China. METHODS: Data on newly diagnosed HIV persons for analysis were retrieved from Chinas' web-based Comprehensive Response Information Management System (CRIMS) for HIV/AIDS from 2016 to 2020. We recorded data for the first 3 months (January to March, 2020) of strictly implementing COVID-19 measures from publicly available disease databases of the Jiangsu provincial Health Committee. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and exponential smoothing in forecasting the parameters. Subgroup differences were accessed using Chi-square tests. RESULTS: Compared to the estimated proportions, the HIV testing rates decreased by 49.0% (919,938) in the first three months of implementing COVID-19 measures. Of an estimated 1555 new HIV diagnosis expected in the same period, only 63.0% (980) new diagnoses were recorded. According to actual data recorded during the said period, 980 positively tested persons received confirmatory tests, of which 71.4% (700) were reportedly linked to care. And only 49.5% (235) out of the expected 475 newly diagnosed HIV persons received CD4 cell count testing. Meanwhile 91.6% (208) of newly diagnosed HIV persons who received CD4 count tests reportedly initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared to the 227 expected. Compared to the same period from 2016 to 2019, PLWH less than 30 years old and migrants were more likely to be affected by the COVID-19 policies. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted HIV healthcare systems in Jiangsu, China. Further measures that can counter the impact of the pandemic are needed to maintain the HIV care continuum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
8.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1612

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic seriously threatens general public health services globally. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 640, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 14,000,000 people infected and nearly 600,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1st December 2019 to 16th July 2020 based on three databases using English and Chinese languages. We reviewed and analyzed the relevant outcomes. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission rate compared to SARS and MERS and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number (R0) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39), the incubation period was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever (38.1-39.0 °C), cough and fatigue, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 °C, dyspnea, and anorexia were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged over 65 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were the most common signs of infection while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a bird's-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease's future research, control and prevention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Demography , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 818-824, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evaluating whether an infectious disease has reached a turning point is important for planning additional intervention efforts. This study aimed to analyze the changing patterns and the tempogeographic features of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in China, to provide further evidence for real-time responses. METHODS: Daily data on COVID-19 cases between 31 December 2019 and 26 February 2020 were collected and analyzed for Hubei and non-Hubei regions in China. Observed trends for new and cumulative cases were analyzed through joinpoint regression analysis. Spatial analysis was applied to show the geographic distribution and changing patterns of the epidemic. RESULTS: By 26 February 2020, 78 630 confirmed COVID-19 cases had been reported in China. In Hubei, an increasing trend (slope = 221) was observed for new cases between 24 January and 7 February 2020, after which a decline commenced (slope = -868). However, as the diagnosis criteria changed, a sudden increase (slope = 5530) was observed on 12 February, which sharply decreased afterward (slope = -4898). In non-Hubei regions, the number of new cases increased from 20 January to 3 February and started to decline afterward (slope = -53). The spatial analysis identified Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Changsha, Nanchang, Wenzhou, Shanghai, Xinyang, Jining, and Beijing as the hotspots outside of Hubei Province in China. CONCLUSIONS: The joinpoint regression analysis indicated that the epidemic might be under control in China, especially for regions outside of Hubei Province. Further improvement in the response strategies based on these new patterns is needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Software , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
12.
Res Sq ; 2020 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 caused the pandemic affected the world deeply, with more than 3,000,000 people infected and nearly 200,000 deaths. This article aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1st Dec 2019 to 23rd Apr 2020 based on four databases by using English and Chinese. The evidence was synthesized narratively. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission rate compared to SARS and MERS, and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number (R0) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39) and the incubation period was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever (38.1-39.0°C), cough and fatigue, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 °C, dyspnea, and anorexia were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged over 60 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were the most common signs of infection while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a bird's-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease's future research, control and prevention.

13.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(1): 100003, 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42139

ABSTRACT

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic brings different challenges to the impacted countries. To combat this pandemic, different strategies need to be tailored and implemented in countries with different situations. First, in countries with an ongoing explosion of the outbreak (i.e. the USA, Spain, and Italy), strategies suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) which have been proven useful in China should be adopted for implementation. Secondly, countries in the regions that are still at the early stages of the outbreak (i.e., the Africa region, where many countries have only found imported cases) should further strengthen travel restrictions to reduce the risk of imported cases as well as the risk of developing local transmission. Furthermore, countries that have achieved great success in COVID control (i.e. China, South Korea, and Singapore) should continue implement the successful strategies and further roll-out strengthened new strategies to prevent new imported cases. In addition, surveillance on the genomic changes of SARS-CoV-2 is in need in all countries as some studies have found multiple mutants of SARS-CoV-2, although the impact of the mutation on the infectivity and lethality of the virus was still unclear.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL