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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 849017, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952255

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging virus from the Coronaviridae family and is responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, we explored the previously reported SARS-CoV-2 structural membrane protein (M) interaction with human Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). The M protein is responsible for maintaining virion shape, and PCNA is a marker of DNA damage which is essential for DNA replication and repair. We validated the M-PCNA interaction through immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence co-localization, and PLA (Proximity Ligation Assay). In cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 or transfected with M protein, using immunofluorescence and cell fractioning, we documented a reallocation of PCNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and the increase of PCNA and γH2AX (another DNA damage marker) expression. We also observed an increase in PCNA and γH2AX expression in the lung of a COVID-19 patient by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the inhibition of PCNA translocation by PCNA I1 and Verdinexor led to a reduction of plaque formation in an in vitro assay. We, therefore, propose that the transport of PCNA to the cytoplasm and its association with M could be a virus strategy to manipulate cell functions and may be considered a target for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus M Proteins , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297097

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging virus from the Coronaviridae family and is responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, we explored the previously reported SARS-CoV-2 structural membrane protein (M) interaction with human Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). The M protein is responsible for maintaining virion shape, and PCNA is a marker of DNA damage which is essential for DNA replication and repair. We validated the M PCNA interaction through immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence co-localization, and a PLA assay. In cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 or transfected with M protein, using immunofluorescence and cell fractioning, we documented a reallocation of PCNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and the increase of PCNA and γH2AX (another DNA damage marker) expression. We also observed an increase of PCNA and γH2AX expression in the lung of a COVID-19 patient by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the inhibition of PCNA translocation by PCNA I1 and Verdinexor led to a reduction of plaque formation in an in vitro assay. We, therefore, propose that the transport of PCNA to the cytoplasm and its association with M could be a virus strategy to manipulate cell functions and may be considered a target for COVID-19 therapy.

3.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(10): e527-e535, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations accrued by SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1-first detected in Brazil in early January, 2021-include amino acid changes in the receptor-binding domain of the viral spike protein that also are reported in other variants of concern, including B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. We aimed to investigate whether isolates of wild-type P.1 lineage SARS-CoV-2 can escape from neutralising antibodies generated by a polyclonal immune response. METHODS: We did an immunological study to assess the neutralising effects of antibodies on lineage P.1 and lineage B isolates of SARS-CoV-2, using plasma samples from patients previously infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Two specimens (P.1/28 and P.1/30) containing SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1 (as confirmed by viral genome sequencing) were obtained from nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage samples collected from patients in Manaus, Brazil, and compared against an isolate of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B (SARS.CoV2/SP02.2020) recovered from a patient in Brazil in February, 2020. Isolates were incubated with plasma samples from 21 blood donors who had previously had COVID-19 and from a total of 53 recipients of the chemically inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac: 18 individuals after receipt of a single dose and an additional 20 individuals (38 in total) after receipt of two doses (collected 17-38 days after the most recent dose); and 15 individuals who received two doses during the phase 3 trial of the vaccine (collected 134-230 days after the second dose). Antibody neutralisation of P.1/28, P.1/30, and B isolates by plasma samples were compared in terms of median virus neutralisation titre (VNT50, defined as the reciprocal value of the sample dilution that showed 50% protection against cytopathic effects). FINDINGS: In terms of VNT50, plasma from individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 had an 8·6 times lower neutralising capacity against the P.1 isolates (median VNT50 30 [IQR <20-45] for P.1/28 and 30 [<20-40] for P.1/30) than against the lineage B isolate (260 [160-400]), with a binominal model showing significant reductions in lineage P.1 isolates compared with the lineage B isolate (p≤0·0001). Efficient neutralisation of P.1 isolates was not seen with plasma samples collected from individuals vaccinated with a first dose of CoronaVac 20-23 days earlier (VNT50s below the limit of detection [<20] for most plasma samples), a second dose 17-38 days earlier (median VNT50 24 [IQR <20-25] for P.1/28 and 28 [<20-25] for P.1/30), or a second dose 134-260 days earlier (all VNT50s below limit of detection). Median VNT50s against the lineage B isolate were 20 (IQR 20-30) after a first dose of CoronaVac 20-23 days earlier, 75 (<20-263) after a second dose 17-38 days earlier, and 20 (<20-30) after a second dose 134-260 days earlier. In plasma collected 17-38 days after a second dose of CoronaVac, neutralising capacity against both P.1 isolates was significantly decreased (p=0·0051 for P.1/28 and p=0·0336 for P.1/30) compared with that against the lineage B isolate. All data were corroborated by results obtained through plaque reduction neutralisation tests. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1 might escape neutralisation by antibodies generated in response to polyclonal stimulation against previously circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2. Continuous genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 combined with antibody neutralisation assays could help to guide national immunisation programmes. FUNDING: São Paulo Research Foundation, Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation and Funding Authority for Studies, Medical Research Council, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, National Institutes of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States , Vaccination
5.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069185

ABSTRACT

Microbiota-derived molecules called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in the maintenance of the intestinal barrier and regulation of immune response during infectious conditions. Recent reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection changes microbiota and SCFAs production. However, the relevance of this effect is unknown. In this study, we used human intestinal biopsies and intestinal epithelial cells to investigate the impact of SCFAs in the infection by SARS-CoV-2. SCFAs did not change the entry or replication of SARS-CoV-2 in intestinal cells. These metabolites had no effect on intestinal cells' permeability and presented only minor effects on the production of anti-viral and inflammatory mediators. Together our findings indicate that the changes in microbiota composition of patients with COVID-19 and, particularly, of SCFAs do not interfere with the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the intestine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Adult , Aged , Caco-2 Cells , Colon/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Virus Internalization , Young Adult
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