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Bradbury, Charlotte A. M. D. PhD, Lawler, Patrick R. M. D. M. P. H.; Stanworth, Simon J. M. D.; McVerry, Bryan J. M. D.; McQuilten, Zoe PhD, Higgins, Alisa M. PhD, Mouncey, Paul R. MSc, Al-Beidh, Farah PhD, Rowan, Kathryn M. PhD, Berry, Lindsay R. PhD, Lorenzi, Elizabeth PhD, Zarychanski, Ryan M. D. MSc, Arabi, Yaseen M. M. D.; Annane, Djillali M. D. PhD, Beane, Abi PhD, van Bentum-Puijk, Wilma MSc, Bhimani, Zahra M. P. H.; Bihari, Shailesh PhD, M Bonten, Marc J. M. D. PhD, Brunkhorst, Frank M. M. D. PhD, Buzgau, Adrian MSc, Buxton, Meredith PhD, Carrier, Marc M. D. MSc, Cheng, Allen C. Mbbs PhD, Cove, Matthew Mbbs, Detry, Michelle A. PhD, Estcourt, Lise J. MBBCh PhD, Fitzgerald, Mark PhD, Girard, Timothy D. M. D. Msci, Goligher, Ewan C. M. D. PhD, Goossens, Herman PhD, Haniffa, Rashan PhD, Hills, Thomas Mbbs PhD, Huang, David T. M. D. M. P. H.; Horvat, Christopher M. M. D.; Hunt, Beverley J. M. D. PhD, Ichihara, Nao M. D. M. P. H. PhD, Lamontagne, Francois M. D.; Leavis, Helen L. M. D. PhD, Linstrum, Kelsey M. M. S.; Litton, Edward M. D. PhD, Marshall, John C. M. D.; McAuley, Daniel F. M. D.; McGlothlin, Anna PhD, McGuinness, Shay P. M. D.; Middeldorp, Saskia M. D. PhD, Montgomery, Stephanie K. MSc, Morpeth, Susan C. M. D. PhD, Murthy, Srinivas M. D.; Neal, Matthew D. M. D.; Nichol, Alistair D. M. D. PhD, Parke, Rachael L. PhD, Parker, Jane C. B. N.; Reyes, Luis F. M. D. PhD, Saito, Hiroki M. D. M. P. H.; Santos, Marlene S. M. D. Mshs, Saunders, Christina T. PhD, Serpa-Neto, Ary PhD MSc M. D.; Seymour, Christopher W. M. D. MSc, Shankar-Hari, Manu M. D. PhD, Singh, Vanessa, Tolppa, Timo Mbbs, Turgeon, Alexis F. M. D. MSc, Turner, Anne M. M. P. H.; van de Veerdonk, Frank L. M. D. PhD, Green, Cameron MSc, Lewis, Roger J. M. D. PhD, Angus, Derek C. M. D. M. P. H.; McArthur, Colin J. M. D.; Berry, Scott PhD, G Derde, Lennie P. M. D. PhD, Webb, Steve A. M. D. PhD, Gordon, Anthony C. Mbbs M. D..
JAMA ; 327(13):1247, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1801957

ABSTRACT

Importance The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. Objective To determine whether antiplatelet therapy improves outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants In an ongoing adaptive platform trial (REMAP-CAP) testing multiple interventions within multiple therapeutic domains, 1557 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 were enrolled between October 30, 2020, and June 23, 2021, from 105 sites in 8 countries and followed up for 90 days (final follow-up date: July 26, 2021). Interventions Patients were randomized to receive either open-label aspirin (n = 565), a P2Y12 inhibitor (n = 455), or no antiplatelet therapy (control;n = 529). Interventions were continued in the hospital for a maximum of 14 days and were in addition to anticoagulation thromboprophylaxis. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary end point was organ support–free days (days alive and free of intensive care unit–based respiratory or cardiovascular organ support) within 21 days, ranging from −1 for any death in hospital (censored at 90 days) to 22 for survivors with no organ support. There were 13 secondary outcomes, including survival to discharge and major bleeding to 14 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. An odds ratio (OR) greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support–free days, or both. Efficacy was defined as greater than 99% posterior probability of an OR greater than 1. Futility was defined as greater than 95% posterior probability of an OR less than 1.2 vs control. Intervention equivalence was defined as greater than 90% probability that the OR (compared with each other) was between 1/1.2 and 1.2 for 2 noncontrol interventions. Results The aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitor groups met the predefined criteria for equivalence at an adaptive analysis and were statistically pooled for further analysis. Enrollment was discontinued after the prespecified criterion for futility was met for the pooled antiplatelet group compared with control. Among the 1557 critically ill patients randomized, 8 patients withdrew consent and 1549 completed the trial (median age, 57 years;521 [33.6%] female). The median for organ support–free days was 7 (IQR, −1 to 16) in both the antiplatelet and control groups (median-adjusted OR, 1.02 [95% credible interval {CrI}, 0.86-1.23];95.7% posterior probability of futility). The proportions of patients surviving to hospital discharge were 71.5% (723/1011) and 67.9% (354/521) in the antiplatelet and control groups, respectively (median-adjusted OR, 1.27 [95% CrI, 0.99-1.62];adjusted absolute difference, 5% [95% CrI, −0.2% to 9.5%];97% posterior probability of efficacy). Among survivors, the median for organ support–free days was 14 in both groups. Major bleeding occurred in 2.1% and 0.4% of patients in the antiplatelet and control groups (adjusted OR, 2.97 [95% CrI, 1.23-8.28];adjusted absolute risk increase, 0.8% [95% CrI, 0.1%-2.7%];99.4% probability of harm). Conclusions and Relevance Among critically ill patients with COVID-19, treatment with an antiplatelet agent, compared with no antiplatelet agent, had a low likelihood of providing improvement in the number of organ support–free days within 21 days.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334384

ABSTRACT

We carried out a prospective and retrospective case series study to compare physical outcome performance with an in-person evaluation of 248 COVID-related ARDS (CARDS) patients and 48 classic ARDS patients. At 6 months, patients with classic ARDS compared to CARDS had lower MRCss, handgrip dynamometry, and 6 Minutes Walk Test. Fatigue was more frequently reported by patients with classic ARDS. At 12 months, patients in both groups partially regained physical performances, and the differences in measured variables between classic ARDS and CARDS remained constant over time. Reasons for these differences are likely multifactorial and require further investigations.

4.
JAMA ; 327(13): 1247-1259, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750260

ABSTRACT

Importance: The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether antiplatelet therapy improves outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In an ongoing adaptive platform trial (REMAP-CAP) testing multiple interventions within multiple therapeutic domains, 1557 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 were enrolled between October 30, 2020, and June 23, 2021, from 105 sites in 8 countries and followed up for 90 days (final follow-up date: July 26, 2021). Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive either open-label aspirin (n = 565), a P2Y12 inhibitor (n = 455), or no antiplatelet therapy (control; n = 529). Interventions were continued in the hospital for a maximum of 14 days and were in addition to anticoagulation thromboprophylaxis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of intensive care unit-based respiratory or cardiovascular organ support) within 21 days, ranging from -1 for any death in hospital (censored at 90 days) to 22 for survivors with no organ support. There were 13 secondary outcomes, including survival to discharge and major bleeding to 14 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. An odds ratio (OR) greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support-free days, or both. Efficacy was defined as greater than 99% posterior probability of an OR greater than 1. Futility was defined as greater than 95% posterior probability of an OR less than 1.2 vs control. Intervention equivalence was defined as greater than 90% probability that the OR (compared with each other) was between 1/1.2 and 1.2 for 2 noncontrol interventions. Results: The aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitor groups met the predefined criteria for equivalence at an adaptive analysis and were statistically pooled for further analysis. Enrollment was discontinued after the prespecified criterion for futility was met for the pooled antiplatelet group compared with control. Among the 1557 critically ill patients randomized, 8 patients withdrew consent and 1549 completed the trial (median age, 57 years; 521 [33.6%] female). The median for organ support-free days was 7 (IQR, -1 to 16) in both the antiplatelet and control groups (median-adjusted OR, 1.02 [95% credible interval {CrI}, 0.86-1.23]; 95.7% posterior probability of futility). The proportions of patients surviving to hospital discharge were 71.5% (723/1011) and 67.9% (354/521) in the antiplatelet and control groups, respectively (median-adjusted OR, 1.27 [95% CrI, 0.99-1.62]; adjusted absolute difference, 5% [95% CrI, -0.2% to 9.5%]; 97% posterior probability of efficacy). Among survivors, the median for organ support-free days was 14 in both groups. Major bleeding occurred in 2.1% and 0.4% of patients in the antiplatelet and control groups (adjusted OR, 2.97 [95% CrI, 1.23-8.28]; adjusted absolute risk increase, 0.8% [95% CrI, 0.1%-2.7%]; 99.4% probability of harm). Conclusions and Relevance: Among critically ill patients with COVID-19, treatment with an antiplatelet agent, compared with no antiplatelet agent, had a low likelihood of providing improvement in the number of organ support-free days within 21 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/adverse effects , Bayes Theorem , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319156

ABSTRACT

Background: . COVID-19 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and depletes the lungs of surfactant, leading to prolonged mechanical ventilation and death. The feasibility and safety of surfactant delivery in COVID-19 ARDS patients have not been established. Methods: . We performed retrospective analyses of data from patients receiving off-label use of natural surfactant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven COVID-19 PCR positive ARDS patients received liquid Curosurf (720 mg) in 150 ml normal saline, divided into five 30 ml aliquots) and delivered via a bronchoscope into second-generation bronchi. Patients were matched with 14 comparable subjects receiving supportive care for ARDS during the same time period. Feasibility and safety were examined as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. Results: . Patients showed no evidence of acute decompensation following surfactant installation into minor bronchi and lung retention for up to 2 hours. Cox regression showed a reduction of 28-days mortality within the surfactant group, though not significant. The surfactant did not increase the duration of ventilation, and health care providers did not convert to COVID-19 positive. Conclusions: . Surfactant delivery through bronchoscopy at a dose of 720 mg in 150 ml normal saline is feasible and safe for COVID-19 ARDS patients and health care providers during the pandemic. Surfactant administration does not cause acute decompensation, and it could be related to improved survival and reduction of mechanical ventilation duration. This study supports the future performance of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of meticulous surfactant delivery.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309979

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer demonstrate particularly poor outcomes from COVID-19. To provide information essential for understanding the biologic underpinnings of this association, we analyzed whole-transcriptome RNA expression data obtained from a large cohort of cancer patients to characterize expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and other proteases that are involved in viral attachment to and entry into target cells. We find substantial variability of expression of these factors across tumor types and identify subpopulations expressing ACE2 at very high levels. In some tumor types, especially in gastrointestinal cancers, expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 is highly correlated. Furthermore, we found infiltration with T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration to be particularly pronounced in ACE2-high tumors. These findings suggest that subsets of cancer patients exist with heightened susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in whom malignant tumors function as viral reservoir and possibly promote the frequently detrimental hyper-immune response in patients infected with this virus.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307500

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and COVID-19 infection may therefore induce changes in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). To determine the effects of COVID-19 on plasma RAS components, we measured plasma ACE, ACE2, and angiotensins I, (1-7), and II in 46 adults with COVID-19 at hospital admission and on days 2, 4, 7 and 14, compared to 50 blood donors (controls). We compared survivors vs. non-survivors, males vs. females, ventilated vs. not ventilated, and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-exposed vs. not exposed. At admission, COVID-19 patients had higher plasma levels of ACE (p=0.012), ACE2 (p=0.001) and angiotensin-(1-7) (p<0.001) than controls. Plasma ACE and ACE2 remained elevated for 14 days in COVID-19 patients, while plasma angiotensin-(1-7) decreased after 7 days. In adjusted analyses, plasma ACE was higher in males vs. females (p=0.042), and plasma angiotensin I was significantly lower in ventilated vs. non-ventilated patients (p=0.001). In summary, plasma ACE and ACE2 are increased for at least 14 days in patients with COVID-19 infection. Angiotensin-(1-7) levels are also elevated, but decline after 7 days. The results indicate dysregulation of the RAS with COVID-19, with increased circulating ACE2 throughout the course of infection. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique Identifier: NCT04510623

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305835

ABSTRACT

The Randomized Embedded Multifactorial Adaptive Platform (REMAP-CAP) adapted for COVID-19) trial is a global adaptive platform trial of hospitalised patients with COVID-19. We describe implementation in three countries under the umbrella of the Wellcome supported Low and Middle Income Country (LMIC) critical  care network: Collaboration for Research, Implementation and Training in Asia (CCA). The collaboration sought to overcome known barriers to multi centre-clinical trials in resource-limited settings. Methods described focused on six aspects of implementation: i, Strengthening an existing community of practice;ii, Remote study site recruitment, training and support;iii, Harmonising the REMAP CAP- COVID trial with existing care processes;iv, Embedding REMAP CAP- COVID case report form into the existing CCA registry platform, v, Context specific adaptation and data management;vi, Alignment with existing pandemic and critical care research in the CCA. Methods described here may enable other LMIC sites to participate as equal partners in international critical care trials of urgent public health importance, both during this pandemic and beyond.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305747

ABSTRACT

As safe and effective vaccines become widely available, attaining herd immunity and limiting the spread of COVID-19 will depend on individuals choosing to vaccinate and doing so quickly enough to outpace mutations. Using online surveys conducted in January 2021 across six Latin American countries - where mass vaccination programs have only recently begun and are expected to continue into 2022 - we experimentally assess messages designed to counteract informational deficiencies and collective action problems that may drive hesitancy. We first find that basic vaccine information persuades around 8% of hesitant individuals to become willing to vaccinate, reduces the time individuals intend to wait before vaccinating once a vaccine is available to them by 0.4 months, and increases willingness to encourage others to vaccinate. Rather than facilitating free riding, learning, or social conformity, providing information about others’ behavior increases vaccine willingness and willingness to encourage others to vaccinate among respondents induced to expect that herd immunity will be achieved in their country. Finally, priming the social approval benefits of vaccinating also increase each dimension of vaccine acceptance, and is more effective than messages highlighting economic or altruistic benefits of vaccination. These results suggest that providing information and shaping social expectations and incentives could both be important in encouraging vaccine uptake.

10.
J Proteome Res ; 21(4): 975-992, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683912

ABSTRACT

The host response to COVID-19 pathophysiology over the first few days of infection remains largely unclear, especially the mechanisms in the blood compartment. We report on a longitudinal proteomic analysis of acute-phase COVID-19 patients, for which we used blood plasma, multiple reaction monitoring with internal standards, and data-independent acquisition. We measured samples on admission for 49 patients, of which 21 had additional samples on days 2, 4, 7, and 14 after admission. We also measured 30 externally obtained samples from healthy individuals for comparison at baseline. The 31 proteins differentiated in abundance between acute COVID-19 patients and healthy controls belonged to acute inflammatory response, complement activation, regulation of inflammatory response, and regulation of protein activation cascade. The longitudinal analysis showed distinct profiles revealing increased levels of multiple lipid-associated functions, a rapid decrease followed by recovery for complement activation, humoral immune response, and acute inflammatory response-related proteins, and level fluctuation in the regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation, secretory mechanisms, and platelet degranulation. Three proteins were differentiated between survivors and nonsurvivors. Finally, increased levels of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B were determined in patients with exposure to angiotensin receptor blockers versus decreased levels in those exposed to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Data are available via ProteomeXchange PXD029437.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Humans , Plasma , Proteomics , Retrospective Studies
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010174, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624813

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms and consequences of genome evolution on viral fitness following host shifts are poorly understood. In addition, viral fitness -the ability of an organism to reproduce and survive- is multifactorial and thus difficult to quantify. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) circulate broadly among wild birds and have jumped into and become endemic in multiple mammalian hosts, including humans, pigs, dogs, seals, and horses. H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an endemic virus of horses that originated in birds and has been circulating uninterruptedly in equine populations since the early 1960s. Here, we used EIV to quantify changes in infection phenotype associated to viral fitness due to genome-wide changes acquired during long-term adaptation. We performed experimental infections of two mammalian cell lines and equine tracheal explants using the earliest H3N8 EIV isolated (A/equine/Uruguay/63 [EIV/63]), and A/equine/Ohio/2003 (EIV/2003), a monophyletic descendant of EIV/63 isolated 40 years after the emergence of H3N8 EIV. We show that EIV/2003 exhibits increased resistance to interferon, enhanced viral replication, and a more efficient cell-to-cell spread in cells and tissues. Transcriptomics analyses revealed virus-specific responses to each virus, mainly affecting host immunity and inflammation. Image analyses of infected equine respiratory explants showed that despite replicating at higher levels and spreading over larger areas of the respiratory epithelium, EIV/2003 induced milder lesions compared to EIV/63, suggesting that adaptation led to reduced tissue pathogenicity. Our results reveal previously unknown links between virus genotype and the host response to infection, providing new insights on the relationship between virus evolution and fitness.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Animals , Genetic Fitness/physiology , Horses
12.
Qual Manag Health Care ; 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dashboards have been utilized in health care to improve quality and patient care. The purpose of our project was to create a concise, timely, and accurate dashboard for administrative and clinical leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Two authors collaborated to identify 14 metrics and design a comprehensive dashboard (CovidStats, CS) using Microsoft Excel. The dashboard was updated daily and distributed to leadership between December 2020 and April 2021. The utility of this quality measure was assessed by survey of hospital leadership. RESULTS: The 14 metrics included were as follows: (1) elective surgery census threshold; (2) daily COVID admissions; (3) daily COVID discharges; (4) net COVID admissions; (5) ED (emergency department) bed holds; (6) COVID ED bed holds; (7) hospital census; (8) percent COVID census; (9) active COVID census; (10) COVID ICU (intensive care unit); (11) MICU (medical ICU) census; (12) ventilators in use; (13) high-flow oxygen devices in use; and (14) weekly hospital census. The leadership response survey revealed unanimous approval for CS, with a mean rating of 4.9 ± 0.3 (rated 1-5). CONCLUSIONS: Effective clinical dashboards can be created using affordable basic computer software. Implementation of the CS dashboard conveyed relevant and timely information, which influenced the decision making of hospital leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1857, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671608

ABSTRACT

Amid COVID-19, many institutions deployed vast resources to test their members regularly for safe reopening. This self-focused approach, however, not only overlooks surrounding communities but also remains blind to community transmission that could breach the institution. To test the relative merits of a more altruistic strategy, we built an epidemiological model that assesses the differential impact on case counts when institutions instead allocate a proportion of their tests to members' close contacts in the larger community. We found that testing outside the institution benefits the institution in all plausible circumstances, with the optimal proportion of tests to use externally landing at 45% under baseline model parameters. Our results were robust to local prevalence, secondary attack rate, testing capacity, and contact reporting level, yielding a range of optimal community testing proportions from 18 to 58%. The model performed best under the assumption that community contacts are known to the institution; however, it still demonstrated a significant benefit even without complete knowledge of the contact network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Public Health
14.
J Ment Health ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has seen a global surge in anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and stress. AIMS: This study aimed to describe the perspectives of patients with COVID-19, their family, health professionals, and the general public on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health. METHODS: A secondary thematic analysis was conducted using data from the COVID-19 COS project. We extracted data on the perceived causes and impact of COVID-19 on mental health from an international survey and seven online consensus workshops. RESULTS: We identified four themes (with subthemes in parenthesis): anxiety amidst uncertainty (always on high alert, ebb and flow of recovery); anguish of a threatened future (intense frustration of a changed normality, facing loss of livelihood, trauma of ventilation, a troubling prognosis, confronting death); bearing responsibility for transmission (fear of spreading COVID-19 in public; overwhelming guilt of infecting a loved one); and suffering in isolation (severe solitude of quarantine, sick and alone, separation exacerbating grief). CONCLUSION: We found that the unpredictability of COVID-19, the fear of long-term health consequences, burden of guilt, and suffering in isolation profoundly impacted mental health. Clinical and public health interventions are needed to manage the psychological consequences arising from this pandemic.

15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(1): 107-120, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591647

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome. Understanding of the complex pathways involved in lung injury pathogenesis, resolution, and repair has grown considerably in recent decades. Nevertheless, to date, only therapies targeting ventilation-induced lung injury have consistently proven beneficial, and despite these gains, ARDS morbidity and mortality remain high. Many candidate therapies with promise in preclinical studies have been ineffective in human trials, probably at least in part due to clinical and biological heterogeneity that modifies treatment responsiveness in human ARDS. A precision medicine approach to ARDS seeks to better account for this heterogeneity by matching therapies to subgroups of patients that are anticipated to be most likely to benefit, which initially might be identified in part by assessing for heterogeneity of treatment effect in clinical trials. In October 2019, the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop of multidisciplinary experts to explore research opportunities and challenges for accelerating precision medicine in ARDS. Topics of discussion included the rationale and challenges for a precision medicine approach in ARDS, the roles of preclinical ARDS models in precision medicine, essential features of cohort studies to advance precision medicine, and novel approaches to clinical trials to support development and validation of a precision medicine strategy. In this Position Paper, we summarise workshop discussions, recommendations, and unresolved questions for advancing precision medicine in ARDS. Although the workshop took place before the COVID-19 pandemic began, the pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for precision therapies for ARDS as the global scientific community grapples with many of the key concepts, innovations, and challenges discussed at this workshop.


Subject(s)
Precision Medicine , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(4): e102-e107, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598293

ABSTRACT

People with COVID-19 might have sustained postinfection sequelae. Known by a variety of names, including long COVID or long-haul COVID, and listed in the ICD-10 classification as post-COVID-19 condition since September, 2020, this occurrence is variable in its expression and its impact. The absence of a globally standardised and agreed-upon definition hampers progress in characterisation of its epidemiology and the development of candidate treatments. In a WHO-led Delphi process, we engaged with an international panel of 265 patients, clinicians, researchers, and WHO staff to develop a consensus definition for this condition. 14 domains and 45 items were evaluated in two rounds of the Delphi process to create a final consensus definition for adults: post-COVID-19 condition occurs in individuals with a history of probable or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, usually 3 months from the onset, with symptoms that last for at least 2 months and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. Common symptoms include, but are not limited to, fatigue, shortness of breath, and cognitive dysfunction, and generally have an impact on everyday functioning. Symptoms might be new onset following initial recovery from an acute COVID-19 episode or persist from the initial illness. Symptoms might also fluctuate or relapse over time. A separate definition might be applicable for children. Although the consensus definition is likely to change as knowledge increases, this common framework provides a foundation for ongoing and future studies of epidemiology, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295925

ABSTRACT

Background Globally, critical illness results in millions of deaths every year. Although many of these deaths are potentially preventable, the basic, life-saving care of critically ill patients are often overlooked in health systems. Essential Emergency and Critical Care (EECC) has been devised as the care that should be provided to all critically ill patients in all hospitals in the world. EECC includes the effective care of low cost and low complexity for the identification and timely treatment of critically ill patients across all medical specialities. This study aimed to specify the content of EECC and additionally, given the surge of critical illness in the ongoing pandemic, the essential diagnosis-specific care for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods A Delphi process was conducted to seek consensus (>90% agreement) in a diverse panel of global clinical experts. The panel was asked to iteratively rate proposed treatments and actions based on previous guidelines and the WHO/ICRC’s Basic Emergency Care. The output from the Delphi was adapted iteratively with specialist reviewers into a coherent and feasible EECC package of clinical processes plus a list of hospital resource requirements. Results The 269 experts in the Delphi panel had clinical experience in different acute medical specialties from 59 countries and from all resource settings. The agreed EECC package contains 40 clinical processes and 67 hospital readiness requirements. The essential diagnosis-specific care of critically ill COVID-19 patients has an additional 7 clinical processes and 9 hospital readiness requirements. Conclusion The study has specified the content of the essential emergency and critical care that should be provided to all critically ill patients. Implementation of EECC could be an effective strategy to reduce preventable deaths worldwide. As critically ill patients have high mortality rates, especially where trained staff or resources are limited, even small improvements would have a large impact on survival. EECC has a vital role in the effective scale-up of oxygen and other care for critically ill patients in the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy makers should prioritise EECC, increase its coverage in hospitals, and include EECC as a component of universal health coverage.

19.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 4(Suppl 2): S61-S67, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511000

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a profound impact on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) health care delivery. The implementation of necessary public health restrictions has restricted access to medications, procedures and surgeries throughout the pandemic, catalyzing widespread change in how IBD care is delivered. Rapid large-scale implementation of virtual care modalities has been shown to be feasible and acceptable for the majority of individuals with IBD and health care providers. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing barriers to accessing high-quality, multidisciplinary IBD care that addresses health care needs holistically. Continued implementation and evaluation of both synchronous and asynchronous eHealthcare modalities are required now and in the future in order to determine how best to incorporate these modalities into patient-centred, collaborative care models. Resources must be dedicated to studies that evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of eHealth-enhanced models of IBD care to improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness, while increasing quality of life for persons living with IBD. Crohn's and Colitis Canada will continue to play a major leadership role in advocating for the health care delivery models that improve the quality of life for persons living with IBD.

20.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 4(Suppl 2): S10-S19, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510994

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, in Canada, is over 0.75% in 2021. Many individuals with IBD are immunocompromised. Consequently, the World Health Organization's declaration of a global pandemic uniquely impacted those with IBD. Crohn's and Colitis Canada (CCC) formed the COVID-19 and IBD Taskforce to provide evidence-based guidance during the pandemic to individuals with IBD and their families. The Taskforce met regularly through the course of the pandemic, synthesizing available information on the impact of COVID-19 on IBD. At first, the information was extrapolated from expert consensus guidelines, but eventually, recommendations were adapted for an international registry of worldwide cases of COVID-19 in people with IBD. The task force launched a knowledge translation initiative consisting of a webinar series and online resources to communicate information directly to the IBD community. Taskforce recommendations were posted to CCC's website and included guidance such as risk stratification, management of immunosuppressant medications, physical distancing, and mental health. A weekly webinar series communicated critical information directly to the IBD community. During the pandemic, traffic to CCC's website increased with 484,755 unique views of the COVID-19 webpages and 126,187 views of the 23 webinars, including their video clips. CCC's COVID-19 and IBD Taskforce provided critical guidance to the IBD community as the pandemic emerged, the nation underwent a lockdown, the economy reopened, and the second wave ensued. By integrating public health guidance through the unique prism of a vulnerable population, CCC's knowledge translation platform informed and protected the IBD community.

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