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Am J Prev Med ; 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653999


INTRODUCTION: The heightened risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality in prisons is well documented, but COVID-19's impact on all-cause mortality in incarcerated populations has not yet been studied. This study analyzed mortality records from the Florida State Department of Corrections prison system population to evaluate the impact COVID-19 had on all-cause mortality and compare mortality rates and life expectancy with that of the overall state of Florida population. METHODS: Population age and sex data for Florida State Department of Corrections were ascertained from the Florida State Department of Corrections Offender Based Information System. Death data by age, sex, and cause of death were acquired from medical records and Florida State Department of Corrections offender reports. The state of Florida demographic and death data were collected from the Census Bureau, Florida Department of Health, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Age- and sex-standardized life table measures were calculated, and COVID-19 contributions to changes in life expectancy were assessed using Arriaga's decomposition. RESULTS: The standardized mortality rate in the Florida State Department of Corrections population increased by 45% between 2019 and 2020, causing an overall 4.0-year decline in life expectancy. Over the same period, the state of Florida population's standardized mortality increased by 19%, resulting in an overall 2.7-year decline. Within the Florida State Department of Corrections population, life expectancy decline could be attributed exclusively to COVID-19 mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The state of Florida prison population saw a substantial increase in mortality driven solely by COVID-19 mortality, leading to an overall 4-year decline in life expectancy. Given the findings and continued threat of COVID-19 outbreaks, Florida State Department of Corrections and other prison systems should strive to increase vaccination uptake, decrease prison populations, and commit to COVID-19 data transparency.

Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295414


ABSTRACT Several analyses have highlighted racial and ethnic disparities related to COVID-19 health outcomes across the United States. Less focus has been placed on more localized contexts, such as carceral settings, where racial and ethnic inequities in COVID-19 health outcomes also exist, but the proximal drivers of inequality are different. In this study, we analyzed mortality rates among incarcerated people in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) to assess racial and ethnic differences in COVID-19 mortality. We obtained monthly demographic and mortality information of the TDCJ population from April 1, 2019 to March 31, 2021 from TDCJ monthly reports and open record requests filed by the Texas Justice Initiative. We estimated the risk of COVID-19 mortality for the Hispanic and Black population relative to the White population using a Bayesian regression framework, adjusting for sex and age. In the first 12 months of the pandemic, Hispanic and Black all-cause mortality rates were higher than that of the White population, reversing the pattern observed the 12 months prior. Adjusted risk of COVID-19 mortality relative to the White population was 1.96 (CI 1.32–2.93) for the Hispanic population and 1.66 (CI 1.10–2.52) for the Black population. We find that COVID-19 mortality has disproportionately impacted Hispanic and Black individuals within the TDCJ population. As the proximal mechanisms which drive these inequalities are likely different than those which lead to racial inequalities in the non-incarcerated populations, future studies should look to assess and address the specific drivers of COVID-19 related disparities in carceral settings.

BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 83, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234565


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a crisis unprecedented in its size and scope. Yet studies of resilience suggest most individuals will successfully negotiate this challenge and some may even experience growth and positive change. Some evidence suggests that the capacity to enact positive change in the face of adversity may be shaped by early life experiences. METHODS: In a subset of 374 participants (57% female, mean age = 29 years) in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), a longitudinal, birth cohort, prospective models were tested to determine whether early life adversities in family and neighborhood contexts predict positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Childhood family and neighborhood contexts were assessed using a combination of self-report questionnaires and US Census data. Adulthood positive change events (e.g., becoming more appreciative of things usually taken for granted) were assessed using the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (EPII). RESULTS: In regression analyses, neighborhood disadvantage in childhood, measured both by objective and subjective assessments, predicted a higher number of positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .15, p = .006, respectively). Examination of the positive change event subscales showed neighborhood disadvantage in childhood predicted increases in events related to 'perspective taking and charitable giving' (ß = .20, p = .022 and ß = .17, p = .002, respectively) and improved 'social relationships' (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .13, p = .020, respectively), but not to positive 'health behaviors' (ps > .05). All associations were independent of sociodemographic factors and childhood family dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage in childhood may shape prosocial responses to stress in adulthood, potentially through early life adaptions to stress that are protective when facing adversity. There are several notable implications of the study findings. Although adversity in early life has clear negative impacts, it is possible that adversity experiences may also provide opportunities to develop adaptive strategies that foster resilience and growth when facing stress. Intervention efforts should consider leveraging such stress-adapted strengths to reduce the many negative impacts of early life adversity.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Life Change Events , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2