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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310609

ABSTRACT

Background: On March 11 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. As the mosquito season progressed, the understandable concern that such insects could transmit the virus began to spread. In response to this request, the vector competence for SARS-CoV-2 of Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus , the two most common species of vector mosquitoes in Europe, was investigated. Due to the peculiar feeding behaviour, the role of Aedes albopictus in a potential mechanical transmission of the virus was also evaluated. MethodsFor the vector competence study, mosquitoes were allowed to take up an infectious blood meal. Mosquitoes were collected and analysed at 0, 3, 7 and 10 days post-feeding. For the mechanical transmission test Ae. albopictus females were allowed to feed for a short time on a feeder containing infectious blood and then on a feeder containing virus-free blood. Mosquitoes and blood were tested for viral presence.Results Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus tested resulted not competent for SARS-CoV-2 and Ae. albopictus was unable to mechanically transmit the virus. ConclusionsThis study shows that the most common species of vector mosquitoes in Europe don’t transmit SARS-CoV-2 and, for the first time, that Ae. albopictus is unable to mechanically transmit the virus by feeding from a positive host to a healthy host.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 765-774, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease represents a challenge for healthcare structures. The molecular confirmation of samples from infected individuals is crucial and therefore guides public health decision making. Clusters and possibly increased diffuse transmission could occur in the context of the next influenza season. For this reason, a diagnostic test able to discriminate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from influenza viruses is urgently needed. METHODS: A multiplex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was assessed using 1 laboratory protocol with different real-time PCR instruments. Overall, 1000 clinical samples (600 from samples SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, 200 samples from influenza-infected patients, and 200 negative samples) were analyzed. RESULTS: The assay developed was able to detect and discriminate each virus target and to intercept coinfections. The limit of quantification of each assay ranged between 5 and 10 genomic copy numbers, with a cutoff value of 37.7 and 37.8 for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses, respectively. Only 2 influenza coinfections were detected in COVID-19 samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that multiplex assay is a rapid, valid, and accurate method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses in clinical samples. The test may be an important diagnostic tool for both diagnostic and surveillance purposes during the seasonal influenza activity period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seasons , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 76, 2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak to be a pandemic. As the mosquito season progressed, the understandable concern that mosquitoes could transmit the virus began to increase among the general public and public health organisations. We have investigated the vector competence of Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus, the two most common species of vector mosquitoes in Europe, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to the very unusual feeding behaviour of Ae. albopictus, we also evaluated the role of this mosquito in a potential mechanical transmission of the virus. METHODS: For the vector competence study, mosquitoes were allowed to take several infectious blood meals. The mosquitoes were then collected and analysed at 0, 3, 7 and 10 days post-feeding. For the mechanical transmission test, Ae. albopictus females were allowed to feed for a short time on a feeder containing infectious blood and then on a feeder containing virus-free blood. Both mosquitoes and blood were tested for viral presence. RESULTS: Culex pipiens and Ae. albopictus were found not be competent vectors for SARS-CoV-2, and Ae. albopictus was unable to mechanically transmit the virus. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the most common species of vector mosquitoes in Europe do not transmit SARS-CoV-2 and that Ae. albopictus is unable to mechanically transmit the virus from a positive host to a healthy host through host-feeding.


Subject(s)
Aedes/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Culex/virology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Blood/virology , Europe , Female , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sheep/blood
4.
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