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1.
J Correct Health Care ; 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315331

ABSTRACT

We estimated the COVID-19 burden in adult correctional or detention facilities and associated counties by state, facility jurisdiction, and county urbanicity. COVID-19 cumulative incidence (cases per 1,000 persons) for each U.S. correctional or detention facility and people ages 18 years and older in the associated county was estimated between January 1, 2020 and July 20, 2021. Across 46 U.S. states, 1,083 correctional or detention facilities in 718 counties were included. The median COVID-19 incidence rate was higher in facilities than in associated counties for 42 of 46 states and for all facility jurisdictions and county urbanicity categories. COVID-19 burden was higher in most facilities than in associated counties. Implementing COVID-19 mitigation measures in correctional settings is needed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in facilities and associated counties.

2.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1626-1634, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a heightened toll on people incarcerated in prisons in the United States, with those incarcerated experiencing a higher rate of infection and mortality than the US population more generally. What is less well known is the degree to which COVID-19 outcomes differ among incarcerated populations, especially by race and ethnicity, where significant differences have been found among the US population as a whole. This knowledge gap is, in part, due to a lack of reporting of COVID-19 outcomes by race and ethnicity by most state prison systems. To shed light on this topic, we analyzed mortality patterns of the population incarcerated in Texas state prison facilities during both the year before (beginning April 1, 2019) and the first year of (beginning April 1, 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a unique data set of roster information from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice and medical examiner records. COVID-19 mortality was 1.61 and 2.12 times higher for Black and Hispanic populations, respectively, when compared with the White population in Texas prisons. Strategies for COVID-19 mitigation in carceral settings, such as vaccination and decarceration, should include an equity component to minimize disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Humans , Prisons , Ethnicity , Pandemics , Texas/epidemiology
3.
Am J Prev Med ; 62(6): 949-952, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653999

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The heightened risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality in prisons is well documented, but COVID-19's impact on all-cause mortality in incarcerated populations has not yet been studied. This study analyzed mortality records from the Florida State Department of Corrections prison system population to evaluate the impact COVID-19 had on all-cause mortality and compare mortality rates and life expectancy with that of the overall state of Florida population. METHODS: Population age and sex data for Florida State Department of Corrections were ascertained from the Florida State Department of Corrections Offender Based Information System. Death data by age, sex, and cause of death were acquired from medical records and Florida State Department of Corrections offender reports. The state of Florida demographic and death data were collected from the Census Bureau, Florida Department of Health, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Age- and sex-standardized life table measures were calculated, and COVID-19 contributions to changes in life expectancy were assessed using Arriaga's decomposition. RESULTS: The standardized mortality rate in the Florida State Department of Corrections population increased by 45% between 2019 and 2020, causing an overall 4.0-year decline in life expectancy. Over the same period, the state of Florida population's standardized mortality increased by 19%, resulting in an overall 2.7-year decline. Within the Florida State Department of Corrections population, life expectancy decline could be attributed exclusively to COVID-19 mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The state of Florida prison population saw a substantial increase in mortality driven solely by COVID-19 mortality, leading to an overall 4-year decline in life expectancy. Given the findings and continued threat of COVID-19 outbreaks, Florida State Department of Corrections and other prison systems should strive to increase vaccination uptake, decrease prison populations, and commit to COVID-19 data transparency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Life Expectancy , Mortality , Prisons , United States
5.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 83, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a crisis unprecedented in its size and scope. Yet studies of resilience suggest most individuals will successfully negotiate this challenge and some may even experience growth and positive change. Some evidence suggests that the capacity to enact positive change in the face of adversity may be shaped by early life experiences. METHODS: In a subset of 374 participants (57% female, mean age = 29 years) in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), a longitudinal, birth cohort, prospective models were tested to determine whether early life adversities in family and neighborhood contexts predict positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Childhood family and neighborhood contexts were assessed using a combination of self-report questionnaires and US Census data. Adulthood positive change events (e.g., becoming more appreciative of things usually taken for granted) were assessed using the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (EPII). RESULTS: In regression analyses, neighborhood disadvantage in childhood, measured both by objective and subjective assessments, predicted a higher number of positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .15, p = .006, respectively). Examination of the positive change event subscales showed neighborhood disadvantage in childhood predicted increases in events related to 'perspective taking and charitable giving' (ß = .20, p = .022 and ß = .17, p = .002, respectively) and improved 'social relationships' (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .13, p = .020, respectively), but not to positive 'health behaviors' (ps > .05). All associations were independent of sociodemographic factors and childhood family dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage in childhood may shape prosocial responses to stress in adulthood, potentially through early life adaptions to stress that are protective when facing adversity. There are several notable implications of the study findings. Although adversity in early life has clear negative impacts, it is possible that adversity experiences may also provide opportunities to develop adaptive strategies that foster resilience and growth when facing stress. Intervention efforts should consider leveraging such stress-adapted strengths to reduce the many negative impacts of early life adversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Life Change Events , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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