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1.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970728

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of 2020, a remarkably low incidence of respiratory virus hospitalizations has been reported worldwide. We prospectively evaluated 587 children, aged <12 years, admitted for respiratory tract infections from 1 September 2021 to 15 March 2022 in four Italian pediatric hospitals to assess the burden of respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. At admission, a Clinical Respiratory Score was assigned and nasopharyngeal or nasal washing samples were collected and tested for respiratory viruses. Total admissions increased from the second half of October 2021 to the first half of December 2021 with a peak in early November 2021. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) incidence curve coincided with the total hospitalizations curve, occurred earlier than in the pre-pandemic years, and showed an opposite trend with respect to the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2. Our results demonstrated an early peak in pediatric hospitalizations for RSV. SARS-CoV-2 may exhibit a competitive pressure on other respiratory viruses, most notably RSV.

2.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 18(9): 889-899, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931586

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic urticaria (CU) appears with daily or intermittent/recurrent wheals with/without angioedema for more than six weeks. When no specific eliciting factors are found, chronic urticaria is defined as spontaneous (CSU). Up to 50% of patients with CSU do not respond to therapy, leading to a prolonged disease course and the need for expensive therapies, impacting the quality of life (QoL) and healthcare resources. AREAS COVERED: Diagnosis of CSU is made when other potential causes of chronic urticaria are excluded. CSU therapy aims to achieve complete control of symptoms and normalization of QoL. Current treatment options for urticaria aim to target mast cell mediators such as histamine, or activators, such as autoantibodies. Guidelines recommend starting with second generation antihistamines (sgAHs) and adding omalizumab therapy if symptoms are not controlled. This review aims to provide a practical guide for CSU in the pediatric population. EXPERT OPINION: Treatment options for pediatric CSU are primarily based on adult data that have been extrapolated for children. Current guidelines should be reevaluated based on pediatric data, new biological treatments, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research is needed to investigate strategies to personalize current treatments and identify potential predictive biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Allergic Agents , COVID-19 , Chronic Urticaria , Urticaria , Adult , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Chronic Disease , Chronic Urticaria/diagnosis , Chronic Urticaria/therapy , Humans , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Urticaria/drug therapy , Urticaria/therapy
3.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 18(8): 807-821, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900807

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite symptoms control being the primary focus of asthma management according to guidelines, uncontrolled asthma is still an issue worldwide, leading to huge costs and asthma deaths at all ages. In childhood, poor asthma control can be even more harmful, as it can irreversibly compromise the children's lung function and the whole family's well-being. AREAS COVERED: Given the problem extent, this review aims to discuss the leading modifiable causes of uncontrolled asthma in Pediatrics, giving some practical insights regarding the critical role of families and the main tools for monitoring control and drug adherence, even at a distance. The most recent GINA documents were used as the primary reference, along with the latest evidence regarding the management of asthma control and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on asthma. EXPERT OPINION: In managing pediatric asthma, a multidisciplinary, multi-determinant, personalized approach is needed, actively involving families, schools, and other specialists. In addition to current strategies for implementing control, electronic health strategies, new validated asthma control tools, and the identification of novel inflammatory biomarkers could lead to increasingly tailored therapies with greater effectiveness in reaching asthma control.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pediatrics , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Medication Adherence , Pandemics
4.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S3): e2022039, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects people of any age with high mortality and morbidity in adults older than 65 years. Reports on pediatric cases highlighted those children generally develop milder symptoms than adults or are asymptomatic. We aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical data of children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2 infection to improve pediatric COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical and epidemiological features of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized at the Pediatric Hospital of Pavia, Italy, between February 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021. RESULTS: 71 patients aged 0-16 years were included; 33 (46%) females and 38 (54 %) males. Thirty-three (46%) patients had comorbidities, such as obesity and hematological diseases. Thirty-one children (44%) were exposed to COVID-19-positive household members. Nine (12.7 %) patients were asymptomatic, whereas 57 (80.3%) had a mild-moderate disease. Only five (7%) showed a severe or critical disease, and two patients required ICU admission. The most frequent symptoms were fever (76%), loss of appetite (26%), gastrointestinal symptoms (19%), and cough (19%). Chest X-ray was performed in 42 patients showing lung abnormalities in more than half of symptomatic patients. The most common laboratory features were lymphopenia and eosinopenia associated with high levels of inflammation markers. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that COVID-19 has a mild course in children compared to adults. Most of the enrolled children were asymptomatic or had a mild-moderate disease. Patients with comorbidities were more prone to develop clinical complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S3): e2022053, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879758

ABSTRACT

Background and aim  It is still unclear whether patients with severe asthma are at greater risk of developing severe COVID-19, particularly pediatric allergic patients under biologic therapy. Studies targeting pediatric patients are currently limited; thus, this study aims to assess the clinical characteristics of young patients with severe asthma under biological therapies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We collected data from February 2020 to April 2021. Patients with severe asthma treated with biological therapies (omalizumab and mepolizumab) have been enrolled. We described demographic data, clinical features, therapies, comorbidities, and laboratory findings for each patient. For patients who got COVID-19, we also described the severity of the disease, the need for hospitalization, and specific therapy. Results A total of 14 patients were included in the study, 11 (78.6%) of them under treatment with omalizumab and 3 (21.6%) with mepolizumab. We identified four patients (28.6%) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Two patients treated with mepolizumab had an asymptomatic disease, and two patients treated with omalizumab had mild disease. Only one patient with mild COVID-19 required hospitalization and specific therapy because of severe obesity. Conclusions No differences regarding the SARS-CoV-2 infection have been found between the two treatments groups. Furthermore, any poor outcome has been observed, confirming the safety of biological therapies. The limited number of patients enrolled and the lack of a control group did not establish a significant risk for infections for these patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Asthma/drug therapy , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 813874, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869401

ABSTRACT

Background: In recent years, lung ultrasound (LUS) has spread to emergency departments and clinical practise gaining great support, especially in time of pandemic, but only a few studies have been done on children. The aim of the present study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of LUS (using Soldati LUS score) and that of chest X-ray (CXR) in CAP and COVID-19 pneumonia in paediatric patients. Secondary objective of the study is to examine the association between LUS score and disease severity. Finally, we describe the local epidemiology of paediatric CAP during the study period in the era of COVID-19 by comparing it with the previous 2 years. Methods: This is an observational retrospective single-centre study carried out on patients aged 18 or younger and over the month of age admitted to the Paediatric Unit of our Foundation for suspected community-acquired pneumonia or SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia during the third pandemic wave of COVID-19. Quantitative variables were elaborated with Shapiro-Wilks test or median and interquartile range (IQR). Student's t-test was used for independent data. Association between quantitative data was evaluated with Pearson correlation. ROC curve analysis was used to calculate best cut-off of LUS score in paediatric patients. Area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensibility, and specificity are also reported with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The diagnostic accuracy of the LUS score in pneumonia, the area underlying the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.27-1) thus showing a discrete discriminatory power, with a sensitivity of 89.66% and specificity 50% setting a LUS score greater than or equal to 1 as the best cut-off. Nine patients required oxygen support and a significant statistical correlation (p = 0.0033) emerged between LUS score and oxygen therapy. The mean LUS score in patients requiring oxygen therapy was 12. RCP was positively correlated to the patient's LUS score (p = 0.0024). Conclusions: Our study has shown that LUS is a valid alternative to CXR. Our results show how LUS score can be applied effectively for the diagnosis and stratification of paediatric pneumonia.

7.
Acta Biomed ; 93(2): e2022156, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1848005

ABSTRACT

Background and aim Recurrent wheezing is often triggered by viral respiratory infections. The aims of our study were: i) to evaluate whether the addition of a nutraceutical (Leucodif®), could improve the efficacy of montelukast or inhaled steroids (ICS) compared to the single treatment; ii) to verify whether a treatment is more effective than another. Our study was biased by the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in a lockdown of almost two months in Italy. Methods The multicenter, open-label study enrolled 84 children aged 2-6 years diagnosed with recurrent wheezing and randomized them into four treatment arms for three months: ICS treatment; ii) montelukast; iii) montelukast + Leucodif; iv) ICS + Leucodif. Children were assessed at baseline and after one, two, and three months of treatment using the TRACK score for both the caregiver and the physician. Results Out of the 84 patients, 18 patients received ICS therapy, 22 patients ICS + Leucodif, 24 patients montelukast, and 20 patients montelukast + Leucodif. All four treatments resulted in a significant reduction in symptoms with no differences among the various groups. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that montelukast therapy appears to be equally effective as ICS therapy and that the addition of the nutraceutical Leucodif does not appear to improve the treatment outcome. However, in our opinion our study was strongly influenced and biased by the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which inherently resulted in reduced exposure to the viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections in children.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Acetates , Administration, Inhalation , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cyclopropanes , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Pandemics , Quinolines , Respiratory Sounds , Steroids/therapeutic use , Sulfides
8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 76, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846857

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2 vaccine, developed by BioNTech and Pfizer ha recently approved for use in children aged 5 to 11 years. Recent data show evidence of safety on the administration and serious adverse events have been rarely reported. However, allergic systemic reactions could occur. In some cases, a correct allergic evaluation allows identifying patients at risk of developing an anaphylactic reaction. Risk assessment of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines is useful to limit contraindications to vaccination and help to safely vaccinate people supposed to be at risk of allergic reactions.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Asthma , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Consensus , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775675

ABSTRACT

The antibody profile against autoantigens previously associated with autoimmune diseases and other human proteins in patients with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remains poorly defined. Here we show that 30% of adults with COVID-19 had autoantibodies against the lung antigen KCNRG, and 34% had antibodies to the SLE-associated Smith-D3 protein. Children with COVID-19 rarely had autoantibodies; one of 59 children had GAD65 autoantibodies associated with acute onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. While autoantibodies associated with SLE/Sjögren's syndrome (Ro52, Ro60, and La) and/or autoimmune gastritis (gastric ATPase) were detected in 74% (40/54) of MIS-C patients, further analysis of these patients and of children with Kawasaki disease (KD), showed that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was largely responsible for detection of these autoantibodies in both groups of patients. Monitoring in vivo decay of the autoantibodies in MIS-C children showed that the IVIG-derived Ro52, Ro60, and La autoantibodies declined to undetectable levels by 45-60 days, but gastric ATPase autoantibodies declined more slowly requiring >100 days until undetectable. Further testing of IgG and/or IgA antibodies against a subset of potential targets identified by published autoantigen array studies of MIS-C failed to detect autoantibodies against most (16/18) of these proteins in patients with MIS-C who had not received IVIG. However, Troponin C2 and KLHL12 autoantibodies were detected in 2 of 20 and 1 of 20 patients with MIS-C, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that IVIG therapy may be a confounding factor in autoantibody measurements in MIS-C and that antibodies against antigens associated with autoimmune diseases or other human proteins are uncommon in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Adult , Autoantibodies , Autoantigens , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Ribonucleoproteins , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 42, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two sequelae of pediatric COVID-19 have been identified, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and the long COVID. Long COVID is much less precisely defined and includes all the persistent or new clinical manifestations evidenced in subjects previously infected by SARS-CoV-2 beyond the period of the acute infection and that cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. In this Intersociety Consensus, present knowledge on pediatric long COVID as well as how to identify and manage children with long COVID are discussed. MAIN FINDINGS: Although the true prevalence of long COVID in pediatrics is not exactly determined, it seems appropriate to recommend evaluating the presence of symptoms suggestive of long COVID near the end of the acute phase of the disease, between 4 and 12 weeks from this. Long COVID in children and adolescents should be suspected in presence of persistent headache and fatigue, sleep disturbance, difficulty in concentrating, abdominal pain, myalgia or arthralgia. Persistent chest pain, stomach pain, diarrhea, heart palpitations, and skin lesions should be considered as possible symptoms of long COVID. It is recommended that the primary care pediatrician visits all subjects with a suspected or a proven diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection after 4 weeks to check for the presence of symptoms of previously unknown disease. In any case, a further check-up by the primary care pediatrician should be scheduled 3 months after the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection to confirm normality or to address emerging problems. The subjects who present symptoms of any organic problem must undergo a thorough evaluation of the same, with a possible request for clinical, laboratory and / or radiological in-depth analysis in case of need. Children and adolescents with clear symptoms of mental stress will need to be followed up by existing local services for problems of this type. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric long COVID is a relevant problem that involve a considerable proportion of children and adolescents. Prognosis of these cases is generally good as in most of them symptoms disappear spontaneously. The few children with significant medical problems should be early identified after the acute phase of the infection and adequately managed to assure complete resolution. A relevant psychological support for all the children during COVID-19 pandemic must be organized by health authorities and government that have to treat this as a public health issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Consensus , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704407

ABSTRACT

The constant battle between viruses and their hosts leads to their reciprocal evolution. Viruses regularly develop survival strategies against host immunity, while their ability to replicate and disseminate is countered by the antiviral defense mechanisms that host mount. Although most viral infections are generally controlled by the host's immune system, some viruses do cause overt damage to the host. The outcome can vary widely depending on the properties of the infecting virus and the circumstances of infection but also depends on several factors controlled by the host, including host genetic susceptibility to viral infections. In this narrative review, we provide a brief overview of host immunity to viruses and immune-evasion strategies developed by viruses. Moreover, we focus on inborn errors of immunity, these being considered a model for studying host response mechanisms to viruses. We finally report exemplary inborn errors of both the innate and adaptive immune systems that highlight the role of proteins involved in the control of viral infections.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Virus Replication , Viruses/genetics
12.
Nat Med ; 28(5): 1050-1062, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701612

ABSTRACT

Pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (pCOVID-19) is rarely severe; however, a minority of children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with substantial morbidity. In this longitudinal multi-institutional study, we applied multi-omics (analysis of soluble biomarkers, proteomics, single-cell gene expression and immune repertoire analysis) to profile children with COVID-19 (n = 110) and MIS-C (n = 76), along with pediatric healthy controls (pHCs; n = 76). pCOVID-19 was characterized by robust type I interferon (IFN) responses, whereas prominent type II IFN-dependent and NF-κB-dependent signatures, matrisome activation and increased levels of circulating spike protein were detected in MIS-C, with no correlation with SARS-CoV-2 PCR status around the time of admission. Transient expansion of TRBV11-2 T cell clonotypes in MIS-C was associated with signatures of inflammation and T cell activation. The association of MIS-C with the combination of HLA A*02, B*35 and C*04 alleles suggests genetic susceptibility. MIS-C B cells showed higher mutation load than pCOVID-19 and pHC. These results identify distinct immunopathological signatures in pCOVID-19 and MIS-C that might help better define the pathophysiology of these disorders and guide therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , T-Lymphocytes
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic emergency, distressing health systems in each affected country. Preparation strategies for managing this pandemic have been keys to face the COVID-19 surge all over the world and all levels of care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the epidemic, the Italian society of pediatric emergency-urgency (SIMEUP) promoted a national survey aiming to evaluate preparedness and response of pediatric emergency departments (PED) critical in ensuring optimal management of COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: Our results suggest that Italian PED have promptly set a proactive approach to the present emergency. 98.9% of the hospitals have defined special pathways and assistive protocols concerning the management of pediatric COVID-19 cases. The highest percentage of application of the measures for preventive and protective for COVID-19 concerned the use of personal protective equipments. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that the following measures for pediatric patients, admitted in PED, have been promptly implemented throughout the whole country: eg. use of protective devices, pre-triage of patients accessing the hospital. Despite COVID-19 being a new threat, we have shown that by developing an easy-to-follow decision algorithm and clear plans for the interventional platform teams, we can ensure optimal health care workers and patients’ safety.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309461

ABSTRACT

Background: There is ample evidence that COVID-19 is significantly less severe in children than in adults and asthma and allergy, the most common chronic disorders in children, are not included in the top 10 comorbidities related to COVID-19 fatalities. Nevertheless, concerns about asthma and allergy are still high.. In order to evaluate the impact of paediatric COVID-19 among Italian paediatricians, we sent a 20-questions anonymous internet-based survey to 250 Italian paediatricians with particular address to allergic symptoms and those affecting the upper airways Methods: The questionnaire was conceived and pretested in April 2020, by a working group of experts of the Italian Paediatric Society for Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP), and structured into different sections of 20 categorized and multiple choice questions. The first part included questions about epidemiological data follows by a second part assessing the way to manage a suspected COVID-19 infection and personal experiences about that. The third part concerned questions about patients’ clinical characteristics and clinical manifestations.The survey was emailed once between April and mid-May 2020. Results: A total 99 participants had participated in our survey and provided responses to our electronic questionnaire. The distribution of patients reported per month varies significantly according to the geographical area (P=0.02). Data confirmed that in the North part of Italy the rate of patients referred is higher than in the rest of Italy. Almost all respondents (98%) reported caring for up to a maximum of 10 infected children and the last 2% more than twenty. Among these patients, according to the 75% of responders, a maximum rate of 20% were affected by allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and in particular in the North of Italy while in the Centre and in the South there was a higher incidence (P=0.09). Almost the same applies for asthma, 83% of responders declared that up to a maximum of 20% of affected children were asthmatic, from 20% to 40% for the 13,5% of responders and from 40% to 60% for the last 3,5%. As for the allergic conjunctivitis also for asthma, we found a higher incidence in the Centre and in South than in the North (P=0.03).

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307324

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of allergic sensitization seems to be protective against SARS CoV2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using online surveys, the impact of COVID-19 on Italian allergic children, comparing the prevalence of AR and asthma symptoms between the first and second pandemic wave. Methods: Both surveys were emailed to Italian pediatricians in April 2020 (first survey) and in March 2021 (second survey). The first one was related to the impact of COVID-19 and the most frequently reported symptoms. The second one was superimposed on the previous one, taking into account some additional aspects in the management of disease. Results: A total of 99 pediatricians participated in the first survey and 267 in the second one. The first survey showed that, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence was mostly between 0-20% throughout the country. The second survey showed a lower prevalence of both diseases nationwide in comparison to the first one. Comparing the two surveys, statistically significant differences were reported only in the distribution of asthma prevalence in Southern Italy while no differences were highlighted in the North and in the Center. Finally regarding allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence, no differences were noticed nationwide. Conclusions: Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, if under control, did not represent risk factors for the susceptibility to SARS CoV2. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to continue therapies during COVID-19 outbreak, according to the international guidelines. However, being COVID-19 a new disease, actual knowledge will undergo continuous improvements over time.

17.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 1, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of allergic sensitization seems to be protective against SARS CoV2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using online surveys, the impact of COVID-19 on Italian allergic children, comparing the prevalence of AR and asthma symptoms between the first and second pandemic wave. METHODS: Both surveys were emailed to Italian pediatricians in April 2020 (first survey) and in March 2021 (second survey). The first one was related to the impact of COVID-19 and the most frequently reported symptoms. The second one was superimposed on the previous one, taking into account some additional aspects in the management of disease. RESULTS: A total of 99 pediatricians participated in the first survey and 267 in the second one. The first survey showed that, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence was mostly between 0 and 20% throughout the country. The second survey showed a lower prevalence of both diseases nationwide in comparison to the first one. Comparing the two surveys, statistically significant differences were reported only in the distribution of asthma prevalence in Southern Italy while no differences were highlighted in the North and in the Center. Finally regarding allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence, no differences were noticed nationwide. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, if under control, did not represent risk factors for the susceptibility to SARS CoV2. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to continue therapies during COVID-19 outbreak, according to the international guidelines. However, being COVID-19 a new disease, actual knowledge will undergo continuous improvements over time.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Asthma/complications , Child , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/complications , Humans , Italy , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S7): e2021529, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543090

ABSTRACT

In recent years there has been an important implementation in the medical field of both Mobile Health, such as the use of mobile communication devices, and of other telemedicine tools in general, with the aim of supporting the supervision of diseases from the moment of the first diagnosis to the therapeutic follow-up. In fact, Digital Health can also have a very positive impact on the management of allergic patients, who are known to have the greatest need for regular monitoring, simplifying contact between doctor and patient, but there is still a need to improve implementation regulations, define certification programs and adequate reimbursement systems, as well as to guarantee a high level of attention to the protection of sensitive data. The hope is that one positive outcome of the Covid-19 pandemic will be an acceleration, by all stakeholders involved, of the process of the modernization of health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Telemedicine , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S7): e2021522, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543089

ABSTRACT

The first cases of as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The World Health Organization declared the global pandemic in March 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) showed high rates of mortality in the adult population, whereas a mild course was observed in childhood. Allergic diseases, characterized by a type-2 polarization of the immune system, were considered one of the major risk factor of severe COVID-19. Large amounts of clinical data and expert opinions have been collected since the pandemic outbreak. This review summarizes the latest insights on COVID-19 and allergy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S7): e2021524, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543088

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has a severe course in a small percentage of children. Remdesivir has shown promising results in reducing hospitalisation time in adults, but data on mortality rate are conflicting and few studies are available on its use use in antivirals in children. We performed a quick narrative review of the available literature data regarding the usage of remdesivir in children and neonates. In children, remdesivir showed good safety profile, however bradicardia events have been reported in children. Remdesivir is currently recommended by several guidelines in some subgroups of children with severe COVID-19, and should also be considered in critically ill patients, always in the context of the overall clinical picture and drug availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2
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