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1.
Global Health Science & Practice ; 10(4):30, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025438

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To manage the rapid rise of misleading information on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the pandemic, the Breakthrough ACTION project developed a theory-based rumor-tracking system to inform Guyana's COVID-19 communication campaign. METHODS: The rumor-tracking project used the extended parallel processing model (EPPM) to identify and categorize rumors reflecting perceived high versus low vulnerability to COVID-19 and high versus low efficacy of engaging in recommended COVID-19 prevention behaviors. The project designed contextually relevant social and behavior change messages, called "MythBusters," responded to rumor categories with the following objectives: (1) high perceived vulnerability and high efficacy rumors included a call to action;high perceived vulnerability and low efficacy rumors educated about effective and achievable solutions;(3) low perceived vulnerability and high efficacy rumors educated about risk;and (4) low perceived vulnerability and low efficacy rumors educated about risk and effective and achievable solutions. RESULTS: Most rumors emanated from regions 4 and 8 (29%). Over two-thirds of the rumors (71%) recurred. Rumors were typically related to COVID-19 treatment or prevention (40%) and transmission (35%). Most rumors (48%) reflected low perceived vulnerability and low efficacy, 29% reflected high perceived vulnerability and low efficacy, 13% reflected low perceived vulnerability and high efficacy, and 10% reflected high perceived vulnerability and high efficacy. The project rapidly developed 12 MythBusters from June through December 2020 and integrated them into the national COVID-19 communication campaign, disseminated via radio, television, and Facebook. Estimates indicate that they have reached most of the target Guyanese population. DISCUSSION: The EPPM was a particularly useful tool, giving direction to countering myths with appropriate messaging to affect relevant behaviors. The COVID-19 MythBusters provided the Guyanese public with valid and verifiable information and promoted preventive and protective behaviors.

2.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(16):10901-10917, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025097

ABSTRACT

Aerosols influence the Earth's energy balance directly by modifying the radiation transfer and indirectly by altering the cloud microphysics. Anthropogenic aerosol emissions dropped considerably when the global COVID-19 pandemic resulted in severe restraints on mobility, production, and public life in spring 2020. We assess the effects of these reduced emissions on direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing over Europe, excluding contributions from contrails. We simulate the atmospheric composition with the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model in a baseline (business-as-usual) and a reduced emission scenario. The model results are compared to aircraft observations from the BLUESKY aircraft campaign performed in May-June 2020 over Europe. The model agrees well with most of the observations, except for sulfur dioxide, particulate sulfate, and nitrate in the upper troposphere, likely due to a biased representation of stratospheric aerosol chemistry and missing information about volcanic eruptions. The comparison with a baseline scenario shows that the largest relative differences for tracers and aerosols are found in the upper troposphere, around the aircraft cruise altitude, due to the reduced aircraft emissions, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface. We also find an increase in all-sky shortwave radiation of 0.21 +/- 0.05 Wm(-2) at the surface in Europe for May 2020, solely attributable to the direct aerosol effect, which is dominated by decreased aerosol scattering of sunlight, followed by reduced aerosol absorption caused by lower concentrations of inorganic and black carbon aerosols in the troposphere. A further increase in shortwave radiation from aerosol indirect effects was found to be much smaller than its variability. Impacts on ice crystal concentrations, cloud droplet number concentrations, and effective crystal radii are found to be negligible.

3.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry ; 15:15, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015491

ABSTRACT

Youth in communities of color are disproportionately affected by the current mental health crisis, as highlighted in the recent Declaration of National Emergency by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the Children's Hospital Association (CHA). 1 The structural racism that Black youth encounter is a social determinant of health that contributes to inequitable access to evidence-based mental health services. Black youth in the United States experience inequities in financial hardships, access to educational resources, and the undue burden of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, further exacerbating an already outsized mental health burden.2.

5.
Stress Health ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1999908

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effects of supportive leadership and psychosocial safety climate on personal hope and resilience among nurses during the pandemic. Conservation of resource theory was employed to explain the effects of psychosocial safety climate and supportive leadership on nurses' hope and resilience. A cross-sectional design was employed to collect data. 623 nurses across 68 hospitals who were in direct contact with COVID-19 patients during the fifth wave of the pandemic in Iran were recruited. Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) and Structural Equation Modelling using Amos were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that both psychosocial safety climate and supportive leadership improved personal resilience through personal hope. Findings showed that the positive relationship between supportive leadership and personal hope was stronger when the hospital-level psychosocial safety climate was high. To improve personal hope and resilience among nurses during critical times, hospital management must ensure consistent supportive leadership and establish policies, practices and procedures that support nurses' psychosocial health and safety at the hospital level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Medwave ; 22(7): e002545, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988370

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Due to the measures imposed by governments to reduce the spread of this new virus, the economic sector was one of the most affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Several labor sectors had to undergo a virtual adaptation process resulting in job instability and job loss. The objective of this study was to revalidate an ultra-short scale for measuring perceived job security in Latin America. Methods: A revalidation study was done on a short scale that measures worker's perceived security about losing or keeping their job in the near future. Results: The four items remained on the revalidated scale, where all four explained a single factor. The goodness-of-fit measures confirmed the single-factor model (χ: 7.06; df: 2; p = 0.29; mean square error: 0.015; goodness-of-fit index: 0.998; adjusted goodness-of-fit index: 0.991; comparative fit index: 0.999; Tucker-Lewis index: 0.997; normalized fit index: 0.998; incremental fit index: 0.999; and root mean square error of approximation: 0.036). The scale's reliability was calculated using McDonald's omega coefficient, obtaining an overall result of ω = 0.72. Conclusions: The scale was correctly revalidated in Latin America, and the four items were kept in a single reliable factor.


Introducción: El sector económico fue uno de los más afectados durante la pandemia de COVID-19, debido a las medidas impuestas por los gobiernos para reducir la propagación de este nuevo virus. En consecuencia, varios sectores laborales tuvieron que pasar por un proceso de adaptación virtual, resultando en la inestabilidad o pérdida de empleos. El objetivo fue revalidar una escala ultra corta para la medición de la seguridad percibida para conservar el trabajo en Latinoamérica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de validación de una escala corta que mide la seguridad percibida por el trabajador acerca de poder perder o mantener su trabajo en un corto tiempo. Resultados: Los cuatro ítems se mantuvieron en la escala revalidada, también estuvieron en un único factor. Los índices de bondad de ajuste confirmaron dicho factor único: χ2: 7,06; df: 2; p = 0,29; junto a los índices de error de cuadrático medio: 0,015; de bondad de ajuste: 0,998; ajustado de bondad de ajuste: 0,991; de ajuste comparativo: 0,999; de Tucker-Lewis: 0,997; de ajuste normalizado: 0,998; de ajuste incremental: 0,999 y el error cuadrático medio de aproximación: 0,036. En todo momento se mostró un ajuste adecuado. Posterior a eso se midió la confiabilidad, la cual se calculó con el coeficiente de Ω de McDonald, obteniendo un resultado de 0,72.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Latin America , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(8): e1010391, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987114

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated that the process of global vaccination against a novel virus can be a prolonged one. Social distancing measures, that are initially adopted to control the pandemic, are gradually relaxed as vaccination progresses and population immunity increases. The result is a prolonged period of high disease prevalence combined with a fitness advantage for vaccine-resistant variants, which together lead to a considerably increased probability for vaccine escape. A spatial vaccination strategy is proposed that has the potential to dramatically reduce this risk. Rather than dispersing the vaccination effort evenly throughout a country, distinct geographic regions of the country are sequentially vaccinated, quickly bringing each to effective herd immunity. Regions with high vaccination rates will then have low infection rates and vice versa. Since people primarily interact within their own region, spatial vaccination reduces the number of encounters between infected individuals (the source of mutations) and vaccinated individuals (who facilitate the spread of vaccine-resistant strains). Thus, spatial vaccination may help mitigate the global risk of vaccine-resistant variants.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-279, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967267

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-COV-2 shedding in the stool long after clearance from the respiratory tract has been reported in several studies during the COVID-19 pandemic. This suggests a long tail of viral persistence in the GI tract even after a patient has tested negative via oronasal swabs. Most patients admitted to the ICU or wards for COVID-19 at Cedars-Sinai are placed on between 2-13 antimicrobials at admission in order to prevent secondary respiratory infections, leading us to question whether the effect of reducing or eliminating the gut microbiome during SARS-COV-2 infection may result in prolonged GI infection and longterm GI side-effects. Antibiotic pre-treatment in rodent studies has shown that flaviviruses persist longer in the GI tract in the absence of gut microbiota. Studies have also demonstrated that antibiotic pre-treatment attenuates the antibody responses to the flu vaccine in mice and humans. Collectively, this suggests a reduction or elimination of the gut the microbiota by antibiotics before or during viral infection can drive viral persistence in the GI tract. Methods: Longitudinal stool samples were collected from 29 COVID-19 in-patients (wards, n=12;ICU, n=17, n=79 stool samples total) and 9 non-COVID-19 in-patients admitted for other respiratory infections. Ten of 29 COVID-19 in-patients were antibiotic naive. Stool metagenomics, metabolomics, and SARS-COV-2 viral quantification by qPCR, and fecal calprotectin were measured and aligned with antibiotic exposure of each patient. Results: Our findings show that 72% of stool samples from COVID-19 patients that tested negative for SARS-COV-2 in the stool were never exposed to in-patient antibiotics. Fecal calprotectin was significantly higher in ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients compared to those in the wards and non-COVID-19 controls. The highest fecal calprotectin levels corresponded to nine samples from three ICU patients, all of whom were on the heaviest regimen of antibiotics and were positive for SARS-COV-2 in the stool. Expectedly, gut microbiota variance was explained largely by antibiotic status, but also independently by stool SARS-COV-2 status. We recruited an additional 34 patients during the delta variant surge, and these samples are currently being analyzed along with fecal metabolomics. Conclusion: The heavy-dose antibiotic regimen administered to COVID-19 in-patients is associated with viral persistence of SARS-COV-2 in the GI tract, suggesting an important role of the gut microbiome in excluding SARS-COV-2 from the GI tract, perhaps by competitive exclusion or promoting interferon responses. Intestinal inflammation was significantly greater in COVID-19 ICU patients, with the highest levels of fecal calprotectin correlating to the heaviest dose of antibiotics and presence of SARS-COV-2 in the stool.

10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4212, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947344

ABSTRACT

An easily implementable serological assay to accurately detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies is urgently needed to better track herd immunity, vaccine efficacy and vaccination rates. Herein, we report the Split-Oligonucleotide Neighboring Inhibition Assay (SONIA) which uses real-time qPCR to measure the ability of neutralizing antibodies to block binding between DNA-barcoded viral spike protein subunit 1 and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor protein. The SONIA neutralizing antibody assay using finger-prick dried blood spots displays 91-97% sensitivity and 100% specificity in comparison to the live-virus neutralization assays using matched serum specimens for multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants-of-concern. The multiplex version of this neutralizing antibody assay, using easily collectable finger-prick dried blood spots, can be a valuable tool to help reveal the impact of age, pre-existing health conditions, waning immunity, different vaccination schemes and the emergence of new variants-of-concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
J Healthc Qual Res ; 2022 May 30.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: To determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the epidemiology of safety incidents (SI) and medication errors (ME) reported to the CISEMadrid notification system in the hospital and primary care settings of the Madrid Health Service (SERMAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational and descriptive study with a retrospective analysis of data including all CISEMadrid notifications from 01-Jan-2018 to 31-Dec-2020, from 33 hospitals and 262 health care centres of the SERMAS. The two periods in 2020 with the greatest increase in COVID-19 cases were identified to compare incidents reported in the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. RESULTS: 36,494 incidents were reported. Comparing both periods, an overall decrease in pandemic notifications of 60.7% was observed, being higher in primary care, falling to 33% of previous levels. The reduction in notifications was similar in the peaks and valleys of the waves. The three most frequent SIs in both periods and care settings were: diagnostic tests, medical devices/equipment/clinical furniture and organisational management/citations. In ME, dose failure and inappropriate selection were the most frequent in both settings and periods. There were no relevant differences in patient consequences in both periods. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, patient safety notifications decreased although the most frequent types remained the same, as did their impact on the patient, both in hospitals and in primary care. The safety culture of organisations is a critical aspect for the maintenance of reporting systems.

12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent pregnancy complications with a global prevalence of 13.4% in 2021. Pregnant women with COVID-19 and gestational diabetes mellitus are 3.3 times more likely to be admitted to an intensive care unit than women without gestational diabetes mellitus. Data on the association of gestational diabetes mellitus with maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether gestational diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and fetal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: The COVID-19-Related Obstetric and Neonatal Outcome Study is a registry-based multicentric prospective observational study from Germany and Linz, Austria. Pregnant women with clinically confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled between April 3, 2020, and August 24, 2021, at any stage of pregnancy. Obstetricians and neonatologists of 115 hospitals actively provided data to the COVID-19-Related Obstetric and Neonatal Outcome Study. For collecting data, a cloud-based electronic data platform was developed. Women and neonates were observed until hospital discharge. Information on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, medical history, COVID-19-associated symptoms and treatments, pregnancy, and birth outcomes were entered by the local sites. Information on the periconceptional body mass index was collected. A primary combined maternal endpoint was defined as (1) admission to an intensive care unit (including maternal mortality), (2) viral pneumonia, and/or (3) oxygen supplementation. A primary combined fetal and neonatal endpoint was defined as (1) stillbirth at ≥24 0/7 weeks of gestation, (2) neonatal death ≤7 days after delivery, and/or (3) transfer to a neonatal intensive care unit. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the modulating effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on the defined endpoints. RESULTS: Of the 1490 women with COVID-19 (mean age, 31.0±5.2 years; 40.7% nulliparous), 140 (9.4%) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus; of these, 42.9% were treated with insulin. Overall, gestational diabetes mellitus was not associated with an adverse maternal outcome (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-2.57). However, in women who were overweight or obese, gestational diabetes mellitus was independently associated with the primary maternal outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 2.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-5.07). Women who were overweight or obese with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring insulin treatment were found to have an increased risk of a severe course of COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-6.73). Adverse maternal outcomes were more common when COVID-19 was diagnosed with or shortly after gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis than COVID-19 diagnosis before gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis (19.6% vs 5.6%; P<.05). Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal preconception body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 increased the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.18). Furthermore, overweight and obesity (irrespective of gestational diabetes mellitus status) were influential factors for the maternal (adjusted odds ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.75) and neonatal (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-2.48) primary endpoints compared with underweight or normal weight. CONCLUSION: Gestational diabetes mellitus, combined with periconceptional overweight or obesity, was independently associated with a severe maternal course of COVID-19, especially when the mother required insulin and COVID-19 was diagnosed with or after gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. These combined factors exhibited a moderate effect on neonatal outcomes. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus and a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 were a particularly vulnerable group in the case of COVID-19.

13.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recognizing the disproportionate rates of COVID-19 infection and death experienced by Filipinxs in the USA, this study examines whether data disaggregation reveals meaningful differences between Filipinxs, non-Asians, and other groups often aggregated into the problematic "Asian and Pacific Islander" category across a series of social and health variables associated with COVID-19 risk. METHODS: Using data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS, 2017-18; N = 42,330) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, 2018-19; N = 135,516), we ran chi-squared tests yielding Wald F-values to compare Filipinxs with other "Asians and Pacific islanders" and non-Asians across 10 social and 4 health-related variables. Health conditions included asthma, diabetes, heart conditions, and high blood pressure. RESULTS: Filipinxs were much more likely to report diabetes (CHIS: 12.6%; NSDUH: 14.4%) than other Asian/PI respondents (8.4%; 8.0%) or non-Asians (10.8%; 10.1%), as well as asthma and high blood pressure. Filipinxs were also disproportionately employed in the healthcare and service occupations (CHIS: 36.7%) in comparison to other Asian/PI respondents (19.0%) and non-Asians (22.4%). DISCUSSION: Across several variables, Filipinxs have less in common with other Asians and Pacific Islanders than with non-Asians. Combining these groups can obscure patterns that affect health and the risks of contracting or dying from COVID-19.

14.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology ; 142(8, Supplement):B8, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936822
15.
16.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-501708

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) hold great promise for clinical interventions against SARS-CoV- 2 variants of concern (VOCs). Understanding NAb epitope-dependent antiviral mechanisms is crucial for developing vaccines and therapeutics against VOCs. Here we characterized two potent NAbs, EH3 and EH8, isolated from an unvaccinated pediatric patient with exceptional plasma neutralization activity. EH3 and EH8 cross-neutralize the early VOCs and mediate strong Fc-dependent effector activity in vitro. Structural analyses of EH3 and EH8 in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) revealed the molecular determinants of the epitope-driven protection and VOC-evasion. While EH3 represents the prevalent IGHV3-53 NAb whose epitope substantially overlaps with the ACE2 binding site, EH8 recognizes a narrow epitope exposed in both RBD-up and RBD-down conformations. When tested in vivo, a single-dose prophylactic administration of EH3 fully protected stringent K18-hACE2 mice from lethal challenge with Delta VOC. Our study demonstrates that protective NAbs responses converge in pediatric and adult SARS-CoV-2 patients.

17.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management ; 63(5):855-856, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1925122
18.
Public Health Rep ; 137(5): 841-848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Appropriate face covering use at public venues can help mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the absence of widespread vaccination and provide protection when viral variants become more infectious. The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance with a statewide face mask mandate by examining trends in face covering use in publicly accessible spaces in King County, Washington. METHODS: From November 27, 2020, through May 11, 2021, we conducted a repeated cross-sectional observational study of face covering use across publicly accessible venues (eg, grocery and convenience stores, airport, transit center, post office). Trained observers recorded perceived sex, estimated age group, and face covering use. We calculated estimates of overall face covering use and prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: We observed 9865 people in 53 unique venues during 229 observation intervals during 6 observation periods. Correct face covering use was 87.2% overall and lowest at semi-outdoor venues such as transit hubs (78.1%) and the pick-up curb of Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (69.0%). Correct face covering use was lowest among men (PR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.27-1.58) and among people aged 2-11 years (PR = 2.74; 95% CI, 2.37-3.17) and 12-17 years (PR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07-1.72). Compliance declined among adults aged ≥60 years and among younger age groups before vaccine eligibility. CONCLUSIONS: Overall compliance with the statewide face mask mandate in King County was high. Layered mitigation strategies, including but not limited to the use of face coverings, and methods to assess adherence to them are crucial to preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
19.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine ; 11:104, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916558

ABSTRACT

Methods: Target enrollment in the wHOPE (Whole Health Options in Pain Education) trial is 750 veterans with moderate to severe chronic pain from five geographically diverse VA facilities across the U.S. We are creating an inclusive and generalizable sample through few exclusion criteria, over-sampling and stratified randomization, prioritizing women veterans and those prescribed opioids, while closely monitoring racial and ethnic diversity. The primary aim of the trial is to determine whether a Whole Health Team (WHT) (interdisciplinary Whole Health/integrative pain team) is superior to Primary Care Group Education (PC-GE, abbreviated group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Pain), and whether both are superior to Usual Primary Care (UPC) in decreasing pain interference and secondarily, in improving quality of life and use of non-pharmacological modalities to manage chronic pain. An implementation evaluation and budget impact analysis will provide information about feasibility, maintenance, and sustainability. Descriptive statistics characterized wHOPE study participants including COVID-19-related impacts. Results: To date, of 248 randomized participants, mean age is 60.2 (SD+/-12.3) years;39% women;23% Black or African American and 9.2% Hispanic/Latinx;27% were prescribed opioids. Roughly half endorsed moderate to severe depression, moderate PTSD symptoms, and 58% reported sleep difficulties. Roughly 20% engaged in hazardous drinking and 10% problem drug use. At baseline, veterans reported high rates of non-pharmacological and CIH pain management, e.g., mindfulness (42%);spinal manipulation (32%). As a result of COVID, wHOPE participants reported worsening: mental and emotional health (73%);access to healthcare (59%);pain intensity (48%) and use of tobacco (44%) and cannabis products (36%). Background: To conduct a pragmatic trial to establish evidence for the VA Whole Health model for chronic pain care. Conclusion: This ongoing multi-site pragmatic trial in a diverse group of veterans with chronic pain and high rates of comorbidity indicates high baseline use of CIH and substantial negative COVID-related impacts.

20.
Virologie ; 26(2):120, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1912931

ABSTRACT

Establishment of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral state provides a crucial initial line of defense against viral infection. Numerous genes that contribute to this antiviral state remain to be identified. Using a loss-of-function strategy, we screened an original library of 1156 siRNAs targeting 386 individual curated human genes in stimulated microglial cells infected with Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging RNA virus that belongs to the flavivirus genus. The screen recovered twenty-one potential host proteins that modulate ZIKV replication in an IFN-dependent manner, including the previously known IFITM3 and LY6E. Further characterization contributed to delineate the spectrum of action of these genes towards other pathogenic RNA viruses, including Hepatitis C virus and SARS-CoV-2. Our data revealed that APOL3 acts as a proviral factor for ZIKV and several other related and unrelated RNA viruses. In addition, we showed that MTA2, a chromatin remodeling factor, possesses potent flavivirus-specific antiviral functions. We are currently investigating the molecular mechanisms behind IFN-dependent flaviviral restriction of MTA2. Our work identified previously unrecognized genes that modulate the replication of RNA viruses in an IFN-dependent way, opening new perspectives to target weakness points in the life cycle of these viruses.

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